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Encyclopedia > Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane. Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Some common lipids. ...

A typical animal cell. Within the cytoplasm, the major organelles and cellular structures include: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (6) Golgi apparatus (7) cytoskeleton (8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytosol (12) lysosome (13) centriole.
A typical animal cell. Within the cytoplasm, the major organelles and cellular structures include: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (6) Golgi apparatus (7) cytoskeleton (8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytosol (12) lysosome (13) centriole.

The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are to cells what an organ is to the body (hence the name organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive). Organelles are identified by microscopy, and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly in the eukaryotic cells of higher organisms. Prokaryotes were once thought not to have organelles, but some examples have now been identified.[1] Image File history File links Biological_cell. ... Image File history File links Biological_cell. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... The nucleolus is contained within the cell nucleus. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... The cytosol (cf. ... Various organelles labeled. ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... Cell fractionation is the separation of homogeneous sets from a heterogeneous population of cells Steps Disruption of cells and liberation of organelles. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ...

Contents

History and Terminology

In biology, an organ is defined as a confined functional unit within an organism. The analogy of bodily organs to microscopic cellular substructures is obvious, as from even early works, authors of respective textbooks rarely elaborate on the distinction between the two. This article is about the biological unit. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


Credited as the first[2][3][4] to use a diminutive of organ for respective cellular structures was German zoologist Karl August Möbius (1884), who used the term "organula" [5] (plural form of organulum, the diminutive of latin organum). From the context, it is clear that he referred to reproduction related structures of protists. In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. Thus, the original definition was limited to structures of unicellular organisms. A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all...


It would take several years before organulum, or the later term organelle, became accepted and expanded in meaning to include subcellular structures in multicellular organisms. Books around 1900 from Valentin Häcker,[6] Edmund Wilson[7] and Oscar Hertwig[8] still referred to cellular organs. Later, both terms came to be used side by side: Bengt Lidforss wrote 1915 (in German) about "Organs or Organells".[9] Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856 - 1939) was an American geneticist and zoologist. ... Oskar Hertwig (April 21, 1849, Friedberg, Hessen - October 25, 1922, Berlin) was a German zoologist. ...


Around 1920, the term organelle was used to describe propulsion structures ("motor organelle complex", i.e., flagella and their anchoring)[10] and other protist structures, such as ciliates.[11] Alfred Kühn wrote about centrioles as division organelles, although he stated that, for Vahlkampfias, the alternative 'organelle' or 'product of structural build-up' had not yet been decided, without explaining the difference between the alternatives.[12] A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Classes & Subclasses Class Karyorelictea Class Heterotrichea (e. ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ...


In his 1953 textbook, Max Hartmann used the term for extracellular (pellicula, shells, cell walls) and intracellular skeletons of protists.[13]


Later, the now-widely-used[14][15][16][17] definition of organelle emerged, after which only cellular structures with surrounding membrane had been considered organelles. However, the more original definition of subcellular functional unit in general still coexists.[18][19] A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating tissue which acts as a barrier within or around a cell. ...


In 1978, Albert Frey-Wyssling suggested that the term organelle should refer only to structures that convert energy, such as centrosomes, ribosomes, and nucleoli.[20][21] This new definition, however, did not win wide recognition.


Examples

Whereas most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment," other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that are DNA-containing, having originated from formerly-autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via endosymbiosis. An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ...


The most notable of these organelles having originated from endosymbiont bacteria are: An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...

Other organelles are also suggested to have endosymbiotic origins, (notably the flagellum - see evolution of flagella). In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaebacterial) each represent an extremely sophisticated cellular structure that requires the interaction of many different and finely-tuned systems to function correctly. ...


Not all parts of the cell qualify as organelles, and the use of the term to refer to some structures is disputed. These structures are large assemblies of macromolecules that carry out particular and specialized functions, but they lack membrane boundaries. Such cell structures, which are not formally organelles, include: Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ...

Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ...

Eukaryotic organelles

Eukaryotes are the most structurally complex cell type, and by definition are in part organized by smaller interior compartments, that are themselves enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost cell membrane. The larger organelles, such as the nucleus and vacuoles, are easily visible with the light microscope. They were among the first biological discoveries made after the invention of the microscope. Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the... 1852 microscope Compound microscope made by John Cuff in 1750 A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ...


Not all eukaryotic cells have every one of the organelles listed below. Exceptional species of cells do not have some organelles that might otherwise be considered universal to eukaryotes (such as mitochondria[22]). There are also occasional exceptions to the number of membranes surrounding organelles, listed in the tables below (e.g., some that are listed as double-membrane are sometimes found with single or triple membranes). In addition, the number of individual organelles of each type found in a given cell varies depending upon the function of that cell. Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ...

Major eukaryotic organelles
Organelle Main function Structure Organisms Notes
chloroplast (plastid) photosynthesis double-membrane compartment plants, protists has some genes; theorized to be engulfed by the ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)
endoplasmic reticulum translation and folding of new proteins (rough endoplasmic reticulum), expression of lipids (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes, has folds that are flat sacs; smooth endoplasmic reticulum has folds that are tubular
Golgi apparatus sorting and modification of proteins single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes cis-face (convex) nearest to rough endoplasmic reticulum; trans-face (concave) farthest from rough endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondrion energy production double-membrane compartment most eukaryotes has some DNA; theorized to be engulfed by the ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)
vacuole storage, homeostasis single-membrane compartment eukaryotes
nucleus DNA maintenance, RNA transcription double-membrane compartment all eukaryotes has bulk of genome

Mitochondria and chloroplasts, which have double-membranes and their own DNA, are believed to have originated from incompletely consumed or invading prokaryotic organisms, which were adopted as a part of the invaded cell. This idea is supported in the Endosymbiotic theory. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ...

Minor eukaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
acrosome helps spermatoza fuse with ovum single-membrane compartment many animals
autophagosome vesicle which sequesters cytoplasmic material and organelles for degradation double-membrane compartment all eukaryotic cells
centriole anchor for cytoskeleton Microtubule protein animals
cilium movement in or of external medium Microtubule protein animals, protists, few plants
glycosome carries out glycolysis single-membrane compartment Some protozoa, such as Trypanosomes.
glyoxysome conversion of fat into sugars single-membrane compartment plants
hydrogenosome energy & hydrogen production double-membrane compartment a few unicellular eukaryotes
lysosome breakdown of large molecules (e.g., proteins + polysaccharides) single-membrane compartment most eukaryotes
melanosome pigment storage single-membrane compartment animals
mitosome not characterized double-membrane compartment a few unicellular eukaryotes
myofibril muscular contraction bundled filaments animals
nucleolus ribosome production protein-DNA-RNA most eukaryotes
parenthesome not characterized not characterized fungi
peroxisome breakdown of metabolic hydrogen peroxide single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes
ribosome translation of RNA into proteins RNA-protein eukaryotes, prokaryotes
vesicle material transport single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes

Other related structures: In spermatozoa of many animals, the acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the spermatozoons head. ... Autophagy is also a synonym for self-cannibalism Autophagy, or ocytosis, is a process of sequestering organelles and long-lived proteins in a double-membrane vesicle inside the cell, where the contents are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for degradation. ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... Not to be confused with Psyllium. ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... The glycosome is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the glycolytic enzymes. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Genera Blastocrithidia Crithidia Endotrypanum Herpetomonas Leishmania Leptomonas Phytomonas Trypanosoma Wallaceina Trypanosomes are a group of kinetoplastid protozoa distinguished by having only a single flagellum. ... A membrane-surrounded plant cell organelle, especially found in germinating seeds, and involved in the breakdown and conversion of fatty acids to acetyl-CoA for the glyoxylate bypass. ... A hydrogenosome is an organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi. ... Various organelles labeled. ... In a biological cell, a melanosome is an organelle containing melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom. ... A mitosome is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms. ... A diagram of the structure of a Myofybril Myofibrils (obsolete term: sarcostyles) are cylindrical organelles, found within muscle cells. ... The nucleolus is contained within the cell nucleus. ... Parenthesomes are found in basidiomycete fungus. ... Basic structure of a peroxisome Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and other metabolites. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ...

The cytosol (cf. ... The endomembrane system is the system of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles. ... A nucleosome is a unit made of DNA and histones. ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Prokaryotic organelles

Prokaryotes are not as structurally or metabolically complex as eukaryotes, and were once thought not to have any internal structures enclosed by lipid membranes. In the past, they were often viewed as having little internal organization; but, slowly, details are emerging about prokaryotic internal structures. An early false turn was the idea developed in the 1970's that bacteria might contain membrane folds termed mesosomes, but these were later shown to be artifacts produced by the chemicals used to prepare the cells for electron microscopy.[23] However, more recent research has revealed that at least some prokaryotes have microcompartments, which are compartments enclosed by proteins.[1] Even more striking is the description of magnetosomes,[24][25] as well as the nucleus-like structures of the Planctomycetes that are surrounded by lipid membranes.[26] Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine. ... Mesosomes can be seen in this diagram of a typical prokaryote For other uses, see Mesosome (arachnid). ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine. ...

Prokaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
carboxysome carbon fixation protein-shell compartment some bacteria
chlorosome photosynthesis light harvesting complex green sulfur bacteria
flagellum movement in external medium protein filament some prokaryotes and eukaryotes
magnetosome magnetic orientation inorganic crystal, lipid membrane magnetotactic bacteria
nucleoid DNA maintenance, transcription to RNA DNA-protein prokaryotes
plasmid DNA exchange circular DNA some bacteria
ribosome translation of RNA into proteins RNA-protein eukaryotes, prokaryotes
thylakoid photosynthesis photosystem proteins and pigments mostly cyanobacteria

The carboxysome is a bacterial microcompartment made up of a protein shell that sequesters enzymes involved in carbon fixation reactions. ... Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is changed into organic materials. ... A Chlorosome is a photosynthetic antenna complex found in green sulfur bacteria (GSB) and some green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAP) (Chloroflexaceae, Oscillochloridaceae). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Green sulfur bacteria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... The magnetosome chains are membranous prokaryotic organelles present in magnetotactic bacteria. ... Magnetotactic bacteria are a class of bacteria discovered in the 1970s that are characterised by being able to orient themselves in response to the Earths magnetic field (magnetotaxis). ... It has been suggested that Genophore be merged into this article or section. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Thylakoids (green) inside a chloroplast Thylakoids (green) inside a cyanobacterium (Synechocystis) A Thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...

See also

Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Kerfeld CA, Sawaya MR, Tanaka S, et al (2005). "Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles". Science 309 (5736): 936-8. doi:10.1126/science.1113397. PMID 16081736. 
  2. ^ Bütschli, O. (1888). Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen u. Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band. Protozoa. Dritte Abtheilung: Infusoria und System der Radiolaria., 1412. “Die Vacuolen sind demnach in strengem Sinne keine beständigen Organe oder O r g a n u l a (wie Möbius die Organe der Einzelligen im Gegensatz zu denen der Vielzelligen zu nennen vorschlug).” 
  3. ^ Amer. Naturalist. 23, 1889, S. 183: „It may possibly be of advantage to use the word organula here instead of organ, following a suggestion by Möbius. Functionally-differentiated multicellular aggregates in multicellular forms or metazoa are in this sense organs, while, for functionally-differentiated portions of unicellular organisms or for such differentiated portions of the unicellular germ-elements of metazoa, the diminutive organula is appropriate.“ Cited after : Oxford English Dictionary online, entry for „organelle“.
  4. ^ 'Journal de l'anatomie et de la physiologie normales et pathologiques de l'homme et des animaux' at Google Books
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  11. ^ Cl. Hamburger, Handwörterbuch der Naturw. Bd. V, .S. 435. Infusorien. cited after Petersen, Hans (1919). "Über den Begriff des Lebens und die Stufen der biologischen Begriffsbildung". Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (now: Development Genes and Evolution) 45 (3): 423-442. doi:10.1007/BF02554406. 
  12. ^ Kühn, Alfred (1920). "Untersuchungen zur kausalen Analyse der Zellteilung. I. Teil: Zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Kernteilung von Vahlkampfia bistadialis". Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (now: Development Genes and Evolution) 46: 259-327. doi:10.1007/BF02554424. “die Alternative: Organell oder Produkt der Strukturbildung” 
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  14. ^ Nultsch, Allgemeine Botanik, 11. Aufl. 2001, Thieme Verlag
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  21. ^ Albert Frey-Wyssling: Concerning the concept "Organelle". Experientia 34, 547 (1978). doi:10.1007/BF01935984 The journal's new name is Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences.
  22. ^ Fahey RC, Newton GL, Arrack B, Overdank-Bogart T, Baley S (1984). "Entamoeba histolytica: a eukaryote without glutathione metabolism". Science 224 (4644): 70-72. doi:10.1126/science.6322306. PMID 6322306. 
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  24. ^ Komeili A, Li Z, Newman DK, Jensen GJ (2006). "Magnetosomes are cell membrane invaginations organized by the actin-like protein MamK". Science 311 (5758): 242-5. doi:10.1126/science.1123231. PMID 16373532. 
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  • Alberts, Bruce et al. (2003). Essential Cell Biology, 2nd ed., Garland Science, 2003, ISBN 081533480X.
  • Alberts, Bruce et al. (2002). The Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th ed., Garland Science, 2002, ISBN 0-8153-3218-1.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Otto Bütschli (1848-1920) was a German zoologist and professor at the University of Heidelberg. ... Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856 - 1939) was an American geneticist and zoologist. ... Oskar Hertwig (April 21, 1849, Friedberg, Hessen - October 25, 1922, Berlin) was a German zoologist. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Eduard Adolf Strasburger (February 1, 1844, Warsaw - May 19, 1912, Bonn) was one of the most famous German botanists of the 19th century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... In spermatozoa of many animals, the acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the spermatozoons head. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A centriole showing the nine triplets of microtubules. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Not to be confused with Psyllium. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... In cell biology, the centrosome is the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... In biology an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside cells. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... Various organelles labeled. ... In a biological cell, a melanosome is an organelle containing melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... A diagram of the structure of a Myofybril Myofibrils (obsolete term: sarcostyles) are cylindrical organelles, found within muscle cells. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... The nucleolus is contained within the cell nucleus. ... Parenthesomes are found in basidiomycete fungus. ... Basic structure of a peroxisome Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that participate in the metabolism of fatty acids and other metabolites. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... An example of a system: The nervous system. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
:::ORGANELLE DB::: (219 words)
Organelle DB compiles protein localization data from organisms spanning the eukaryotic kingdom and presents an organized catalog of the known protein constituents of more than 50 organelles, subcellular structures, and protein complexes.
In particular, Organelle DB is a central repository of yeast protein localization data, incorporating results from both previous and current (ongoing) large-scale studies of protein localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In total, Organelle DB is a singular resource consolidating our knowledge of the protein composition of eukaryotic organelles and subcellular structures.
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Organelle (1268 words)
Membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic cells (eukaryote) that is responsible for the cell's digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms.
Cytoskeletal architecture and organelle transport in giant syncytia formed by fusion of hexactinellid sponge tissues.
Inhibition of microtubule-dependent, minus-end directed transport of axoplasmic organelles by an antibody specific for the intermediate chain of dynein.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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