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Encyclopedia > Organic compound
Methane is the simplest possible organic compound
Methane is the simplest possible organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of compounds such as carbonates, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon, are considered inorganic. The division between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds while "useful in organizing the vast subject of chemistry...is somewhat arbitrary"[1]. Image File history File links Methane-2D-stereo. ... Image File history File links Methane-2D-stereo. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbonate is an anion with a charge of -2 and an empirical formula of CO32-. An aqueous solution of carbon dioxide contains a minute amount of H2CO3, called carbonic acid, which dissociates to form hydrogen ions and carbonate ions. ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the group C≡N, with the carbon atom triple bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene or buckyball), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube or buckytube. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ...


Organic chemistry is the science concerned with all aspects of organic compounds. Organic synthesis is the methodology of their preparation. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...

Contents

History

The "organic" is a historical name, dating back to 19th century, when it was believed that organic compounds could only be synthesized in living organisms through vis vitalis - the "life-force". The theory that organic compounds were fundamentally different from those that were "inorganic", that is, not synthesized through a life-force, was disproved with the synthesis of urea, an "organic" compound by definition of its known occurrence only in the urine of living organisms, from potassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate by Friedrich Wöhler in the Wöhler synthesis. The kinds of carbon compounds that are still traditionally considered inorganic are those that were considered inorganic before Wöhler's time; that is, those which came from "inorganic" (i.e., lifeless) sources such as minerals.[1] Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea . ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


Classification

See Organic chemistry#Classification of organic substances

Organic compounds may contain atoms of further elements, so-called heteroatoms. Organometallic compounds constitute a further subsection, characterized by covalent bonds between organic carbon and a metal. Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... In the nomenclature of organic chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, different, + atomos) is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen, typically, but not exclusively, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus or boron. ... An organometallic compound is partially characterized by the presence of one or more metal-carbon bonds, in which the carbon involved would, apart from the metal-carbon bond, be otherwise considered a part of an organic compound. ... This article is about metallic materials. ...


There is also a large number of inorganic carbon compounds to distinguish from organic compounds.


Natural compounds

An important subset of organic compounds is still extracted from natural sources because they would be far too expensive to be produced artificially. Examples include most sugars, some alkaloids and terpenoids, certain nutrients such as vitamin B12, and in general, those natural products with large or stereoisometrically complicated molecules which are present in reasonable concentrations in living organisms. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ...


Further compounds of prime importance in biochemistry are antigens, carbohydrates, enzymes, hormones, lipids and fatty acids, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, peptides and amino acids, vitamins and fats and oils. Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... ...


Synthetic compounds

Many polymers, including all plastics are organic compounds. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ...


Nomenclature

The IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds slightly differs from the CAS nomenclature. The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products. ...


Databases

  • The CAS database is the most comprehensive repository for data on organic compounds. The search tool SciFinder is offered .
  • The Beilstein database contains information on 9.8 million substances, covers the scientific literature from 1771 to the present, and is today accessible via CrossFire. Structures and a large diversity of physical and chemical properties is available for each substance, with reference to original literature.

There is a great number of more specialized databases for diverse branches of organic chemistry. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products. ... Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products. ... The Beilstein database is one of the largest databases in the area of organic chemistry. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacology involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ...


Structure determination

See Structure determination

Today, the main tools are proton and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz, 18. ... Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz, 18. ... 900MHz, 21. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ...


See also

An organometallic compound is partially characterized by the presence of one or more metal-carbon bonds, in which the carbon involved would, apart from the metal-carbon bond, be otherwise considered a part of an organic compound. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... The original list from this page has been split into the following three lists, as the number of compounds became too long. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Spencer L. Seager, Michael R. Slabaugh. Chemistry for Today: general, organic, and biochemistry. Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2004, p. 342. ISBN 053439969X
Spencer L. Seager is Professor of Chemistry at Weber State University. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... Covalent redirects here. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... The different types of isomers. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
FAQ (1709 words)
Organic compounds, depending on their properties, are able to partition between the two liquid phases and into the gas phase.
First, if the organic compounds that you want are in the public library (these are the ones that are always present in the drop-down box on the Available Compounds page) then first follow the instructions given in answer to question 2 in the section above.
The volatility of the compound expressed as a vapour pressure or Henry's law constant, its solubility in water with respect to the solid compound or hydrate, dissociation constants (if the compound is an acid), and how its activity coefficients in the liquid phase(s) are calculated.
Organic compound - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (277 words)
An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon.
The study of organic compounds is termed organic chemistry, and what with it being such a vast collection of chemicals (over half of all known chemical compounds), systems have been devised to classify organic compounds.
The theory that organic compounds were fundamentally different than those that were "inorganic", that is, not synthesized through a life-force, was disproven with the synthesis of urea, an organic compound, from potassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate by Friedrich Wöhler.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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