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Encyclopedia > Organic reaction

Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.[1] The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions and redox reactions. In organic synthesis, organic reactions are used in the construction of new organic molecules. The production of many man-made chemicals such as drugs, plastics, food additives, fabrics depend on organic reactions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x292, 2 KB) Description: Chemical scheme of the Claisen rearrangement. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... An addition reaction, in chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one. ... An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. ... In a substitution reaction, a group of a particular compound is replaced by another group. ... In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is a type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of molecule has a cyclic geometry, and the reaction progresses in a concerted-reactions fashion. ... A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule. ... Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...


The oldest organic reactions are combustion of organic fuels and saponification of fats to make soap. Modern organic chemistry starts with the Wöhler synthesis in 1828. In the history of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry awards have been given for the invention of specific organic reactions such as the Grignard reaction in 1912, the Diels-Alder reaction in 1950, the Wittig reaction in 1979 and olefin metathesis in 2005. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea . ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... The Grignard reaction is an organometallic chemical reaction involving alkyl- or aryl-magnesium halides, also called Grignard reagents, with electrophiles. ... The Diels-Alder reaction The Diels-Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene system. ... The Wittig reaction is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a phosphonium ylide to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide. ... Olefin metathesis or transalkylidenation (in some literature, a disproportionation) is an organic reaction which involves redistribution of olefinic (alkene) bonds. ...

Contents

Classifications

Organic chemistry has a strong tradition of naming a specific reaction to its inventor or inventors and a long list of so-called named reactions exists, conservatively estimated at 1000. A very old named reaction is the Claisen rearrangement (1912) and a recent named reaction is the Bingel reaction (1993). When the named reaction is difficult to pronounce or very long as in the Corey-House-Posner-Whitesides reaction it helps to use the abbreviation as in the CBS reduction. The number of reactions hinting at the actual process taking place is much smaller, for example the ene reaction or aldol reaction. This page aims to list well-known chemical reactions, name reactions, name reagents, and name rules to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... The Claisen rearrangement is a powerful carbon-carbon bond-forming chemical reaction discovered by Rainer Ludwig Claisen. ... Bingel reaction of fullerene with a malonate ester and a) sodium hydride or DBU in toluene at room temperature 45% yield The Bingel reaction in organic chemistry is a fullerene cyclopropanation reaction to a methanofullerene first discovered by C. Bingel in 1993 with the bromo derivative of diethyl malonate in... The Corey-Posner-Whitesides-House reaction was developed by the co-operation of four organic chemists: E.J. Corey of Harvard University, G.H. Posner of the Johns Hopkins University, G.M. Whitesides of MIT and H.O. House of the Georgia Institute of Technology. ... The CBS reduction, in full the Corey-Bakshi-Shibata reduction, is an organic reaction which transforms ketones enantioselectively into alcohols. ... Ene reactions are Group transfer reactions between an alkyne or alkene, or similar double bonded species and an allyl-like species. ... A typical experimental setup for an aldol reaction. ...


Another approach to organic reactions is by type of organic reagent, many of them inorganic, required in a specific transformation. The major types are oxidizing agents such as osmium tetroxide, reducing agents such as Lithium aluminium hydride, bases such as lithium diisopropylamide and acids such as sulfuric acid. A reagent or reactant is a material used to start a chemical reaction. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... The chemical compound osmium tetroxide (OsO4), also known as osmium tetraoxide, osmium(VIII) oxide, or osmic acid, is an oxide of the element osmium. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), commonly abbreviated to LAH, is a powerful reducing agent used in organic chemistry. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA), is a strong base, widely used in organic chemistry for the generation of carbanions. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Fundamentals

Factors governing organic reactions are essentially the same as that of any chemical reaction. Factors specific to organic reactions are those that determine the stability of reactants and products such as conjugation, hyperconjugation and aromaticity and the presence and stability of reactive intermediates such as free radicals, carbocations and carbanions. For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... Hyperconjugation in organic chemistry is the stabilizing interaction that results from the interaction of the electrons in a sigma bond (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty (or partially filled) non-bonding p-orbital or antibonding π orbital to give an extended molecular orbital that increases the stability... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... In chemistry a reactive intermediate is a short-lived high energy highly reactive molecule. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... A carbocation (IPA pronunciation: ) is an ion with a positively-charged carbon atom. ... A carbanion is an anion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge usually with three substituents for a total of eight valence electrons. ...


An organic compound may consist of many isomers. Selectivity in terms of regioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity is therefore an important criterion for many organic reactions. The stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions is governed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules and that of many elimination reactions by the Zaitsev's rule. In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... In chemistry, regioselectivity is the preference of one direction of chemical bond making or breaking over all other possible directions. ... Diastereomers are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers or mirror images of each other. ... In chemistry, two stereoisomers are said to be enantiomers if they are mirror images of each other. ... The different types of isomers. ... In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is a type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of molecule has a cyclic geometry, and the reaction progresses in a concerted-reactions fashion. ... The Woodward-Hoffmann rules devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann are a set of rules in organic chemistry predicting the stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions based on orbital symmetry. ... An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. ... In chemistry, Zaitsevs rule, Saytzeffs rule or Saytsevs rule named after Alexander Mikhailovich Zaitsev (number of different spellings due to name being transliterated from Russian) is a rule that states that if more than one alkene can be formed by an elimination reaction, the more stable alkene...


Organic reactions are important in the production of pharmaceuticals. In a 2006 review [2] it was estimated that 20% of chemical conversions involved alkylations on nitrogen and oxygen atoms, another 20% involved placement and removal of protective groups, 11% involved formation of new carbon-carbon bond and 10% involved functional group interconversions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... A Protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group in order to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction. ... A carbon-carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ...


Organic reactions by mechanism

There is no limit to the number of possible organic reactions and mechanisms. However, certain general patterns are observed that can be used to describe many common or useful reactions. Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens, although this detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone. Organic reactions can be organized into several basic types. Some reactions fit into more than one category. For example, some substitution reactions follow an addition-elimination pathway. This overview isn't intended to include every single organic reaction. Rather, it is intended to cover the basic reactions. In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs. ...

  1. electrophilic addition or EA
  2. nucleophilic addition or NA
  3. radical addition or RA
  1. nucleophilic aliphatic substitution with SN1, SN2 and SNi reaction mechanisms
  2. nucleophilic aromatic substitution or NAS
  3. nucleophilic acyl substitution
  4. electrophilic substitution or ES
  5. electrophilic aromatic substitution or EAS
  6. radical substitution or RS
  1. 1,2-rearrangements
  2. pericyclic reactions
  3. metathesis

In Condensation reactions a small molecule, usually water, is split off when two reactants combine in a chemical reaction. The opposite reaction, when water is consumed in a reaction, is called hydrolysis. Many Polymerization reactions are derived from organic reactions. They are divided into addition polymerizations and step-growth polymerizations. An addition reaction, in chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one. ... Halogenation is a chemical reaction that replaces a hydrogen atom with a halogen atom. ... Hydrohalogenation is the electrophilic addition of acids like hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to alkenes to yield the corresponding haloalkanes. ... In chemistry, hydration is the condition of being combined with water. ... In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds. ... In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where in a chemical compound a pi bond is removed by the creation of two new covalent bonds by the addition of a nucleophile. ... In Organic chemistry, a radical addition reaction is an addition reaction in which the first species that adds is a radical. ... An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. ... In chemistry, a dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. ... The E1cB reaction mechanism The E1cB elimination reaction is a special type of elimination reaction in organic chemistry. ... In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs. ... In a substitution reaction, a group of a particular compound is replaced by another group. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... The SN1 reaction is an substitution reaction in organic chemistry. ... Structure of the SN2 transition state The SN2 reaction (also known as bimolecular substitution nucleophilic) is a type of nucleophilic substitution, where a lone pair from a nucleophile attacks an electron deficient electrophilic center and bonds to it, expelling another group called a leaving group. ... The National Intelligence Service (Serviço Nacional de Informações, or SNI) of Brazil was an intelligence agency formed by the Castelo Branco government in 1964. ... In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs. ... A nucleophilic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide on an aromatic ring. ... Nucleophilic acyl substitution is a type of substitution reaction between nucleophiles and acyl compounds. ... Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces another group, typically but not always hydrogen. ... Electrophilic aromatic substitution or EAS is an organic reaction in which an atom, usually hydrogen, appended to an aromatic system is replaced by an electrophile. ... In Organic chemistry, a radical substitution reaction is a substitution reaction where a radical is the intermediate and the product is an alkyl halide. ... Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule. ... A 1,2-rearrangement or 1,2-shift or Whitmore 1,2-shift is a organic reaction where a substituent moves from one atom to another atom in a chemical compound. ... In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is a type of reaction where the transition state of molecule has a cyclic geometry, and the reaction progresses in a concerted reactions fashion. ... Olefin metathesis or transalkylidenation (in some literature, a disproportionation) is an organic reaction which involves redistribution of olefinic (alkene) bonds. ... A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A reactant or reagent is any substance initially present in a chemical reaction. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... Addition polymerization,also called polyaddition or chain growth polymerization, is a polymerization technique where monomer molecules add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time. ... Step-growth polymerization is a polymerization process that involves a chemical reaction between multifunctional monomer molecules. ...


Organic reactions by functional groups

Functional group Preparation Reactions
Acyl halides: preparation reactions
Aldehydes: preparation reactions
Acyloins: preparation reactions
*Alkanes: preparation reactions
Alkenes preparation reactions
Alkynes preparation reactions
Alkyl halides preparation reactions
Alcohols preparation reactions
Arene compounds preparation reactions
Azides preparation reactions
Aziridines preparation reactions
Amides preparation reactions
Amines preparation reactions
Carboxylic acids preparation reactions
Cyclopropanes preparation reactions
Diols preparation reactions
Esters preparation reactions
Ethers preparation reactions
Epoxide: preparation reactions
Haloketones preparation reactions
Imines preparation reactions
Isocyanates preparation reactions
Ketones preparation reactions
Lactams preparation reactions
Nitriles preparation reactions
Nitrites preparation reactions
Phenols preparation reactions

Organic reactions can be categorized based on the type of functional group involved in the reaction as a reactant and the functional group that is formed as a result of this reaction. For example in the Fries rearrangement the reactant is an ester and the reaction product an alcohol. General Chemical Structure of an Acyl Halide An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is an organic compound containing a -COX functional group, which consists of a carbonyl group singly bonded to a halogen atom such as chlorine ( Cl ). The general formula for an acyl halide could be... Acyl Halide An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is a chemical compound derived from an acid by replacing a hydroxyl group with a halide group. ... Acyl Halide An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is a chemical compound derived from an acid by replacing a hydroxyl group with a halide group. ... An aldehyde. ... An aldehyde. ... An aldehyde. ... The structure of a typical acyloin. ... The structure of a typical acyloin. ... The structure of a typical acyloin. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... An alkene is one of the three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond and have the general molecular formula of CnH2n (the other two being alkynes and arenes). ... An alkene is one of the three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond and have the general molecular formula of CnH2n (the other two being alkynes and arenes). ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between carbon atoms. ... Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between carbon atoms. ... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... An azide is the N3- anion, the anion of hydrazoic acid or a reactive group in organic chemistry where a carbon substituent is attached as RN3. ... Aziridine parent compound Aziridines are a group of organic compounds sharing the aziridine functional group which is a three membered heterocycle with one amine group and two methylene groups 1,2. ... Aziridine parent compound Aziridines are a group of organic compounds sharing the aziridine functional group which is a three membered heterocycle with one amine group and two methylene groups 1,2. ... Aziridine parent compound Aziridines are a group of organic compounds sharing the aziridine functional group which is a three membered heterocycle with one amine group and two methylene groups 1,2. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... In chemistry, carboxylic acids (also called alkanoic acids) are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group. ... In chemistry, carboxylic acids (also called alkanoic acids) are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group. ... Molecule structure formula of cyclopropane Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6 consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms. ... Molecule structure formula of cyclopropane Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6 consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms. ... Molecule structure formula of cyclopropane Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6 consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms. ... A diol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH groups). ... A diol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH groups). ... A diol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH groups). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... A haloketone in organic chemistry is a functional group consisting of a ketone group with a α-halogen substituent. ... A haloketone in organic chemistry is a functional group consisting of a ketone group with a α-halogen substituent. ... A haloketone in organic chemistry is a functional group consisting of a ketone group with a α-halogen substituent. ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... The general structure of an imine An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... A lactam (the noun is a portmanteau of the wods lactone + amide) is a cyclic amide. ... A lactam (the noun is a portmanteau of the wods lactone + amide) is a cyclic amide. ... A lactam (the noun is a portmanteau of the wods lactone + amide) is a cyclic amide. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... Alkyl nitrites are a group of organic compounds with the general formula R-O-N=O, where R is any organic group. ... Alkyl nitrites are a group of organic compounds with the general formula R-O-N=O, where R is any organic group. ... Alkyl nitrites are a group of organic compounds with the general formula R-O-N=O, where R is any organic group. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-O H) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-O H) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The Fries rearrangement is a rearrangement reaction of a phenyl ester to a hydroxy aryl ketone by catalysis of lewis acids . // Mechanism Despite many efforts a definitive reaction mechanism for the Fries rearrangement is not available. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


An overview of functional groups with their preparation and reactivity is presented on the right:


Other organic reaction classification

In heterocyclic chemistry, organic reactions are classified by the type of heterocycle formed with respect to ring-size and type of heteroatom. See for instance the chemistry of indoles. Pyridine a simple heterocyclic compound Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain a ring structure containing atoms in addition to carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen, as part of the ring. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ...


Organic reactions can also be classified by the type of bond to carbon with respect to the element involved. More reactions are found in organosilicon chemistry, organosulfur chemistry, organophosphorus chemistry and organofluorine chemistry. With the introduction of carbon-metal bonds the field crosses over to organometallic chemistry. Organosilicon compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon silicon bonds. ... ... Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon phosphorus bonds. ... Some important fluorocarbons. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ...

CH He
CLi CBe CB CC CN CO CF Ne
CNa CMg CAl CSi CP CS CCl Ar
CK CCa CSc CTi CV CCr CMn CFe CCo CNi CCu CZn CGa CGe CAs CSe CBr Kr
CRb CSr CY CZr CNb CMo CTc CRu CRh CPd CAg CCd CIn CSn CSb CTe CI Xe
CCs CBa CHf CTa CW CRe COs CIr CPt CAu CHg CTl CPb CBi CPo CAt Rn
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa CU Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Chemical bonds to carbon
Core organic chemistry many uses in chemistry.
Academic research, but no widespread use Bond unknown / not assessed.

An organolithium reagent is an organometallic compound with a direct bond between a carbon and a lithium atom. ... The organometallic chemistry of group 2 elements is relevant to organic chemistry, though in some cases, the interest is strictly academic. ... Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds comprised of boron and carbon. ... A carbon-carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. ... A carbon-nitrogen bond is a covalent bond between carbon and nitrogen and one of the most abundant in organic chemistry and biochemistry [1]. Nitrogen has five valence electrons and in simple amines it is trivalent with two remaining electrons forming a lone pair. ... A carbon-oxygen bond is a covalent bond between carbon and oxygen and one of the most abundant in organic chemistry and biochemistry [1]. Oxygen has 6 valence electrons and prefers to share two electrons in bonding with carbon, leaving the remaining 4 nonbonding in 2 lone pairs. ... Some important fluorocarbons. ... A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. ... An organoaluminium compound is an organometallic compound with a carbon to aluminium bond. ... Organosilicon compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon silicon bonds. ... Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds. ... Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur. ... An organochloride, organochlorine or chlorocarbon, is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom. ... The organometallic chemistry of group 2 elements is relevant to organic chemistry, though in some cases, the interest is strictly academic. ... Organotitanium compounds in organometallic chemistry contain carbon to titanium chemical bonds. ... Organonickel chemistry is a branch of organometallic chemistry that deals with organic compounds containing a nickel to carbon bond and their reactions [1] [2]. They are used as a catalyst, as a building block in organic chemistry and in chemical vapor deposition. ... Organocopper compounds in organometallic chemistry contain carbon to copper chemical bonds. ... Organozinc compounds in organic chemistry contain carbon to zinc chemical bonds. ... Organogermanium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to germanium or hydrogen to germanium chemical bond. ... An organoarsenic compound in organic chemistry is an organic compound containing a chemical bond between arsenic and carbon. ... Organoselenium compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon to selenium bonds. ... Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. ... A zirconocene Kaminsky catalyst for producing syndiotactic polypropylene Organozirconium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to zirconium chemical bond. ... Organopalladium chemistry is a branch of organometallic chemistry and deals with organic palladium compounds and their reactions. ... An organocadmium compound is a organometallic compound containing a carbon to cadmium chemical bond. ... Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. ... Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. ... Organomercury refers to the group of organometallic compounds containing mercury. ... Organolead compounds are chemical compounds containing a chemical bond between carbon and lead. ... Organouranium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to uranium chemical bond. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...

See also

This page aims to list well-known chemical reactions, name reactions, name reagents, and name rules to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... An inorganic chemical reaction describes a chemical reaction of an inorganic compound. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Strategic Applications of Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis Laszlo Kurti, Barbara Czako Academic Press (March 4, 2005) ISBN 0-12-429785-4
  2. ^ Analysis of the reactions used for the preparation of drug candidate molecules John S. Carey, David Laffan, Colin Thomson and Mike T. Williams Org. Biomol. Chem., 2006, 4, 2337 - 2347, doi:10.1039/b602413k
Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... Covalent redirects here. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... The different types of isomers. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ...

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