Organic reactions are chemical reactions between organic compounds.
Reactions, by function
The number of possible organic reactions is basically infinite. However, certain general patterns are observed that can be used to describe many common or useful reactions. Each reaction has a stepwise mechanism that says how it happens, although this detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.
Organic reactions can be organized into several basic types:
- Addition reactions (halogenation, hydrohalogenation, halogenation, hydration)
- EA (electrophilic addition)
- NA (nucleophilic addition)
- RA (radical addition)
- Elimination reactions (dehydrohalogenation, dehydration)
- E1 elimination
- E2 elimination
- Substitution reactions
- SN1 substitution
- SN2 substitution
- ES (electrophilic substitution)
- EAS (electrophilic aromatic substitution)
- RS (radical substitution)
- Redox reactions
- Oxidation reactions
- Reduction reactions
- Condensation reactions (Nucleophilic addition + Elimination) and hydrolysis
- Polymerization reactions
- Addition polymerization
- Condensation polymerization
- Rearrangement reactions
Some reactions fit into more than one category. For example, some substitution reactions follow an addition elimination pathway.
Here are some common reactions that you may run into in a college organic chemistry course: addition of HX to an alkene, halogen addition reaction, halohydrin formation reaction, oxymercuration reaction, hydroboration-oxidation reaction, hydrooxylation reaction, ozonolysis reaction, nucleophilic substitution, halogenation of an alkyl, hydration and dehydration.
Here is a series of reactions that a chemist can perform to change molecules in a defined way: Beckmann rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, Gilman reagent, Grignard reagent, Diels-Alder reaction, Pinner reaction, Sharpless epoxidation, Sharpless bishydroxylation, Swern oxidation
As seen here, specific reactions are sometimes named after the chemist who developed them.
(When adding to this page, if a reaction has a common name, please include it at the BEGINNING of the line, for consistency. If the reaction consists of multiple steps, include all steps on a single line, separated by a semicolon.)
Reactions, by reactants: aliphatic compounds
(RS) Free radical bromination: alkene + N-bromosuccinaimide (NDS) -> brominated at allylic position, without addinng to double bond.
Hydrocarbons plus Group 17 (Halogen)
Hydrocarbons plus Group 16 (Chalcogen)
Oxygen containing compounds
- Primary alcohols = SN2
- Tertiary alcohols = SN1
- Secondary alcohols = SN1 or SN2 (SNX)
Carbonyl derivatives (RCO-)
Sulfur containing compounds
|2 thiols + Hg2+ + Hg2+ ||-> ||RS-Hg-SR + 2H+ |
|RS- + R'-Br ||-> ||RSR' + Br- |
Hydrocarbons plus Group 15 (Pnictogen)
Nitrogen containing compounds
Phosphorus containing compounds
Reactions, by reactants: aromatic compounds
- Organic reaction flashcards from OSU (http://www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/organic/flashcards/)
- list of named reactions from UConn (http://orgchem.chem.uconn.edu/namereact/named.html)