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Encyclopedia > Organic farming
Agriculture
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Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 644 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 838 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... The small pig farm in Swiss mountains. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ...

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Neolithic Revolution
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This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ...

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Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A Christmas tree farmer in the U.S. state of Florida explains the pruning and shearing process of cultivation to a government employee. ... Dairy farm redirects here. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Intensively farmed pigs in batch pens Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill roni Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for... This article is about the maize plant. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. ... Soy redirects here. ... The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a method of increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

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Agropedia Portal

Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. As far as possible, organic farmers rely on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests. Organic farming is often contrasted with conventional chemical farming. Organic agriculture can be considered a subset of sustainable agriculture, the difference being that organic implies certification in accordance with legal standards. Organic methods are studied in the field of agroecology. Image File history File links Portal. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Plant hormones (or plant growth regulators, or PGRs) are internally-secreted chemicals in plants that are used for regulating the plants growth. ... GMO redirects here. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... In agriculture, a green manure is a type of cover crop grown primarily to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil. ... A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... Predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests (including weeds and diseases) in agriculture that relies on natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanism, rather than introduced chemicals. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. ...


Since 1990 the market for organic products has grown at a rapid pace, averaging 20-25 percent per year, and this has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland. Approximately 306,000 square kilometres (30.6 million hectares) worldwide are now farmed organically.[1] In addition, as of 2005 organic wild products are farmed on approximately 62 million hectares (IFOAM 2007:10).


Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, an international umbrella organization for organic organizations established in 1972. The overarching goal of organic farming is defined as follows: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is an international agricultural association. ... An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. ...

"The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing, distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human beings."

Contents

Geography

Main article: Organic farming by country

Distribution

As of 2007 organic farmland is distributed across the globe, but the markets are strongest in North America and Europe, which as of 2001 are estimated to have $6 and $8 billion respectively of the $20 billion market (Lotter 2003:6). Australasia has 39% of the total organic farmland with Australia's 11.8 million hectares, but 97 percent of this land is sprawling rangeland (IFOAM 2007:35), which results in total sales of approximately 5% of US sales (Lotter 2003:7). Europe has 23 percent of total organic farmland (6.9 million hectares), followed by Latin America with 19 percent (5.8 million hectares). Asia has 9.5 percent while North America has 7.2 percent. Africa has a mere 3 percent. Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Rangeland refers to a large, mostly unimproved section of land that is predominantly used for livestock grazing. ...


The countries with the most organic area are Australia followed by Argentina (3.1 million hectares), China (2.3 million hectares), and the United States (1.6 million hectares). Much of Argentina's organic farmland is pasture, like Australia (IFOAM 2007:42). Italy, Spain, Germany, Brazil, Uruguay, and the UK follow the United States by the amount of land managed organically (IFOAM 2007:26).


Growth

As of 2001, the estimated total market value of certified organic products was estimated to be $20 billion. By 2002 this was $23 billion and by 2005 $33 billion, with Organic Monitor projecting sales of $40 billion in 2006 (IFOAM 2007:11). The change from 2001 to 2005 represents a compound growth of 10.6 percent.


In recent years both Europe and North America have experienced strong growth in organic farmland. Each added half a million hectares from 2004 to 2007 -- for the US this is a 29 percent change (IFOAM 2007:11,27). However, this growth has occurred under different conditions. While the European Union has shifted agricultural subsidies to organic farmers in recognition of its environmental benefits, the United States has taken a free market approach[1]. As a result, as of 2001 3 percent of European farmland was organically managed compared to just .3 percent of United States farmland (Lotter 2003:7). By 2005 Europe's organic land was 3.9 percent while the United States' had risen to 0.6 percent (IFOAM 2007:14-15).


IFOAM's The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2007 lists the countries which added the most hectares and had the highest percentage growth in 2007 (IFOAM 2007:27-28). Among these, China is listed third in adding the most hectares behind the United States and Argentina. China jumped from approximately 300,000 hectares of organic land in 2005 to approximately 3.5 million hectares in 2006 -- an increase of over a thousand percent.[2] This rise can be attributed to the certification of China's Organic Food Development Center in 2002 by IFOAM. The end of 2005 marks the end of the three-year transition period begun in 2002.


History

The organic movement began in the 1930's and 1940's as a reaction to agriculture's growing reliance on synthetic fertilizers. Artificial fertilizers had been created during the 18th century, initially with superphosphates, then nitrates, and nitrites mass-produced using the Haber-Bosch ammonia process during World War I. These early fertilizers were cheap, powerful, and easy to transport in bulk. The first 40 years of the 20th century saw simultaneous advances in biochemistry and engineering that rapidly and profoundly changed farming. ... Superphosphate is a fertiliser produced by the action of concentrated Sulphuric Acid on ground phosphate rock. ... Nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... In inorganic chemistry nitrites are salts of nitrous acid HNO2. ... The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Sir Albert Howard is widely considered to be the father of organic farming.[2] Rudolf Steiner, a German philosopher, made influential strides in the earliest organic theory with his biodynamic agriculture. More work was done by J.I. Rodale in the United States, Lady Eve Balfour in the United Kingdom, and many others across the world. Sir Albert Howard (1873-1947) was a British botanist, an organic farming pioneer, and a principal figure in the early organic movement. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Biodynamic® agriculture is a method of organic farming that treats farms as unified and individual organisms,[1] emphasizing balancing the holistic development and interrelationship of the soil, plants, animals as a closed, self-nourishing system. ... Jerome Irving Rodale (1898-1971) of Emmaus, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, was one of the first advocates for sustainable agriculture and organic farming in the United States. ... Lady Eve Balfour (Evelyn Barbara Balfour; 1899-1990) was a British farmer, educator, organic farming pioneer, and a founding figure in the organic movement. ...


As a percentage of total agricultural output, organic farming has remained tiny since its beginning, but it began to see renewed interest in the 1980s in response to increased environmental awareness. Farmers supplying organic products found their goods to be in high demand. Standardized certification, premium prices, and in some cases government subsidies have since attracted many farmers into converting. In the developing world, many farmers farm according to traditional methods but are not certified. In other cases, farmers in the developing world have converted out of necessity. As a proportion of total global agricultural output, organic output remains small, but it has been growing rapidly in many countries, notably in Europe.


Methods

Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. Note the hedgerow in the background.
Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables in Capay, California. Note the hedgerow in the background.

"An organic farm, properly speaking, is not one that uses certain methods and substances and avoids others; it is a farm whose structure is formed in imitation of the structure of a natural system that has the integrity, the independence and the benign dependence of an organism" Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on thousands of years of agriculture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 1648 KB) Summary Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables on an organic farm in Capay, California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 1648 KB) Summary Organic cultivation of mixed vegetables on an organic farm in Capay, California. ... Capay is an unincorporated community in Yolo County, California. ... For other meanings, see hedge. ...

Wendell Berry, "The Gift of Good Land"

The term holistic is often used to describe organic farming [3], Enhancing soil health is the cornerstone of organic farming [4]. A variety of methods are employed, including crop rotation, green manure, cover cropping, application of compost, and mulching. Organic farmers also use certain processed fertilizers such as seed meal, and various mineral powders such as rock phosphate and greensand, a naturally occurring form of potash. These methods help to control erosion, promote biodiversity, and enhance the health of the soil. Wendell Berry (born August 5, 1934, Henry County, Kentucky) is an American man of letters, academic, cultural and economic critic, and farmer. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... In agriculture, a green manure is a type of cover crop grown primarily to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil. ... Broadly defined, a cover crop is any annual, biennial, or perennial plant grown as a monoculture (one crop type grown together) or polyculture (multiple crop types grown together), to improve any number of conditions associated with sustainable agriculture. ... A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Pest control targets animal pests (including insects), fungi, weeds and disease. Organic pest control involves the cumulative effect of many techniques, including, allowing for an acceptable level of pest damage, encouraging or even introducing beneficial organisms, careful crop selection and crop rotation, and mechanical controls such as row covers and traps. These techniques generally provide benefits in addition to pest control—soil protection and improvement, fertilization, pollination, water conservation, season extension, etc.—and these benefits are both complementary and cumulative in overall effect on farm health . Effective organic pest control requires a thorough understanding of pest life cycles and interactions. In agriculture and gardening, a beneficial organism is any animal, insect or other living organism, including microorganisms, that provides an advantage in the growing process. ... In agriculture, season extension refers to anything that allows a crop to be cultivated beyond its normal outdoor growing season. ...


Weeds are controlled mechanically, thermically and through the use of covercrops and mulches.


Standards

Main article: Organic certification

Organic farming is distinguished by formal standards regulating production methods, and in some cases, final output. Standards may be voluntary or legislated. As early as the 1970s, private associations created standards, against which organic producers could voluntarily have themselves certified. In the 1980s, governments began to produce organic production guidelines. Beginning in the 1990s, a trend toward legislation of standards began, most notably the EU-Eco-regulation developed in the European Union. As of 2007 over 60 countries have regulations on organic farming (IFOAM 2007:11). Mixed organic bean sprouts Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. ... The European Union regulation (EEC) N° 2092/91 of the European Council of June 24 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs (EU-Eco-regulation) defines how agricultural products and foods that are designated as ecological products have to be grown. ...


In 1991, the European Commission formulated the first government system to regulate organic labeling. setting the rules for 12 countries.[3] Organic certification became mandatory and was also required for organic imports. The mandatory certification solidified consumer trust in organic products.


The international framework for organic farming is provided by IFOAM. For IFOAM members, organic agriculture is based upon the Principles of Organic Agriculture and the IFOAM Norms.[4] The IFOAM Norms consist of the IFOAM Basic Standards and IFOAM Accreditation Criteria. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The IFOAM Basic Standards are a set of "standards for standards." They are established through a democratic and international process and reflect the current state of the art for organic production and processing. They are best seen as a work in progress to lead the continued development of organic practices worldwide. They provide a framework for national and regional standard-setting and certification bodies to develop detailed certification standards that are responsive to local conditions.


Legislated standards are established at the national level, and vary from country to country. In recent years, many countries have legislated organic production, including the EU nations (1990s), Japan (2001), and the US (2002). Non-governmental national and international associations also have their own production standards. In countries where production is regulated, these agencies must be accredited by the government.


Since 1993 when EU Council Regulation 2092/91 became effective, organic food production has been strictly regulated in the UK. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ...


In India, standards for organic agriculture were announced in May 2001, and the National Programme on Organic Production (NPOP) is administered under the Ministry of Commerce.


In 2002, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) established production standards, under the National Organic Program (NOP), which regulate the commercial use of the term organic.[5] Farmers and food processors must comply with the NOP in order to use the word. USDA redirects here. ... In the United States, the National Organic Program (NOP) is the federal regulatory framework governing organic food. ...


Composting

Under USDA organic standards, manure must be composted and allowed to reach a sterilizing temperature. If raw animal manure is used, 120 days must pass before the crop is harvested.[6]


Economics

The economics of organic farming, a subfield of agricultural economics, encompasses the entire process and effects of organic farming in terms of human society, including social costs, opportunity costs, unintended consequences, information asymmetries, and economies of scale. Although the scope of economics is broad, agricultural economics tends to focus on maximizing yields and efficiency at the farm level. Mainstream economics takes an anthropocentric approach to the value of the natural world: biodiversity, for example, is considered beneficial only to the extent that people value it. Some governments such as the European Union subsidize organic farming, in large part because these countries believe in the external benefits of reduced water use, reduced water contamination by pesticides and nutrients of organic farming, reduced soil erosion, reduced carbon emissions, increased biodiversity, and assorted other benefits. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock - a discipline known as agronomics. ... Social cost, in economics, is the total of all the costs associated with an economic activity. ... Opportunity cost is a central concept of microeconomics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, man, human being, κέντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of regarding the existence and/or concerns of human beings as the central fact of the universe. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ...


Organic farming is labor and knowledge-intensive whereas conventional farming is capital-intensive, requiring more energy and manufactured inputs. Organic farmers in California have cited marketing as their greatest obstacle.[7]


Productivity and Profitability

Currently studies suggest that converted organic farms have lower yields than their conventional counterparts in developed countries but equal or greater yields in developing countries.[8] While organic farms have lower yields, organic methods require no synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. The decreased cost on those inputs, along with the premiums which consumers pay for organic produce, create comparable profits for organic farmers. .In a 1990 review of 205 crop comparisons Stanhill found that organic crops had 91% of conventional yields.[9] In a comprehensive review of all organic literature agroecologist Don Lotter reports that organic farms yield on average 10-15% less than conventional farms, but the lower yields are balanced by lower input costs (fertilizer, pesticides) and higher profit margins. Organic farms have been consistently found to be as or more profitable than conventional farms with premiums included, but without premiums profitability is mixed (Lotter 2003:11). Welsh (1999) reports that organic farmers are more profitable in the drier states, likely due to their superior drought performance.[10]


Lotter (2003:10) reports that repeated studies and observations have found that organic farms withstand severe weather conditions better than conventional farms, sometimes yielding 70-90% more than conventional farms during droughts. A 22-year farm trial study by Cornell University published in 2005 concluded that organic farming produces the same corn and soybean yields as conventional methods over the long-term averages, but consumed less energy and used zero pesticides. The results were attributed to lower yields in general but higher yields during drought years.[11] A study of 1,804 organic farms in Central American hit by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 found that the organic farms sustained the damage much better, retaining 20 to 40% more topsoil and smaller economic losses at highly significant levels than their neighbors.[12]


On the other hand, a prominent 21-year Swiss study found an average of 20% lower organic yields over conventional, along with 50% lower expenditure on fertilizer and energy, and 97% less pesticides.[13] A major US survey published in 2001, analyzed results from 150 growing seasons for various crops and concluded that organic yields were 95-100% of conventional yields.[14] A long-term study by U.S Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists concluded that organic farming can build up soil organic matter better than conventional no-till farming, which suggests long-term yield benefits from organic farming. [15]


Macroeconomic Impact

Organic methods often require more labor,[16] providing rural jobs but increasing costs to urban consumers.


Externalities

Agriculture in general imposes external costs upon society through pesticides, nutrient runoff, excessive water usage, and assorted other problems. As organic methods minimize some of these factors, organic farming is believed to impose fewer external costs upon society. An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ...


Pesticides

Health Risks

Organic farms use few pesticides although they are allowed to use some natural ones. The main three are Bt, pyrethrum and rotenone. However, surveys have found that less than 10% of organic farmers use these pesticides regularly; one survey found that only 5.3% of vegetable growers in California use rotenone while 1.7% use pyrethrum (Lotter 2003:26). Nevertheless, rotenone has been linked to Parkinson's in rats and can be considered toxic to humans (Lotter 2003:26). Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ... Rotenone is a colorless-to-red, odorless solid. ...


On the other hand, conventional farming uses large quantities of pesticides through techniques such as crop dusting. Studies have shown that people who work with pesticides have an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease.[17][18] The pesticides examined in these two long-term studies, paraquat and dieldrin, are not allowed on organic farms. The herbicide paraquat and fungicide maneb together, but not alone, have been shown to cause brain damage in mice.[19] An agricultural aircraft is an aircraft that has been built or converted for agricultural use -- usually aerial spraying of pesticides or fertiliser. ... Paraquat is the trade name for N,N-Dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride, a viologen. ... Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon originally produced by Bayer AG as an insecticide. ... Paraquat is the trade name for N,N-Dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride, a viologen. ...


Around 31,000 tonnes of pesticides are used in the UK every year, and 40% of fruit, vegetables, and bread sampled in the UK were found to have pesticide residues in 2004.[20]


Children's health

Some parents are concerned about the potential neurological health risks posed to children by trace pesticide residues in food. A 2001 study demonstrated that children fed organic diets experienced significantly lower organophosphorus pesticide exposure than children fed conventional diets.[21] A similar study in 2006 measured the levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 23 preschool children before and after replacing their diet with organic food: levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure dropped dramatically and immediately when the children switched to an organic diet.[22] Although the researchers did not collect health outcome data in this study, they concluded "it is intuitive to assume that children whose diets consist of organic food items would have a lower probability of neurologic health risks."


Runoff

Pesticide runoff is one of the most significant effects of pesticide use. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service tracks the environmental risk posed by pesticide water contamination from farms, and its conclusion has been that "the Nation's pesticide policies during the last twenty six years have succeeded in reducing overall environmental risk, in spite of slight increases in area planted and weight of pesticides applied. Nevertheless, there are still areas of the country where there is no evidence of progress, and areas where risk levels for protection of drinking water, fish, algae and crustaceans remain high".[23]


Genetically modified organisms

A key characteristic of organic farming is rejection of genetically engineered products, including plants and animals. On October 19, 1998, participants at IFOAM's 12th Scientific Conference of IFOAM) issued the Mar del Plata Declaration, where more than 600 delegates from over 60 countries voted unanimously to exclude the use of genetically modified organisms in food production and agriculture. From this point, it became widely recognized that GMOs are categorically excluded from organic farming. GMO redirects here. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is an international agricultural association. ...


Although GMOs are excluded from use in organic farming, there is concern that the pollen from genetically modified crops is increasingly contaminating organic and heirloom genetics making it difficult, if not impossible, to keep these genetics from entering the organic food supply. International trade restrictions limit the availability GMOs to certain countries. The European Union and the United States have strong disagreements over the EUs regulation of genetically modified food. ...


The actual dangers that genetic modification could pose to the environment or, supposedly, individual health, are hotly contended. See GM food controversy. The GM food controversy is a dispute over the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified food crops. ...


Food quality

Healthy soils equals healthy food equals healthy people is a basic tenet of many organic farming systems.


There is extensive scientific research being carried out in Switzerland at over 200 farms to determine differences in the quality of organic food products compared to conventional in addition to other tests. The FiBL scientific research institute states that "organic products stand out as having higher levels of secondary plant compounds and vitamin C. In the case of milk and meat, the fatty acid profile is often better from a nutritional point of view. As far as carbohydrates and minerals, organic products are no different from conventional products. However, in regard to undesirables such as nitrate and pesticide residues, organic products have a clear advantage.[24] A recent study found that organically grown produce has double the flavonoids, an important antioxidant.[25]. A 2007 study found that organically grown kiwi fruits had more antioxidants than conventional kiwi.[26] Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Species See text. ...


A study which isolated clear health benefits from eating organic foods was published in 2007.[27]


Soil conservation

Main article: Soil conservation

The practice of plowing (see tillage) to prepare soil for planting is claimed to increase soil damage compared to using herbicides, like glyphosates, by wind and water erosion. This argument may apply primarily to large-scale organic agriculture, where huge areas are repeatedly tilled and planted with the same crops[citation needed]. Use of herbicides to kill weeds, instead of plowing them under, may present a short-term solution to this problem. However, repeated use of herbicides may disturb the soil microorganisms that contribute to the decomposition of the plant residues that help rebuild the soil organic matter content.[citation needed]. It can also encourage the build-up of resistances in weeds.[citation needed]. Until recently many agricultural scientists thought that no-till farming, a primarily conventional method, was better at building up the soil. However, a recent study by the USDA's Agricultural Research Service has found that organic farming is better at building up the soil.[28] Sheep pasture with macroscale erosion, Australia Soil Conservation is a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, salinization, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... No-till planting of corn near Plymouth, Iowa. ...


Nutrient Leaching

Excess nutrients in lakes, rivers, and groundwater can cause algal blooms, eutrophication, and subsequent dead zones. In addition, nitrates are harmful to aquatic organisms by themselves. The main contributor to this pollution is nitrate fertilizers whose use is expected to "double or almost triple by 2050".[29] Researchers at the United States National Academy of Sciences found that that organically fertilizing fields "significantly [reduces] harmful nitrate leaching" over conventionally fertilized fields: "annual nitrate leaching was 4.4-5.6 times higher in conventional plots than organic plots".[30] A red tide resulting from a dinoflagellate bloom discoloring the water on the right An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


Scientists believe that the large dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico is caused in large part by agricultural pollution: a combination of fertilizer runoff and livestock manure runoff. A study by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) found that over half of the nitrogen released into the Gulf comes from agriculture. The economic cost of this for fishermen may be large, as they must travel far from the coast to find fish.[31]


At the 2000 IFOAM Conference, researchers presented a study of nitrogen leaching into the Danube River. They found that nitrogen runoff was substantially lower among organic farms and suggested that the external cost could be internalized by charging 1 euro per kg of nitrogen released.[32] The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is an international agricultural association. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ...


A 2005 study published in Nature found a strong link between agricultural runoff and algae blooms in California.[33]


Sales and Marketing

Organic farming begins with the farming itself, but farmers must also market and sell their products. Organic business has an hierarchical structure: the foundation of production must be linked to consumers through distribution and marketing. The composition of this organic production and market varies largely from country to country and from product to product, dependent upon variables such as climate, local attitudes, consumer demand, and government support. In some areas, such as the United States, the production of organic foods may be small relative to the size of the organic market because of high imports. Other areas, like the European Union, may be more balanced.


Distributors

In the United States, 75% of organic farms are smaller than 2.5 hectares and in California 2% of the farms account for over half of the sales (Lotter 2003:4). Groups of small farms join together in cooperatives such as Organic Valley, Inc. to market their goods more effectively. A hectare (symbol ha) is a metric unit of surface area, equal to 100 ares (the name is a contraction of the SI prefix hecto + are). ...


Over the past twenty years, however, these cooperative distributors have merged or been bought out. Rural sociologist Philip H. Howard has researched the structure and transformation of the organic industry in the United States. He claims that in 1982 there were 28 consumer cooperative distributors but as of 2007 there are only 3.[34] His research shows that most of these small cooperatives have been absorbed into large multinational corporations such as General Mills, Heinz, ConAgra, Kellog, and assorted other brands. This consolidation has raised concerns among consumers and journalists of potential fraud and degradation in standards.[35] General Mills (NYSE: GIS) is a Fortune 500 corporation, mainly concerned with food products, which is headquartered in Golden Valley, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. ... Heinz has several meanings: Heinz is the common trading name for the H. J. Heinz Company, known for their pickles, ketchup, baked beans and soups. ... ConAgra Foods, Inc. ...


Farmers' Markets

Price premiums are important for the profitability of small organic farmers, and so many sell directly to consumers in farmers' markets. In the United States the number of farmers' markets has grown from 1,755 in 1994 to 4,385 in 2006.[36]


Capacity building

Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socio-economic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in poorer countries [37]. On one hand, this is due to the application of organic principles, which means efficient management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, manure, etc.) and therefore cost-effectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products – at local and international level – has tremendous growth prospects and offers creative producers and exporters in the South excellent opportunities to improve their income and living conditions.


Organic Agriculture is a very knowledge intensive production system [38]. Therefore capacity building efforts play a central role in this regard. There are many efforts all around the world regarding the development of training material and the organization of training courses related to Organic Agriculture. Big parts of existing knowledge is still scattered and not easy accessible. Especially in Developing Countries this situation remains an important constraint for the growth of the organic sector.


For that reason, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements created an Internet Training Platform [5] whose objective is to become the global reference point for Organic Agriculture training through free access to high quality training materials and training programs on Organic Agriculture. In November 2007, the Training Platform hosted more than 170 free manuals and 75 training opportunities. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is an international agricultural association. ...


Future

In Deborah Koons Garcia's film The Future of Food,[39] it is stated that the American market for organically grown food amounted to $1 billion in 1994, and $13 billion in 2003. A growing consumer market is naturally one of the main factors encouraging farmers to convert to organic agricultural production. Increased consumer awareness of food safety issues and environmental concerns has contributed to the growth in organic farming over the last few years[citation needed].


Controversy

There are contentions that organic farming is unsustainable. One study from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency found that, area-for-area, organic farms of potatoes, sugar beet and seed grass produce as little as half the output of conventional farming.[40] Findings like these, and the dependence of organic food on manure from low-yield cattle, has prompted criticism from many scientists that organic farming is environmentally unsound and incapable of feeding the world population.[41] Among these critics are Norman Borlaug, father of the "green revolution," and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, who asserts that organic farming practices can at most feed 4 billion people, after expanding cropland dramatically and destroying ecosystems in the process. [42] Yet, organic agriculture can reduce the level of negative externalities from (conventional) agriculture. Whether this is seen as private or public benefits depends upon the initial specification of property rights.[43] Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25, 1914) is an American agricultural scientist, humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the Green Revolution. ...


However, a scientifically based study provided evidence that homogeneous-chemical-input-based farming (aka "conventional farming") is only about as productive as other practices on a globally averaged basis, and probably significantly less productive in less-developed areas.[8] The Green Revolution is an indie rock band from Yuma, AZ, USA. Its members are Troy Harris, Daniel Peterson, James Fredy, and William Hyland. ...


In 1998, Dennis Avery of the Hudson Institute falsely claimed the risk of E. coli infection was eight times higher when eating organic food rather than non-organic food, using the Center for Disease Control (CDC) as a source. When the CDC was contacted, it stated that there was no evidence for the claim.[44][45] The New York Times commented on Avery's attacks: "The attack on organic food by a well-financed research organization suggests that, though organic food accounts for only 1 percent of food sales in the United States, the conventional food industry is worried."[46] Dennis Avery is the director of the Center for Global Food Issues at the Hudson Institute, where he edits Global Food Quarterly. ... The Hudson Institute is a right-leaning U.S. think tank, founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by the futurist Herman Kahn and other colleagues from the RAND Corporation. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


In the UK, some of the debate has been summarized in an exchange between Prof A. Trewavas and Lord P. Melchett, and published by a major supermarket, concerned about examining the issues. Amongst many others, Trewavas[47] contests the notion that organic agricultural systems are more friendly to the environment and more sustainable than high-yielding farming systems; furthermore, practices such as the use of copper fungicides may do greater long-term damage than their synthetic equivalents for crop-disease control. Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ...


See also

Part of a series on
Horticulture and Gardening
Gardening

Gardening • Garden • Botanical garden • Arboretum • Botany • Plant Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. ... Certified Naturally Grown is a non-profit alternate certification program created for small-scale organic farmers, and striving to strengthen the organic movement by preserving high organic standards and removing financial barriers that tend to exclude smaller farms that are selling locally and directly to their customers. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Descripción: Pequeña regadera metálica - Regando un mininaranjo Fecha: 15/07/2006 Hora: 11:16 Cámara: EOS 30D ISO: 200 Tv: 1/1250... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Horticulture

Horticulture • Agriculture • Urban agriculture • City farm • Organic farming • Herb farm • Hobby farm • Intercropping • Farm Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ... City farms are community-run projects in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants. ... An herb farm is usually a farm where herbs are grown for market sale. ... An old dairy farm has become a hobby farm near Leicester, New York A hobby farm is a small farm that is maintained without expectation of being a primary source of income. ... Intercropping is the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time (Andrews & Kassam 1976). ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...

Customs

Harvest festival • Thanksgiving • History of agriculture In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Plant protection

Phytopathology • Pesticide • Weed control Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and organic farming, and a general opposition to agribusiness. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Seasonal food calendar (Northern_Hemisphere). ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ...

Citations

  1. ^ Dimitri, C.; Oberholtzer, L. (2006) EU and US Organic Markets Face Strong Demand Under Different Policies
  2. ^ Paull, J (2007) China's Organic Revolution
  3. ^ Control Union World Group EEC Regulation No. 2092/91
  4. ^ IFOAM. (2005). The IFOAM Norms
  5. ^ USDA NOP Program Standards. Accessdate 4-2-08
  6. ^ National Organic Program Regulations
  7. ^ Strochlic, R.; Sierra, L. (2007). Conventional, Mixed, and “Deregistered” Organic Farmers: Entry Barriers and Reasons for Exiting Organic Production in California. California Institute for Rural Studies.
  8. ^ a b Badgley, C. et al'. (2006). Organic agriculture and the global food supply, description
  9. ^ Stanhill, G. (1990). The comparative productivity of organic agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment. 30(1-2):1-26
  10. ^ The Economics of Organic Grain and Soybean Production in the Midwestern United States.
  11. ^ Lang, S. (2005). Organic farming produces same corn and soybeans yields, but consumes less energy and no pesticides, study finds Cornell University News Service. Accessdate 4-2-2008
  12. ^ Holt-Gimenez, E. (2000) Hurricane Mitch Reveals Benefits of Sustainable Farming Techniques. PANNA.
  13. ^ Maeder, P. et al (2002). Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming. Science v296, , 1694-1697. Accessdate 4-2-2008.
  14. ^ The Information Bulletin of the Organic Farming Research Foundationaccessdate=2005-12-18
  15. ^ ARS (2007) Organic Farming Beats No-Till?
  16. ^ Morison, James. (2005). Survey and analysis of labor on organic farms in the UK and Republic of Ireland. [International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability](3):24-43
  17. ^ SCIAM [www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000BE289-5BAD-149D-9BAD83414B7F0000 Study Bolsters Link Between Pesticides and Parkinson's]
  18. ^ MSNBC Studies back Parkinson's and pesticides link
  19. ^ Combination of Two Widely Used Pesticides Linked to Parkinson's Disease
  20. ^ Soil Association Pesticides
  21. ^ Curl, C. L. et al (March 2003). study Organophosphorous Pesticide Exposure of Urban and Suburban Preschool Children with Organic and Conventional Diets. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(3). Retrieved on 11-3-2007.
  22. ^ Lu, Chensheng et al (February 2006). Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children's Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(2). Retrieved on 11-4-2007.
  23. ^ Trends in the Potential for Environmental Risk from Pesticide Loss from Farm Fields. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  24. ^ FiBL [http://www.fibl.org/english/news/press-releases/2006/1031-food-quality.php Food quality: Clear benefits of organic products
  25. ^ Nutrition: Another Benefit Is Seen in Buying Organic Produce
  26. ^ A comparative study of composition and postharvest performance of organically and conventionally grown kiwifruits, ScienceDaily article
  27. ^ Kummeling et al., "Consumption of organic foods and risk of atopic disease during the first 2 years of life in the Netherlands", British Journal of Nutrition (2007)
  28. ^ No Shortcuts in Checking Soil Health. USDA ARS. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  29. ^ Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Climate Change (2006-3-21). Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  30. ^ Reduced nitrate leaching and enhanced dentrifier activity and efficiency in organically fertilized soils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2006-3-21). Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  31. ^ Yoon, Carol Kaesuk (January 20, 1998). A "Dead Zone" Grows in the Gulf of Mexico. New York Times. Retrieved on November 4, 2007.
  32. ^ Environmental impact and macro-economic feasibility of organic agriculture in the Danube River Basin. Proceedings of the 13th International IFOAM Conference, p. 160-163 (2000). Retrieved on November 4, 2007.
  33. ^ Beman, M. (March 2005). Agricultural runoff fuels large phytoplankton blooms in vulnerable areas of the ocean. Nature 25(2). Retrieved on 11-4-2007.
  34. ^ Howard, Phil. (2007) Organic Industry Graphics
  35. ^ Corp Watch. (2004). Clouds on the Organic Horizon
  36. ^ Farmers' Market Growth 1994-2006
  37. ^ ICapacity Building Study 3: Organic Agriculture and Food Security in East Africa. University of Essex.
  38. ^ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  39. ^ The Future of Food. Retrieved on 2006-01-04.
  40. ^ The Bichel Committee.
  41. ^ Bob Goldberg. The Hypocrisy of Organic Farmers. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  42. ^ Andrew Leonard. Save the rain forest — boycott organic?. How The World Works. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  43. ^ New Zealand's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. A Review of the Environmental/Public Good Costs and Benefits of Organic Farming and an Assessment of How Far These Can be Incorporated into Marketable Benefits. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  44. ^ Organic Produce Production and Food Safety. UC Davis Cooperative Extension.
  45. ^ Wer hat die laengste Biochionase. Bio-aktuell.
  46. ^ Marian Burros. EATING WELL; Anti-Organic, And Flawed. Retrieved on 2007-12-14.
  47. ^ Anthony Trewavas (March 2001). Urban myths of organic farming. Nature 410: 409-410.

Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Lotter, D. (2003) Organic Agriculture. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 21(4)
  • Kuepper, George and Gegner, Lance. "Organic Crop Production Overview", ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service: August 2004.
  • Emsley, John (April 2001). "Going One Better Than Nature". Nature 410: 633-634. 
  • Paull, John (2006). "The Farm as Organism: The Foundational Idea of Organic Agriculture". Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania 83: 14-18. 
  • Smil, Vaclav (2001). Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food. MIT Press. 
  • Big Organic Goes Synthetic, The Indypendent
  • Saltini Antonio, Storia delle scienze agrarie,4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2414-X
  • Willer, Helga and Yussefi, Minou, Eds. (2007) The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics and Emerging Trends 2007. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), DE-Bonn and Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, FiBL, CH-Frick.

Further reading

  • Gettelman, Elizabeth. "Farmworkers to Farmers", Mother Jones, 2006-08-11. Retrieved on 2007-08-07. -An innovative program in California trains mostly immigrant workers how to succeed as organic farmers.
  • Julie Guthman, Agrarian Dreams: The Parodox of Organic Farming in California, Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-520-24094-0
  • Alex Avery (2006) The Truth About Organic Foods (Volume 1, Series 1) Henderson Communications, L.L.C. ISBN-10: 0978895207
  • Lampkin & Padel. (1994). The Economics of Organic Farming: An International Perspective. Guildford: CAB International. ISBN 0-85198-911-X

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CAB International (CABI) is a not-for-profit inter-governmental organization. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Organic farming
  • Organic Farming at the Open Directory Project
  • Organic Eprints
  • National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' Organic Agriculture Program
  • Key adjudication by the Advertising Standards Authority (UK) on claims around organic farming.
  • Organic Production and Organic Food: Information Access Tools. Identifies the best sources to research on organic agriculture topics from the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library.
  • The Organic Consumers Association (US)
  • International Society of Organic Agriculture Research
  • International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture (India)
  • OCIA International -- Organic Crop Improvement Association (US)
  • Research of Organic Agriculture (Switzerland)
  • International World-Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF) Association
The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the independent British self regulatory organisation (SRO) of the advertising industry. ... The National Agricultural Library is one of the worlds largest and most accessible agricultural research libraries. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Farmers Told To Venture Into Organic Pepper Farming :: Bernama.com (235 words)
Dr Chan, who is also the state's Modernisation of Agriculture Minister, said organic pepper farming, which does not use any pesticides and chemicals, would bring high returns as the demand for organically grown pepper was rising in the global market.
"Organic pepper fetches premium prices in the world market," he told reporters after attending the 22nd annual general meeting of the State Farmers' Organisation (SFO) here Thursday.
Some 67,000 farming families are involved in pepper cultivation and production is expected to increase to 30,000 metric tonnes annually by 2010.
Encyclopedia4U - Organic farming - Encyclopedia Article (1039 words)
Organic farming is the production of plant and animal food products using techniques that aim to develop biological diversity, improve soil fertility and without the use of synthetic persticides or fertilizers.
Furthermore, some organic farming practices are claimed to do more damage than conventional practices – for instance, the practice of ploughing (see tillage) to prepare soil for planting is claimed to increase soil damage compared to using Roundup, a herbicide.
This is a de facto movement of "chemical" fertilizer from non-organic farms to organic farms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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