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Encyclopedia > Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.[1][2] [3] For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The halogens are a chemical series. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


The original definition of "organic" chemistry came from the misconception that organic compounds were always related to life processes. However, organic molecules can be metabolized by processes not involving life, and not only organic compounds support life on Earth, as life as we know it also depends on inorganic chemistry; for example, many enzymes rely on transition metals such as iron and copper; and materials such as shells, teeth and bones are part organic, part inorganic in composition. Apart from elemental carbon, only certain classes of carbon compounds (such as oxides, carbonates, and carbides) are conventionally considered inorganic. Biochemistry deals mainly with the natural chemistry of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and sugars. This article is about life in general. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... This article is in need of attention. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Carbonate is an anion with a charge of -2 and an empirical formula of CO32-. An aqueous solution of carbon dioxide contains a minute amount of H2CO3, called carbonic acid, which dissociates to form hydrogen ions and carbonate ions. ... Calcium carbide. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kÄ“me, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


Because of their unique properties, multi-carbon compounds exhibit extremely large variety and the range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They form the basis of, or are important constituents of many products (paints, plastics, food, explosives, drugs, petrochemicals, to name but a few) and (apart from a very few exceptions) they form the basis of all earthly life processes. For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ...


The different shapes and chemical reactivities of organic molecules provide an astonishing variety of functions, like those of enzyme catalysts in biochemical reactions of live systems. The autopropagating nature of these organic chemicals is what life is all about. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...


Current (as of 2008) trends in organic chemistry include chiral synthesis, green chemistry, microwave chemistry, fullerenes and microwave spectroscopy. The two optical isomers of bromochlorofluoromethane Chiral synthesis (also called asymmetric synthesis) is organic synthesis which preserves or introduces a desired chirality. ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Microwave chemistry is the science of applying microwave irradiation to chemical reactions . Microwaves act as high frequency electric fields and will generally heat anything with a mobile electric charge. ... The Icosahedral Fullerene C540 C60 and C-60 redirect here. ... Rotational spectroscopy or microwave spectroscopy studies the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules associated with a corresponding change in the rotational quantum number of the molecule. ...

Contents

Historical highlights

See also: History of chemistry

At the beginning of the nineteenth century chemists generally thought that compounds from living organisms were too complicated in structure to be capable of artificial synthesis from non-living things, and that a 'vital force' or vitalism conferred the characteristics of living beings on this form of matter. They named these compounds 'organic', and preferred to direct their investigations toward inorganic materials that seemed more promising. PD image from http://wwwihm. ... PD image from http://wwwihm. ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry is long and convoluted. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ...


Organic chemistry received a boost when it was realized that these compounds could be treated in ways similar to inorganic compounds and could be created in the laboratory by means other than 'vital force'. Around 1816 Michel Chevreul started a study of soaps made from various fats and alkali. He separated the different acids that, in combination with the alkali, produced the soap. Since these were all individual compounds, he demonstrated that it was possible to make a chemical change in various fats (which traditionally come from organic sources), producing new compounds, without 'vital force'. In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler first manufactured the organic chemical urea (carbamide), a constituent of urine, from the inorganic ammonium cyanate NH4OCN, in what is now called the Wöhler synthesis. Although Wöhler was, at this time as well as afterwards, cautious about claiming that he had thereby destroyed the theory of vital force, most have looked to this event as the turning point. Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... Michel Eugène Chevreul (August 31, 1786 - April 9, 1889) was an important French chemist whose work with fatty acids led to early applications in the fields of art and science. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Cyanates are salts of cyanic acid. ... The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea . ...


A great next step was when in 1856 William Henry Perkin, while trying to manufacture quinine, again accidentally came to manufacture the organic dye now called Perkin's mauve, which by generating a huge amount of money greatly increased interest in organic chemistry. Another step was the laboratory preparation of DDT by Othmer Zeidler in 1874, but the insecticide properties of this compound were not discovered until much later. William Perkin (1838-1907) Sir William Henry Perkin FRS (March 12, 1838 – July 14, 1907) was an English chemist best known for his discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Letter from Perkins son, with a sample of dyed silk Mauveine, also known as aniline purple, was the first synthetic organic dye. ... For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...


The crucial breakthrough for the theory of organic chemistry was the concept of chemical structure, developed independently and simultaneously by Friedrich August Kekule and Archibald Scott Couper in 1858. Both men suggested that tetravalent carbon atoms could link to each other to form a carbon lattice, and that the detailed patterns of atomic bonding could be discerned by skillful interpretations of appropriate chemical reactions. Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (also August Kekulé) (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... Archibald Scott Couper (1831-1892) was the author of On a New Chemical Theory, Philosophical Magazine 16, 104-116 (1858) [as excerpted in Alembic Club Reprint #21, On a New Chemical Theory and Researches on Salicylic Acid[1]] Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz claimed to solve the structure of Benzene... Valence is a scientific term in chemistry to describe electrons in the outermost orbital. ...


The history of organic chemistry continues with the discovery of petroleum and its separation into fractions according to boiling ranges. The conversion of different compound types or individual compounds by various chemical processes created the petroleum chemistry leading to the birth of the petrochemical industry, which successfully manufactured artificial rubbers, the various organic adhesives, the property-modifying petroleum additives, and plastics. Petro redirects here. ... Look up Fraction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In common usage a fraction is any part of a unit. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...


The pharmaceutical industry began in the last decade of the 19th century when acetylsalicylic acid (more commonly referred to as aspirin) manufacture was started in Germany by Bayer. The first time a drug was systematically improved was with arsphenamine (Salvarsan). Numerous derivatives of the dangerously toxic atoxyl were systematically synthesized and tested by Paul Ehrlich and his group, and the compound with best effectiveness and toxicity characteristics was selected for production. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... This article is about the drug. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Structural formula of Atoxyl molecules Atoxyl® () is the name of a medicine which was common in the first decades of the 20th century, based on an Arsenic compound. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ...


Early examples of organic reactions and applications were serendipitous, such as Perkin's accidental discovery of Perkin's mauve. However, from the 20th century, the progress of organic chemistry allowed for synthesis of specifically selected compounds or even molecules designed with specific properties, as in drug design. The process of finding new synthesis routes for a given compounds is called total synthesis. Total synthesis of complex natural compounds started with urea, increased in complexity to glucose and terpineol, and in 1907, total synthesis was commercialized the first time by Gustaf Komppa with camphor. Pharmaceutical benefits have been substantial, for example cholesterol-related compounds have opened ways to synthesis of complex human hormones and their modified derivatives. Since the start of the 20th century, complexity of total syntheses has been increasing, with examples such as lysergic acid and vitamin B12. Today's targets feature tens of stereogenic centers that must be synthesized correctly with asymmetric synthesis. Look up Serendipity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Drug design is the approach of finding drugs by design, based on their biological targets. ... A total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple, commercially available (petrochemical) precursors. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Terpineol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil. ... Gustaf Komppa (1867-1949) was a Finnish chemist best known for developing the Worlds first total synthesis, that of camphor in 1903. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... A stereocenter is a carbon atom in a chemical compound that has four different types of atoms or groups of atoms attached to each side of it. ... The two optical isomers of bromochlorofluoromethane Asymmetric synthesis, also called chiral synthesis, enantioselective synthesis or stereoselective synthesis, is organic synthesis which introduces one or more new and desired elements of chirality. ...


Biochemistry, the chemistry of living organisms, their structure and interactions in vitro and inside living systems, has only started in the 20th century, opening up a brand new chapter of organic chemistry with enormous scope. Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ...


Classification of organic substances

Description and nomenclature

Classification is not possible without having a full description of the individual compounds. In contrast with inorganic chemistry, in which describing a chemical compound can be achieved by simply enumerating the chemical symbols of the elements present in the compound together with the number of these elements in the molecule, in organic chemistry the relative arrangement of the atoms within a molecule must be added for a full description. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


One way of describing the molecule is by drawing its structural formula. Because of molecular complexity, simplified systems of chemical notation have been developed. The latest version is the line-angle formula, which achieves simplicity without introducing ambiguity. In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogens can either be notated or assumed to be present by implication. Some disadvantages of chemical notation are that they are not easily described by words and they are not easily printable. These problems have been addressed by describing molecular structures using organic nomenclature . The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphical representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged. ... This chemistry related article does not cite its references or sources. ... Organic nomenclature is the system established for naming and grouping organic compounds. ...


Because of the difficulties arising from the very large number and variety of organic compounds, chemists realized early on that the establishment of an internationally accepted system of naming organic compounds was of paramount importance. The Geneva Nomenclature was born in 1892 as a result of a number of international meetings on the subject.


It was also realized that as the family of organic compounds grew, the system would have to be expanded and modified. This task was ultimately taken on by the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Recognizing the fact that in the branch of biochemistry the complexity of organic structures increases, the IUPAC organization joined forces with the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IUBMB, to produce a list of joint recommendations on nomenclature. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Italic text ...


Later, as the numbers and complexities of organic molecules grew, new recommendations were made within IUPAC for simplification. The first such recommendation was presented in 1951 when a cyclic benzene structure was named a cyclophane. Later recommendations extended the method to the simplification of other complex cyclic structures, including heterocyclics, and named such structures phanes. A cyclophane is a hydrocarbon consisting of an aromatic unit (typically a benzene ring) and an aliphatic chain that forms a bridge between two non-adjacent positions of the aromatic ring. ... Phanes are sub-structures of highly complex organic molecules introduced for simplification of the naming of these highly complex molecules. ...


For ordinary communication, to spare a tedious description, the official IUPAC naming recommendations are not always followed in practice except when it is necessary to give a concise definition to a compound, or when the IUPAC name is simpler (viz. ethanol versus ethyl alcohol). Otherwise the common or trivial name may be used, often derived from the source of the compound. In chemistry, a trivial name (also common or vernacular name) is a non-systematic name. ...


In summary, organic substances are classified by their molecular structural arrangement and by what other atoms are present along with the chief (carbon) constituent in their makeup, whilst in a structural formula, hydrogen is implicitly assumed to occupy all free valences of an appropriate carbon atom which remain after accounting for branching, other element(s) and/or multiple bonding.


Hydrocarbons and functional groups

The family of carboxylic acids contains a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Acetic acid is an example.
The family of carboxylic acids contains a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Acetic acid is an example.

Classification normally starts with the hydrocarbons: compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. For sub-classes see below. Other elements present themselves in atomic configurations called functional groups which have decisive influence on the chemical and physical characteristics of the compound; thus those containing the same atomic formations have similar characteristics, which may be: miscibility with water, acidity/alkalinity, chemical reactivity, oxidation resistance, and others. Some functional groups are also radicals, similar to those in inorganic chemistry, defined as polar atomic configurations which pass during chemical reactions from one chemical compound into another without change. Image File history File links Essigsäure_-_Acetic_acid. ... Image File history File links Essigsäure_-_Acetic_acid. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... Miscibility is the ability of two or more substances to mix, and form a single homogeneous phase. ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... Reactivity refers to the rate at which a chemical substance tends to undergo a chemical reaction in time. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ...


Some of the elements of the functional groups (O, S, N, halogens) may stand alone and the group name is not strictly appropriate, but because of their decisive effect on the way they modify the characteristics of the hydrocarbons in which they are present they are classed with the functional groups, and their specific effect on the properties lends excellent means for characterisation and classification. The halogens are a chemical series. ...


Referring to the hydrocarbon types below, many, if not all of the functional groups which are typically present within aliphatic compounds are also represented within the aromatic and alicyclic group of compounds, unless they are dehydrated, which would lead to non-reacting co-optional groups. In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic. ...


Reference is made here again to the organic nomenclature, which shows an extensive (if not comprehensive) number of classes of compounds according to the presence of various functional groups, based on the IUPAC recommendations, but also some based on trivial names. Putting compounds in sub-classes becomes more difficult when more than one functional group is present. Organic nomenclature is the system established for naming and grouping organic compounds. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... In chemistry, a trivial name (also common or vernacular name) is a non-systematic name. ...


Two overarching chain type categories exist: Open Chain aliphatic compounds and Closed Chain cyclic compounds. Those in which both open chain and cyclic parts are present are normally classed with the latter. In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... In organic chemistry, a cyclic organic compound is one in which a series of carbon atoms are connected together to form a loop or ring. ...


Aliphatic compounds

The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups, homologous series according to their state of saturation: paraffins alkanes without any double or triple bonds, olefins alkenes with double bonds, which can be mono-olefins with a single double bond, di-olefins, or di-enes with two, or poly-olefins with more. The third group with a triple bond is named after the name of the shortest member of the homologue series as the acetylenes alkynes. The rest of the group is classed according to the functional groups present. In chemistry, a homologous series is a series of organic compounds with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group, and shows a gradation in physical properties as a result of increase in molecular size and mass (see relative molecular mass). ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes, also known as Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ...


From another aspect aliphatics can be straight chain or branched chain compounds, and the degree of branching also affects characteristics, like octane number or cetane number in petroleum chemistry. The octane rating is the most important characteristic of gasoline (petrol) and other fuels used in spark-ignition internal combustion engines. ... Cetane number or CN is to diesel fuel what octane rating is to gasoline. ...


Aromatic and alicyclic compounds

Benzene is one of the best-known aromatic compounds
Benzene is one of the best-known aromatic compounds

Cyclic compounds can, again, be saturated or unsaturated. Because of the bonding angle of carbon, the most stable configurations contain six carbon atoms, but while rings with five carbon atoms are also frequent, others are rarer. The cyclic hydrocarbons divide into alicyclics and aromatics (also called arenes). For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ...


Of the alicyclic compounds the cycloalkanes do not contain multiple bonds, whilst the cycloalkenes and the cycloalkynes do. Typically this latter type only exists in the form of large rings, called macrocycles. The simplest member of the cycloalkane family is the three-membered cyclopropane. An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic. ... cyclobutane Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes) are chemical compounds with one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... A cycloalkene or cycloolefin is a type of alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms. ... A macrocycle is, as defined by IUPAC, In the chemical literature, organic chemists may consider any molecule containing a ring of seven, fifteen, or any arbitrarily large number of atoms to be macrocyclic. ... Molecule structure formula of cyclopropane Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6 consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms. ...



Aromatic hydrocarbons contain conjugated double bonds. One of the simplest examples of these is benzene, the structure of which was formulated by Kekulé who first proposed the delocalization or resonance principle for explaining its structure. For "conventional" cyclic compounds, aromaticity is conferred by the presence of 4n + 2 delocalized pi electrons, where n is an integer. Particular instability (antiaromaticity) is conferred by the presence of 4n conjugated pi electrons. In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule that do not belong to a single atom or a covalent bond. ... For other uses, see Resonance (disambiguation). ... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ...


The characteristics of the cyclic hydrocarbons are again altered if heteroatoms are present, which can exist as either substituents attached externally to the ring (exocyclic) or as a member of the ring itself (endocyclic). In the case of the latter, the ring is termed a heterocycle. Pyridine and furan are examples of aromatic heterocycles while piperidine and tetrahydrofuran are the corresponding alicyclic heterocycles. The heteroatom of heterocyclic molecules is generally oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, with the latter being particularly common in biochemical systems. Heterocycles are organic chemical structures containing non-carbon elements. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... R-phrases , , Related Compounds Related compounds pyridine pyrrolidine piperazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula C5H11N. It is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ...


Rings can fuse with other rings on an edge to give polycyclic compounds. The purine nucleoside bases are notable polycyclic aromatic heterocycles. Rings can also fuse on a "corner" such that one atom (almost always carbon) has two bonds going to one ring and two to another. Such compounds are termed spiro and are important in a number of natural products. In organic chemistry, a polycyclic compound is a cyclic compound with more than one hydrocarbon loop or ring structures (benzene rings). ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... A spiro compound is a bicyclic organic compound with rings connected through just one atom. ... Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ...


Polymers

This swimming board is made of polystyrene, an example of a polymer
This swimming board is made of polystyrene, an example of a polymer

One important property of carbon in organic chemistry is that it can form certain compounds, the individual molecules of which are capable of attaching themselves to one another, thereby forming a chain or a network. The process is called polymerization and the chains or networks polymers, while the source compound is a monomer. Two main groups of polymers exist: those artificially manufactured are referred to as industrial polymers [4] or synthetic polymers and those naturally occurring as biopolymers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4368x2912, 4265 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swimming Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4368x2912, 4265 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swimming Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms. ...


Since the invention of the first artificial polymer, bakelite, the family has quickly grown with the invention of others. Common synthetic organic polymers are polyethylene or polythene, polypropylene, nylon, teflon or PTFE, polystyrene, polyesters, polymethylmethacrylate (commonly known as perspex or plexiglas) polyvinylchloride or PVC, and polyisobutylene important artificial or synthetic rubber also the polymerised butadiene, a rubber component. Bakelite is a material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian-American Dr. Leo Baekeland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ... Vinyl siding Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely-used plastic. ... Polyisobutene is a thermoplastic polymer of the formula: -(-CH2-C(CH3)2-)n- It can be made from the monomer Isobutylene or CH2=C(CH3)2 via radical polymerization, cationic addition polymerization & anionic addition polymerization routes. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ...


The examples are generic terms, and many varieties of each of these may exist, with their physical characteristics fine tuned for a specific use. Changing the conditions of polymerisation changes the chemical composition of the product by altering chain length, or branching, or the tacticity. With a single monomer as a start the product is a homopolymer. Further, secondary component(s) may be added to create a heteropolymer (co-polymer) and the degree of clustering of the different components can also be controlled. Physical characteristics, such as hardness, density, mechanical or tensile strength, abrasion resistance, heat resistance, transparency, colour, etc. will depend on the final composition. The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of repeat units in an average polymer chain at time t in a polymerization reaction. ... Branching, in organic chemistry, is when a hydrogen on a polymer is replaced by another chain of that polymer, that is, a polymer that at some point looks like: / - - - - - - - < - - - In linguistics, branching refers to the way in which a language constructs phrases with a head (or nucleus) and modifiers (or... Tacticity (from Greek taktikos: of or relating to arrangement or order) is the relative stereochemistry of adjacent chiral centers within a macromolecule. ... A homopolymer is a polymer which is formed from only one type of monomer. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...


Biomolecules

Maitotoxin, a complex organic biological toxin.
Maitotoxin, a complex organic biological toxin.

Biomolecular chemistry is a major category within organic chemistry which is frequently studied by biochemists. Many complex multi-functional group molecules are important in living organisms. Some are long-chain biopolymers, and these include proteins, DNA, RNA and the polysaccharides such as starches in animals and celluloses in plants. The other main classes are amino acids (monomer building blocks of proteins), carbohydrates (which includes the polysaccharides), the nucleic acids (which include DNA and RNA as polymers), and the lipids. In addition, animal biochemistry contains many small molecule intermediates which assist in energy production through the Krebs cycle, and produces isoprene, the most common hydrocarbon in animals. Isoprenes in animals form the important steroid structural (cholesterol) and steroid hormone compounds; and in plants form terpenes, terpenoids, some alkaloids, and a unique set of structural hydrocarbons called biopolymer polyisoprenoids present in latex sap which is the basis for making rubber. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (818 × 292 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (818 × 292 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Maitotoxin or MTX is an extremely potent toxin produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a dinoflagellate species partially responsible for the phenomenon known as red tide. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A biopolymer is a polymer found in nature. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Some common lipids. ... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ... Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Buckyballs

Buckminsterfullerenes, also known as Buckyballs, are amongst the most fascinating molecules engineered by organic chemists to date. Their spherical structure manifests many electronic properties and new research in the synonymous carbon nanotubes is fascinating. Fullerene C540 Fullerenes are one of only 3 types of naturally occurring forms of carbon (the other two being diamond and graphite). ...


Others

Organic compounds containing bonds of carbon to nitrogen, oxygen and the halogens are not normally grouped separately. Others are sometimes put into major groups within organic chemistry and discussed under titles such as organosulfur chemistry, organometallic chemistry, organophosphorus chemistry and organosilicon chemistry. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon phosphorus bonds. ... Organosilicon compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon silicon bonds. ...


Characteristics of organic substances

The structure of methane by pictorial representation of a Lewis diagram showing the sharing of electronpairs between atomic nuclei in a covalent bond. Please do not form the impression from the diagram that the real picture is two-dimensional, because this is not the case.
The structure of methane by pictorial representation of a Lewis diagram showing the sharing of electronpairs between atomic nuclei in a covalent bond. Please do not form the impression from the diagram that the real picture is two-dimensional, because this is not the case.

Organic compounds are generally covalently bonded. This allows for unique structures such as long carbon chains and rings. The reason carbon is excellent at forming unique structures and that there are so many carbon compounds is that carbon atoms form very stable covalent bonds with one another (catenation). In contrast to inorganic materials, organic compounds typically melt, boil, sublimate, or decompose below 300 °C. Neutral organic compounds tend to be less soluble in water compared to many inorganic salts, with the exception of certain compounds such as ionic organic compounds and low molecular weight alcohols and carboxylic acids where hydrogen bonding occurs. Image File history File links Covalent. ... Image File history File links Covalent. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Chemistry ... Covalent redirects here. ... Catenation is the ability of a chemical element to form covalent bonds with itself, resulting in ring, chain and cage molecules. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other meanings of the word salt see table salt or salt (disambiguation). ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... In chemistry, carboxylic acids (also called alkanoic acids) are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ...


Organic compounds tend to dissolve in organic solvents which are either pure substances like ether or ethyl alcohol, or mixtures, such as the paraffinic solvents such as the various petroleum ethers and white spirits, or the range of pure or mixed aromatic solvents obtained from petroleum or tar fractions by physical separation or by chemical conversion. Solubility in the different solvents depends upon the solvent type and on the functional groups if present. Solutions are studied by the science of physical chemistry. Like inorganic salts, organic compounds may also form crystals. A unique property of carbon in organic compounds is that its valency does not always have to be taken up by atoms of other elements, and when it is not, a condition termed unsaturation results. In such cases we talk about carbon carbon double bonds or triple bonds. Double bonds alternating with single in a chain are called conjugated double bonds. An aromatic structure is a special case in which the conjugated chain is a closed ring. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... --> Flash point -45. ... White spirit, also known as Stoddard solvent, is a paraffin-derived clear, transparent liquid which is a common organic solvent used in painting and decorating. ... Look up Fraction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In common usage a fraction is any part of a unit. ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... The term saturation generally means thoroughly full, and can refer to the following: In chemistry, see saturation (chemistry) for a number of meanings. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... The structural formula of 2-butyne, a simple alkyne-containing molecule Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms, with the formula CnH2n-2. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...


Molecular structure elucidation

Molecular models of caffeine
Molecular models of caffeine

Organic compounds consist of carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms, and functional groups. The valence of carbon is 4, and hydrogen is 1, functional groups are generally 1. From the number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms in a molecule the degree of unsaturation can be obtained. Many, but not all structures can be envisioned by the simple valence rule that there will be one bond for each valence number. The knowledge of the chemical formula for an organic compound is not sufficient information because many isomers can exist. Organic compounds often exist as mixtures. Because many organic compounds have relatively low boiling points and/or dissolve easily in organic solvents there exist many methods for separating mixtures into pure constituents that are specific to organic chemistry such as distillation, crystallization and chromatography techniques. There exist several methods for deducing the structure an organic compound. In general usage are (in alphabetical order): Image File history File links Cafeïne. ... Image File history File links Cafeïne. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... For other uses, see Valence. ... The degree of unsaturation (also known as the Index of Hydrogen Deficiency or IHD) formula is used in organic chemistry to help draw chemical structures. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... In chemistry, a mixture is a substance made by combining two or more different materials in such a way that no chemical reaction occurs. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Frost crystallization on a shrub. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ...

  • Crystallography: This is the most precise method for determining molecular geometry; however, it is very difficult to grow crystals of sufficient size and high quality to get a clear picture, so it remains a secondary form of analysis. Crystallography has seen especially extensive use in biochemistry (for protein structure determination) and in the characterization of organometallic catalysts, which often possess significant symmetry.
  • Elemental analysis: A destructive method used to determine the elemental composition of a molecule. See also mass spectrometry, below.
  • Infrared spectroscopy: Chiefly used to determine the presence (or absence) of certain functional groups.
  • Mass spectrometry: Used to determine the molecular weight of a compound and from the fragmentation pattern its structure. High resolution mass spectrometry can often identify the precise formula of a compound through knowledge of isotopic masses and abundances; it is thus sometimes used in lieu of elemental analysis.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry identifies different nuclei based on their chemical environment. This is the most important and commonly used spectroscopic technique for organic chemists, often permitting complete assignment of atom connectivity and even stereochemistry given the proper set of spectroscopy experiments (e.g. correlation spectroscopy).
  • Optical rotation: Distinguishes between two enantiomers of a chiral compound based on the sign of rotation of plane polarized light. If the specific rotation of an enantiomer is known, the magnitude of rotation also gives the ratio of enantiomers in a mixed sample, though HPLC with a chiral column also can supply this information.
  • UV/VIS spectroscopy: Used to determine degree of conjugation in the system. While still sometimes used to characterize molecules, UV/VIS is more commonly used to quantitate how much of a known compound is present in a (typically liquid) sample.

Additional methods are provided by analytical chemistry. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Geometry of the water molecule Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule, inferred from the spectroscopic studies of the compound. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (eg. ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... NMR redirects here. ... Correlation spectroscopy is one of several types of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. ... When polarized light is passed through a substance containing chiral molecules (or nonchiral molecules arranged asymmetrically), the direction of polarization can be changed. ... In chemistry two stereoisomers are said to be enantiomers if one can be superimposed on the mirror image of the other, and vice versa. ... The specific rotation of a chemical compound [α] is defined as the observed angle of optical rotation α when plane-polarized light is passed through a sample with a path length of 1 decimeter and a sample concentration of 1 gram per 1 millilitre. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Organic reactions

Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. While pure hydrocarbons undergo certain limited classes of reactions, many more reactions which organic compounds undergo are largely determined by functional groups. The general theory of these reactions involves careful analysis of such properties as the electron affinity of key atoms, bond strengths and steric hindrance. These issues can determine the relative stability of short-lived reactive intermediates, which usually directly determine the path of the reaction. An example of a common reaction is a substitution reaction written as: Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The electron affinity, Eea, of an atom or molecule is the energy required to detach an electron from a singly charged negative ion, i. ... In chemistry, bond strength is measured between two atoms joined in a chemical bond. ... Steric effects are the interaction of molecules dictated by their shape and/or spatial relationships. ... In chemistry a reactive intermediate is a short-lived high energy highly reactive molecule. ... In a substitution reaction, a group of a particular compound is replaced by another group. ...

Nu + C-X → C-Nu + X

where X is some functional group and Nu is a nucleophile. In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ...


There are many important aspects of a specific reaction. Whether it will occur spontaneously or not is determined by the Gibbs free energy change of the reaction. The heat that is either produced or needed by the reaction is found from the total enthalpy change. Other concerns include whether side reactions occur from the same reaction conditions. Any side reactions which occur typically produce undesired compounds which may be anywhere from very easy or very difficult to separate from the desired compound. In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ... t In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as H or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...


Synthetic organic chemistry

Main article: Organic synthesis
A synthesis designed by E.J. Corey for oseltamivir (Tamiflu®).
A synthesis designed by E.J. Corey for oseltamivir (Tamiflu®).

Synthetic organic chemistry is an applied science as it borders engineering, the "design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes". Organic synthesis of a novel compound is a problem solving task, where a synthesis is designed for a target molecule by selecting optimal reactions from optimal starting materials. Complex compounds can have tens of reaction steps that sequentially build the desired molecule. The synthesis proceeds by utilizing the reactivity of the functional groups in the molecule. For example, a carbonyl compound can be used as a nucleophile by converting it into an enolate, or as an electrophile; the combination of the two is called the aldol reaction. Designing practically useful syntheses always requires conducting the actual synthesis in the laboratory. The scientific practice of creating novel synthetic routes for complex molecules is called total synthesis. Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1043x745, 18 KB) Summary Corey oseltamivir synthesis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1043x745, 18 KB) Summary Corey oseltamivir synthesis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Elias James Corey (born July 12, 1928) is an American organic chemist. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ... Enol (or, more officially, but less commonly: alkenol) is an alkene with hydroxyl group on one of the carbon atoms of the double bond. ... In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... A typical experimental setup for an aldol reaction. ... A total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple, commercially available (petrochemical) precursors. ...


There are several strategies to design a synthesis. The modern method of retrosynthesis, developed by E.J. Corey, starts with the target molecule and splices it to pieces according to known reactions. The pieces, or the proposed precursors, receive the same treatment, until available and ideally inexpensive starting materials are reached. Then, the retrosynthesis is written in the opposite direction to give the synthesis. A "synthetic tree" can be constructed, because each compound and also each precursor has multiple syntheses. Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses. ...


See also

This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... This page aims to list well-known chemical reactions, name reactions, name reagents, and name rules to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... The backbone dihedral angles are included in the molecular model of a protein. ...

References

  1. ^ Robert T. Morrison, Robert N. Boyd, and Robert K. Boyd, Organic Chemistry, 6th edition (Benjamin Cummings, 1992, ISBN 0-13-643669-2) - this is "Morrison and Boyd", a classic textbook
  2. ^ John D. Roberts, Marjorie C. Caserio, Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry,(W. A. Benjamin,Inc.,1964) - another classic textbook
  3. ^ Richard F. and Sally J. Daley, Organic Chemistry, Online organic chemistry textbook. http://www.ochem4free.info
  4. ^ "industrial polymers, chemistry of." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Organic chemistry at:
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Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Italic text The Journal of Organic Chemistry (abbreviated as or JOC) is a scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in organic and bioorganic chemistry. ... Organic Letters (usually abbreviated as ), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1999 by the American Chemical Society. ... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... Covalent redirects here. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... The different types of isomers. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Bioinorganic Chemistry is a specialized field that spans the chemistry of metal-containing molecules. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that frequently employs compounds produced by synthetic chemistry to study and manipulate biological systems. ... Chemistry education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry, and how to improve learning outcomes by changing... Click chemistry is a concept introduced by K. Barry Sharpless in 2001 and describes chemistry tailored to generate substances quickly and reliably by joining small units together as nature does. ... In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Solid-state chemistry is the study of solid materials, which may be molecular. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... Wet chemistry is a term used to refer to chemistry generally done in the liquid phase. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules. ... This page aims to list well-known inorganic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ...

 
 

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