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Encyclopedia > Organic gardening
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Organic horticulture. (Discuss)


Organic gardening is a form of gardening that uses substantial diversity in pest control to reduce the use of pesticides and tries to provide as much fertility with local sources of nutrients rather than purchased fertilizers. The term may have ironically arisen as a response to the effects observed in farming during the first half of the twentieth century and the evolving science of organic chemistry. It is said by some of its supporters to be more in harmony with nature. Organic gardeners emphasise the concept that "the soil feeds the plant". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... A gardener Gardening is the art of growing plants with the goal of crafting a purposeful landscape. ... Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests and diseases in agriculture that relies on natural predation rather than introduced chemicals. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Fertility is the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring in abundance. ... // Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ... Organic chemistry is the part of chemistry concerned with the composition, structure, properties, reactions and synthesis of organic compounds. ...

Poppies growing amongst organically grown broad beans
Poppies growing amongst organically grown broad beans

Contents

organically grown broad beans amongst poppies File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... organically grown broad beans amongst poppies File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Papaveraceae. ... ...


Origins

In the United States, the practice of gardening organically was greatly popularized by J.I. Rodale during the 1940s and 1950s, with his magazine, Organic Farming and Gardening (Rodale Press). Now titled simply Organic Gardening, it is currently the most widely read gardening magazine worldwide.[1] Jerome Irving Rodale (1898-1971) of Emmaus, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, was one of the first advocates for sustainable agriculture and organic farming in the United States. ... Rodale Inc. ...


Soil fertility

(see also list of Soil fertility topics) This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Organic gardening and Organic farming. ...


Soil fertility is enriched by the addition green manures, minerals and humus. Minerals are obtained from a variety of sources, such as calcium from fossil or recently deceased shellfish, potassium from wood ash, nitrogen from the animal urea in manures or leguminous plants, and phosphorus from bone. Humus is a product of composted vegetable matter. The cellulose in humus acts like a sponge and holds moisture in the garden soil, available for the growing plants. Composting is a process by which vegetable matter (e.g., grass clippings, food waste, leaves) are allowed to be consumed by bacteria, fungi, earthworms and insects until what remains is mostly the cellulose and minerals of the original vegetable matter. This mixture is then utilized as a soil amendment. Green manures may also be referred to as green fertilizers and cover crops. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Humus is a complex organic substance resulting from the breakdown of plant material in a process called humification. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Manure is the term used to refer to the droppings, dung, feces (faeces) or excrement of plant-eating mammals (herbivores) and poultry. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A compost bin full of autumn oak leaves Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (those with plant and animal origins). ... Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose. ... Organic lawn management is the practice of establishing and caring for a garden lawn without the use of chemical inputs such as pesticides or artificial fertilisers. ... Leaf mold is a form of compost produced by the breakdown of shrub and tree leaves. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Families Suborder Haplotaxina   Haplotaxidae Suborder Moniligastrina   Moniligastridae Suborder Lumbricina   Alluroididae   Eudrilidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Sparganophilidae   Acanthodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Exxidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Eudrilidae Suborder Tubificina   Dorydrilidae   Enchytraeidae   Naididae   Opistocystidae   Phreodrilidae   Tubificidae Earthworm is the common name for the larger members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ...


Pest control

(see main article Biological pest control) Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests and diseases in agriculture that relies on natural predation rather than introduced chemicals. ...


Control of animal pests can be achieved through natural methods, including crop rotation, physical removal of insects, introduction of prey species, interplanting which reduces the spread of pests and disease that agribusiness monocropping accentuates and through the use of companion planting of plants which may demonstrate pest-repellant characteristics Crop rotation: grain crop, fallow land, legumes Crop rotation is the practice of growing two (or more) dissimilar type of crops in the same space in sequence. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is planting of different crops in close physical proximity. ...


Weed management

(see main article Weed control) Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...


For the organic grower, unwanted plants (or weeds) are suppressed without the use of herbicides. Barriers are often used to prevent weeds from reaching the light they need to grow. Generally called mulches, they can include stones, leaves, straw or wood. Paper can make an excellent barrier which, like leaves, straw and wood, will return its cellulose to the soil. These barriers have the added effect of keeping moisture in the soil below them. Some writers even refer to soil loosened by hoeing and tilling as dirt mulch. There are many forms of tilling devices and cultivators which suppress weeds by mechanically disturbing the weeds' roots and preventing them from absorbing water and nutrients. A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ... Look up Hoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Hoe may mean: Hoe (tool) Hoe (dish) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Guidelines and certification

See main article Organic certification Organic certification is an accreditation process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. ...


The UK based HDRA have developed voluntary guidelines and a charter for organic gardeners and allotment holders [2], although those wishing to grow at a commercial scale (eg, organic farmers or smallholders) need to comply with the far more stringent standards laid down by the Soil Association in order to gain 'Organic' certification Garden Organic logo adopted by the HDRA in 2005 The Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) is a British organisation dedicated to researching and promoting organic gardening, farming and food. ... A typical allotment plot, Essex, England In the United Kingdom, an allotment is a small area of land, let out at a nominal yearly rent by local government or independent allotment associations, for individuals to grow their own food. ... Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ... Look up Smallholding on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A smallholding is a piece of land smaller than 50 acres, which is rented for the purposes of cultivation. ... The Soil Association is the main umbrella group in the UK for organic farmers. ...


Organic gardening systems

Systems of organic gardening include: biodynamic agriculture which predates organics by some 20 years, permaculture which emerged in the mid 1970's, Vegan organic gardening, which excludes the usage of animal products such as blood, fish and bone and animal manures (although composted human waste - known as humanure - is permitted) and Veganic gardening, which similarly excludes animal products but uses distinctive 'no-dig' surface cultivation methods. // General characteristics Biodynamic agriculture, or Biodynamics comprises an ecological and sustainable system of agricultural production, particularly of food for humans that claims to respect all creation. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Humanure is a neologism designating human waste (feces and urine) that is recycled via composting for agricultural or other purposes. ... Veganic gardening (or vegetal organic gardening) is a system of vegan organic gardening developed by Rosa Dalziell OBrien and May E Bruce, although the term was originally coined by Geoffrey Rudd. ... No dig gardening is an approach to cultivation favoured by many organic gardeners. ...


See also

For more detailed information on subjects relevant to organic gardening and farming see the list of organic gardening and farming topics. Of special relevance may be the article under organic horticulture. Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Organic gardening and Organic farming. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


External links

  • Organic Crop Improvement Association http://www.ocia.org/
  • Garden Organic, web site of the Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA), the main UK organic gardening organisation
  • Gardening the Organic Way, from Awake! magazine
  • Natural organic fertilizers
  • South East Essex Organic Gardeners, a local UK organic gardening group, site links to local example gardens as well as tips and other informative articles
  • Your Organic Gardening Guide - Free Articles, Tips and Resources on Organic Gardening
  • The Organic Veg-Edible Guide - A to Z and FAQ information

  Results from FactBites:
 
Organic gardening - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (621 words)
Organic gardening is a form of gardening that uses substantial diversity in pest control to reduce the use of pesticides and tries to provide as much fertility with local sources of nutrients rather than purchased fertilizers.
Organic gardeners emphasise the concept that "the soil feeds the plant".
For the organic grower, unwanted plants (or weeds) are suppressed without the use of herbicides.
Organic Vegetable Gardening basics (3266 words)
The organic gardener prefers to use natural and organic materials and methods, and avoids using practices and synthetic chemicals that may be detrimental to his health or environment.
Since organic fertilizer and soil conditioning materials are slow working in general, they should be mixed into the soil at least three weeks ahead of planting and the soil thoroughly prepared for the seed or transplants.
A major basis for organic gardening is the use of abundant quantities of organic material applied to the soil.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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