FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Organ (music)
Old Pipe organ in Église Saint-Thomas, Strasbourg, France.
Old Pipe organ in Église Saint-Thomas, Strasbourg, France.
Organ in the Lublin Cathedral, Poland.
Organ in the Lublin Cathedral, Poland.
Modern pipe organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Modern pipe organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. It uses wind moving through metal or wood pipes to produce sound, which remains constant while a key is depressed. Its sounds, which vary widely in timbre and volume, are divided according to ranks and controlled by the use of stops. The keyboard is not expressive and does not affect dynamics. Organs vary greatly in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors[1] , and are located primarily in churches, concert halls, and homes. The organ is one of the oldest musical instruments in the Western musical tradition, and carries a rich history connected with Christian liturgy and civic ceremony. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Orgue Jean-André Silbermann de léglise Saint Thomas de Strasbourg Photographe : Duomaxw File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Orgue Jean-André Silbermann de léglise Saint Thomas de Strasbourg Photographe : Duomaxw File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Panorama of Lublin form Trynitarska Tower Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1163x1333, 422 KB) Prospect of the Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Own photography File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pipe organ Organ (music) Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1163x1333, 422 KB) Prospect of the Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Own photography File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pipe organ Organ (music) Metadata This... St. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... A manual is a keyboard designed to be played with the hands on a pipe organ, harpsichord, clavichord, electronic organ, or synthesizer. ... The 30-note pedalboard of a Rieger organ with expression pedal and coupler switches. ... The choir division of the organ at St. ... Keyboard expression often shortened to expression is the ability of the keyboard of a keyboard instrument to respond to the dynamics of the music. ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a...


The term "organ" may be applied to a variety of instruments which do not have all of the traits listed above. The most well-known and original type of organ is the pipe organ which is used in many church services and classical music concerts. Another prevalent type is the electronic organ or digital organ, which does not have pipes and generates its electronically-produced sound through one or more loudspeakers; these are often intended to be replacements for pipe organs but are also performed on in genres ranging from rock to jazz. In the 20th century some builders have decided to "electronically enhance" an existing pipe organ. In addition there are many other instruments that also may be considered organs, and these are used in many different ways. Organs are performed upon by organists and are built and maintained by organ builders. The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ... An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. ... An organ builder builds and maintains organs. ...

Contents

Pipe organs

Main article: Pipe organ
Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan.
Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan.
Pipe organ, St. Elisabethskerk in Grave, Netherlands.
Pipe organ, St. Elisabethskerk in Grave, Netherlands.

The pipe organ is the grandest musical instrument in size and scope[citation needed], and has been around in its current form since the 14th century (though other designs, such as the hydraulic organ, were already used in Antiquity). Along with the clock, it was considered one of the most complex man-made creations before the Industrial Revolution. Organs (the "pipe" designation is generally assumed) range in size from a single short keyboard to huge instruments which can have over 10,000 pipes. A large modern organ typically has three or four manuals with five octaves (61 notes) each, with a two-and-a-half octave (32-note) pedalboard. The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kaltenbrunnerorgantaiwan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kaltenbrunnerorgantaiwan. ... The former Oxford University College founded by Mackay is now part of Aletheia University, Tamsui. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 870 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 870 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Grave is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water (hydor) into air pressure to drive the pipes. ... Ancient redirects here. ... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The choir division of the organ at St. ... A manual is a keyboard designed to be played with the hands on a pipe organ, harpsichord, clavichord, electronic organ, or synthesizer. ... The 30-note pedalboard of a Rieger organ with expression pedal and coupler switches. ...


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called the organ the "King of instruments"[2]. Indeed, the pipe organ has the most extense frequency response and widest dynamic range of all musical instruments conceived by man.[citation needed] Some of the biggest instruments have 64-feet pipes (a foot here means "sonic-foot", a measure quite close to the English measurement unit), and it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. Perhaps the most distinctive feature is the ability to range from the slightest sound to the most powerful, "pleine-jeu" impressive sonic discharge, which can be sustained in time indefinitely by the organist. For instance, the Wanamaker organ, located in Philadelphia, USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphonic orchestras. Another interesting feature lies in its intrinsic "polyphony" approach: each set of pipes can be played simultaneously with others, and the sound gets truly mixed and interspersed only when they reached the environment, not in the instrument itself (this is the main difference with digital organs, where the sound comes from loudspeakers which plays the resultant electric waveform of several tones being played). “Mozart” redirects here. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ...


Church organs

The principal purpose of most organs in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand is to play in Christian and Reform Jewish religious services.[citation needed] An organ used for this purpose is generally called a church organ. The introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the seventh century. Due to its ability to simultaneously provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, and increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany human voices, whether a congregation, a choir or a cantor or soloist. Most services also include solo organ repertoire for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment, often as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service. Vitalianus (died January 27, 672) was Pope from 657 - 672. ... The human voice consists of sound made by a human using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying and screaming. ... A congregation is the group of members who make up a local Christian church, Jewish synagogue, Mosque or other religious assembly. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The organ repertoire consists of music written for the organ. ...


Today this organ may be a pipe organ (see above), a digital or electronic organ which generates the sound with Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips or a combination of pipes and electronics. It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the theatre organ, which is a distinctly different instrument. However, as classical organ repertoire was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ is hard to draw. The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... Console of the 3/13 Barton Theater Pipe Organ at Ann Arbors Michigan Theater A theatre organ is a pipe organ originally designed specifically for imitation of an orchestra, but in latter years new designs have tended to be around some of the sounds and blends unique to the... The organ repertoire consists of music written for the organ. ...


Organs are also used to give recital concerts, called organ recitals. In the early twentieth century, symphonic organs flourished in secular venues in the U.S. and UK, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs largely fell out of favor as the Orgelbewegung (Organ Reform Movement) took hold in the middle of the twentieth century and organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles and for both secular and sacred applications. Organ Recital A discussion carried on by senior citizens, at a social gathering, covering the various conditions of ones organs. ... The symphonic organ is a style of pipe organ which flourished during the first third of the twentieth century in town halls and other secular public venues (particularly in the United States and the UK). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Chamber organs

A chamber organ is a small pipe organ, often with only one manual, and sometimes without separate pedal pipes, that is placed in a small room, that this diminutive organ can fill with sound. It is often confined to chamber organ repertoire, as often, the organs have too little voice capabilities to rival the grand pipe organs in the performance of the classics. The sound and touch are unique unto the instrument, sounding nothing like a large organ with few stops drawn out, but rather much more intimate. They are usually tracker instruments, although the modern builders are often building electropneumatic chamber organs.


Theatre organs

The theatre organ or cinema organ was designed to accompany silent movies. Like a symphonic organ, it is made to replace an orchestra. However, it includes many more gadgets, such as percussions and special effects, to provide a more complete array of options to the theatre organist. Theatre organs tend not to take nearly as much space as standard organs, relying on extension and higher wind pressures to produce a greater variety of tone and larger volume of sound from fewer pipes. This extension is called "unification", meaning that instead of one pipe for each key at all pitches, the higher octaves of pitch (and in some cases, lower octaves) are achieved by merely adding 12 pipes (one octave) to the top and/or bottom of a given division. Since there are sixty-one keys on an organ manual, a classical or concert organ will have, for diapason stops at 8', 4' and 2' pitch, a total of 183 pipes (61 times 3). The same chorus of diapasons on a theatre organ will have only 85 pipes, or 61 plus 12, plus 12. Some ranks, such as the Tibia Clausa, with up to 97 pipes, allow the organist to draw stops at 16', 8', 4', 2', and mutations from a single rank of pipes. Console of the 3/13 Barton Theater Pipe Organ at Ann Arbors Michigan Theater A theatre organ is a pipe organ originally designed specifically for imitation of an orchestra, but in latter years new designs have tended to be around some of the sounds and blends unique to the... This article is about the comedy film. ... An extension organ is a pipe organ that uses one or more ranks of pipes longer then the length of its keyboards to serve several different organ stops at different pitches. ... In a pipe organ, a flue pipe is any pipe that is sounded by a fipple, similar to that in a whistle or a flute a bec, rather than by a beating reed, see reed pipe. ... The Tibia Clausa is one of the foundation ranks and arguably the most important rank of pipes in a theatre pipe organ. ...


Unification gives a smaller instrument the capability of a much larger one, and works well for monophonic styles of playing (chordal, or chords with solo voice). The sound is, however, thicker and more homogenous than a classically-designed organ, and is very often reliant on the use of tremulant, which has a depth greater than that usually found on a classical organ. Unification also allows pipe ranks to be played from more than one manual and the pedals.


Electronic organs

Main article: electronic organ

Since the 1930s, pipeless electric instruments have been available to produce similar sounds and perform similar roles to pipe organs. Many of these have been bought both by houses of worship and other potential pipe organ customers, and also by many musicians both professional and amateur for whom a pipe organ would not be a possibility. Far smaller and cheaper to buy than a corresponding pipe instrument, and in many cases portable, they have taken organ music into private homes and into dance bands and other new environments, and have almost completely replaced the reed organ. Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ...


Hammond organs

Main article: Hammond organ

The Hammond organ was the first successful electric organ, released in the 1930s. It used mechanical, rotating tonewheels to produce the sound waveforms. Its system of drawbars allowed for setting volumes for specific sounds, and provided vibrato-like effects. The drawbars allow the player to choose volume levels of 1-8 for each of the members of the harmonic series starting from 16'. By emphasizing certain harmonics from the overtone series, desired sounds (such as 'brass' or 'string') can be imitated. Generally, the older Hammond drawbar organs had only preamplifiers and were connected to an externalty amplified speaker. The Leslie speaker became the most popular, which is a rotating type speaker. The three most popular models of Hammond organs were the B-3, the C-3, and A-100. Inside all three models, the tone generators, drawbars, & keyboards were identical. The B-3 cabinet stood on 4 legs, the C-3 was an enclosed "church" model and the A100 series had built in amplifiers & speakers. The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company until the 1970s. ...


Though originally produced to replace organs in the church, the Hammond organ, more specifically the B-3, became popular in jazz, particularly soul jazz, and in gospel music. Since these were the roots of rock and roll, the Hammond organ became a part of the rock and roll sound. It was widely used in rock and popular music during the 1960s and 1970s by bands like Pink Floyd and Deep Purple. Its popularity resurged in pop music around 2000, in part due to the availability of clonewheel organs that were light enough for one person to carry. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong blues and gospel influences in music for small groups featuring keyboards, especially the Hammond organ. ... Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic or space rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This article is about the rock band. ... A Clonewheel organ is a musical instrument that emulates the sound of the tonewheel organs formerly manufactured by Hammond, using sampling and digital signal processing. ...


Other organs

Frequency divider organs used oscillators instead of mechanical parts to make sound. These were even cheaper and more portable than the Hammond. They featured an ability to bend pitches. Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ...


In the 1940s until the 1970s, small organs were sold that simplified traditional organ stops. These instruments can be considered the predecessor to modern portable keyboards, as they included one-touch chords, rhythm and accompaniment devices, and other electronically assisted gadgets. Lowrey was the leading manufacturer of this type of organs in the smaller (spinet) instruments, with Conn-Selmer and Rodgers dominating the larger instrument market, although the larger models were movable but were not considered portable. The choir division of the organ at St. ... The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... Conn-Selmer, Inc. ... Rogers is a surname, originally German and suggesting prowess with a spear, and is modified with the letter d as a Welsh addition. ...


Conn and others also made electronic organs that used separate oscillators for each note, giving them a richer sound, closer to a pipe organ, due to the slight imperfections in tuning, by not using precise division.


In the '60s and '70s, a type of simple, portable electronic organ called the combo organ was popular, especially with pop and rock bands, and was a signature sound in the pop music of the period, such as The Doors, Led Zeppelin, and Iron Butterfly. The most popular combo organs were manufactured by Farfisa and Vox. A combo organ is a type of electronic organ generally produced between the early 1960s and the late 1970s. ... The Doors were an influential American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles by vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger. ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... For other uses, see Iron Butterfly (disambiguation). ... Farfisa is a brand name for a series of electronic organs and later multitimbral keyboards, made in Ancona in the Marche region of Italy. ... Vox is the Latin word for voice. ...


The bamboo organ called Bambuso sonoro is an experimental custom-made instrument designed by Hans van Koolwijk. The instrument has 100 flutes made of bamboo.[3] A custom made instrument is a musical instrument that is considered to be of ones own design and/or a modification or extension of a defined guideline of a certain instrument. ...


Digital organs

The development of the integrated circuit enabled another revolution in electronic keyboard instruments. Electronic organs sold since the 1980s utilize sampling to produce the sound. Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ...


Also available are hybrids, incorporating a few ranks of pipes to produce some sounds, and using digital samples for other sounds and to resolve borrowing collisions. Major manufacturers include Allen (who built the first digital organs), Walker, Marshall & Ogletree, Makin Organs, Wyvern Organs, Phoenix, and Rodgers who built the first hybrid instruments starting in 1972 and for decades has built more organs with pipes than any other manufacturer. Allen Organ Company, formed in 1939 by Jerome Markowitz, is located in Macungie, Pennsylvania, It is one of the worlds largest builders of electronic and digital organs. ... Rodgers Instruments LLC designs and manufacturers classical organs, using digital technology. ...


Reed organs

An electrically blown reed chord organ.
An electrically blown reed chord organ.

The reed organ was the other main type of organ before the development of electronic organs. It generated its sounds using reeds similar to those of a piano accordion. Smaller, cheaper and more portable than the corresponding pipe instrument, these were widely used in smaller churches and in private homes, but their volume and tonal range was extremely limited, and they were generally limited to one or two manuals, pedalboards being extremely rare. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x618, 96 KB)A toy organ with displacement sensitive keys. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x618, 96 KB)A toy organ with displacement sensitive keys. ... A reed organ is an organ that generates its sounds using free metal reeds, similar to an accordion. ... Piano accordion A piano accordion is a type of accordion having a right-hand keyboard similar to a piano. ...


A development of the reed organ was the chord organ, which provided chord buttons for the left hand, again similar to a piano accordion in concept. A few chord organs were later built using frequency divider technology. A chord organ is an air-powered musical instrument. ...


Hydraulophone

Outdoor pipe organ (hydraulophone), is open to the public to play on at any time of the day or night.

A newly invented instrument, the hydraulophone, is a pipe organ that uses incompressible fluid (water) rather than compressible fluid (air). The organ console resembles a flute, and is played by insertion of fingers into one or more "mouths" of the instrument. This allows for very subtle changes in sound pitch, volume, texture, and timbre, giving rise to an ability to play the organ very expressively. In this way the hydraulophone combines the expressivity of the tin flute (where you can cover up the finger holes halfway, or change the sound in other subtle ways) with the polyphony of the organ. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (2658 × 1671 pixels, file size: 451 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of outdoor public art sculpture I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (2658 × 1671 pixels, file size: 451 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of outdoor public art sculpture I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Waterflute (reedless) hydraulophone with 45 finger-embouchure holes, allowing an intricate but polyphonic embouchure-like control by inserting one finger into each of several of the instruments 45 mouths at the same time. ... Waterflute (reedless) hydraulophone with 45 finger-embouchure holes, allowing an intricate but polyphonic embouchure-like control by inserting one finger into each of several of the instruments 45 mouths at the same time. ... The console of the Wanamaker Organ in the Macys (formerly Lord and Taylor) department store in Philadelphia, featuring six manuals and color-coded stop tabs. ...


Because these organs run on water, they are, in a sense, self-cleaning, and are thus useful as outdoor pipe organs. The largest such pipe organ is the main architectural centerpiece out in front of the Ontario Science Centre, and is open to the public 24 hours a day.


Organ music

Classical music

Main article: organ repertoire

The organ has had an important place in classical music throughout its history. Antonio de Cabezón, Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, and Girolamo Frescobaldi were three of the most important composers and teachers before 1650. Influenced by these composers, the North German school then rose to prominence with notable composers including Dieterich Buxtehude and especially Johann Sebastian Bach, considered by many to have achieved the height of organ composition. During this time, the French Classical school also flourished. The organ repertoire consists of music written for the organ. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Antonio de Cabezón (1510–March 26, 1566) was a Spanish composer and organist of the Renaissance. ... One of the two surviving portraits of Sweelinck, this one dates from 1606. ... Girolamo Frescobaldi. ... The only surviving portrait of Buxtehude, from a 1674 painting by Johannes Voorhout. ... “Bach” redirects here. ...


After Bach, the organ's prominence gradually lost ground to the piano. Felix Mendelssohn, A.P.F. Boëly, and César Franck led a resurgence in the mid-1800s, leading a Romantic movement that would be carried further by Max Reger, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, and others. In the 20th century, composers such as Marcel Dupré and Olivier Messiaen added significant contributions to the organ repertoire. Organ music continues to be composed. Pianoforte redirects here. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Alexandre Pierre François Boëly Alexandre Pierre François Boëly (b. ... César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890), a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France, was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ... Charles-Marie Jean Albert Widor (February 21, 1844 – March 12, 1937) was a French organist, composer and teacher. ... Louis Victor Jules Vierne, (October 8, 1870–June 2, 1937) was a French organist and composer. ... Marcel Dupré Marcel Dupré (May 3, 1886–May 30, 1971), was a French organist, pianist, composer, and pedagogue. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ...


Because the organ has both manuals and pedals, most organ music is notated on three staves. The music played on the manuals is laid out like music for other keyboard instruments on the top two staves, and the music for the pedals is notated on the third stave or sometimes added to the bottom of the second stave to save room. To aid the eye in reading so many staves at once, the bar lines are broken between the lowest two staves. For convenience sake, the larger number of staves often contributes to the music being often published in landscape format rather than the more commonly used portrait format. In musical notation, the staff or stave is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and time. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ...


Soap operas

From their creation on radio in the 1930s to the times of television in the early 1970s, soap operas were perhaps the biggest users of organ music. Day in and day out, the melodramatic serials utilized the instrument in the background of scenes and in their opening and closing theme songs. Some of the best-known soap organists included Charles Paul, John Gart, and Paul Barranco. In the early 1970s, the organ was phased out in favor of more dramatic, full-blown orchestras, which in turn were replaced with more modern pop-style compositions. The first TIME cover devoted to soap operas: Dated January 12, 1976, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives are featured with the headline Soap Operas: Sex and suffering in the afternoon. A soap opera is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction, usually broadcast on television... Charles Paul is an American composer and organist, most known for his musical accompaniment on radio and television. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ...


Popular music

Church-style pipe organs are very rarely used in popular music. In some cases, groups have sought out the sound of the pipe organ, such as Tangerine Dream,and Arrogant Worms which used combined the distinctive sounds of electronic synthesizers and pipe organs when it recorded both music albums and videos in several cathedrals in Europe. Rick Wakeman of British progressive rock group Yes also used pipe organ to excellent effect in a number of the group's albums (including "Close to the Edge" and "Going for the One"). Wakeman has also used pipe organ in his solo pieces such as "Jane Seymour" from The Six Wives Of Henry VIII and "Judas Iscariot" from Criminal Record. Even more recently, he has recorded an entire album of organ pieces – "Rick Wakeman at Lincoln Cathedral". George Duke employed the pipe organ in a flamboyant manner in the piece "50/50" on the Frank Zappa album Over-Nite Sensation. Dennis DeYoung of American rock group Styx used the pipe organ at Chicago's St. James Cathedral on the song "I'm O.K." on the group's 1978 album Pieces of Eight. In 2000 Radiohead Frontman Thom Yorke played the organ on the Kid A album to great effect, most notably in "Motion Picture Soundtrack". More recently, Arcade Fire have used a church organ on the songs "Intervention" and "My Body Is a Cage" on their newest album Neon Bible. Muse have also used a church organ on their album 'Origin of Symmetry' in the form of 'Megalomania', played by their frontman Matt Bellamy. It has been performed live only once on a pipe organ, at the Royal Albert Hall. For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. ... Synth redirects here. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Close to the Edge is the fifth album by British progressive rock band Yes. ... Going for the One is the eighth studio album by British progressive rock band Yes. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... George Duke (born 12 January 1946 in San Rafael, California) is a piano and synthesizer pioneer, making a name for himself with the album Jean-Luc Ponty Experience with the George Duke Trio. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Over-Nite Sensation is an album by Frank Zappa and the Mothers, released in 1973 (see 1973 in music). ... — Dennis DeYoung (born February 18, 1947 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American singer, songwriter, keyboard player and producer best known for being a founding member of the rock band Styx, a tenure which lasted from 1962 to 1999. ... This article is about the genre. ... Styx is an American rock band that has been popular since the 1970s, with such hits as Come Sail Away, Babe, Lady, Suite Madame Blue, Mr. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Pieces of Eight is the eighth album by Styx, released September 1, 1978 (see 1978 in music). ... Radiohead are an English alternative rock band from Oxfordshire. ... Thomas Edward Yorke (born 7 October 1968 in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England) is a Grammy-nominated English musician, best known as the lead singer of the band Radiohead. ... This article is about the Radiohead album. ... Arcade Fire is an indie rock band based in Montreal, Quebec which is based around the husband and wife duo of Win Butler and Régine Chassagne. ... John Kennedy Tooles first novel, The Neon Bible, was written at the age of only 16. ... For other uses, see Muse (disambiguation). ... Origin of Symmetry is English rock band Muses second album, released in the summer of 2001 on Mushroom Records in the UK. Plug In Baby, New Born, Bliss, Feeling Good and Hyper Music were the singles from this album; the latter two were released together as a double-A... Matthew Bellamy (born June 8, 1978) is the lead singer and guitarist of British rock group Muse. ... Albert Hall redirects here. ...


On the other hand, electronic organs and electromechanical organs such as the Hammond organ have an established role in a number of non-"Classical" genres, such as blues, jazz, gospel, and 1960s and 1970s rock music. Electronic and electromechanical organs were originally designed as lower-cost substitutes for pipe organs. Despite this intended role as a sacred music instrument, electronic and electromechanical organs' distinctive tone-often modified with electronic effects such as vibrato, rotating Leslie speakers, and overdrive-became an important part of the sound of popular music. Billy Preston and Iron Butterfly's Doug Ingle have featured organ on popular recordings such as "Let it Be" and "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida", respectively. Well-known rock bands using the Hammond organ include Pink Floyd and Deep Purple. Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ... The Hammond organ is an electric organ which was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company until the 1970s. ... William Everett Preston (September 2, 1946 – June 6, 2006) was an American soul musician from Houston, Texas, raised mostly in Los Angeles, California. ... For other uses, see Iron Butterfly (disambiguation). ... Ingle is best known for his work on the 1968 hit In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida. ... Let It Be is a song written by Paul McCartney (although credited to Lennon/McCartney), and was released by The Beatles as a single in March 1970, and later the same year as the title track of their album, Let It Be. ... In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida, released in 1968, is a 17-minute rock song by Iron Butterfly, released on their album In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida, occupying the entire second side of the album. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic or space rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This article is about the rock band. ...


Recent performers of Popular organ music include William Rowland of Broken Arrow, Oklahoma who is noted for his compositions of "Piano Rags" which he plays on a Wurlitzer theatre organ in Miami, Oklahoma; George Wright (1920-1998) whose "Jealousie" and "Puttin on the Ritz" are some of the finest performances of this genre and Virgil Fox (1912-1980), who bridged both the classical and religious areas of music with pop and so-called Heavy Organ concerts that he played on an electronic organ accompanied by a light show similar to those created in the 1960s for rock concerts. Jimmy Smith was a famous jazz organist of the twentieth century. Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County with an extension into western Wagoner County. ... The historic Coleman theater in Miami, Oklahoma was built by George L. Coleman Sr. ... George Wright can refer to different people: George Wright, a Canadian politician. ... Virgil Fox Virgil Keel Fox (May 3, 1912–October 25, 1980) was a renowned organist, known especially for his flamboyant Heavy Organ concerts of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach for audiences more familiar with rock n roll music, staged complete with light shows. ... A young Jimmy Smith, on the 1958 album House Party Jimmy Smith, nicknamed The Incredible Jimmy Smith, (December 8, 1925 – February 8, 2005) was a jazz musician whose Hammond B-3 electric organ performances helped to popularize this instrument. ...


The American Theatre Organ Society ATOS has been instrumental in programs to preserve the instruments originally installed in theatres for accompaniment of silent movies. In addition to local chapter events they hold an annual convention each year, highlighting performers and instruments in a specific locale. These instruments feature the Tibia pipe family as their foundation stops and regular use of tremulants. They were usually equipped with mechanical percussion accessories, pianos, and other imitative sounds useful in creating movie sound accompaniments such as auto horns, doorbells, and bird whistles. ATOS (pronounced ah-toes) is an acronym for Autonomous Decentralized Transport Operation Control System, a computerized control system used by the East Japan Railway Company (JR) to regulate train traffic on railway lines in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan. ...


Jazz

The electronic organ, especially the Hammond B-3, has occupied a significant role in jazz ever since Jimmy Smith made it popular in the 1950s. It can function as a replacement for both piano and bass in the standard jazz combo. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A young Jimmy Smith, on the 1958 album House Party Jimmy Smith, nicknamed The Incredible Jimmy Smith, (December 8, 1925 – February 8, 2005) was a jazz musician whose Hammond B-3 electric organ performances helped to popularize this instrument. ...


Similar instruments

A harmonium. Operation of the two large pedals at the bottom of the case supplies wind to the reeds.
A harmonium. Operation of the two large pedals at the bottom of the case supplies wind to the reeds.

Image File history File links Footpropelled_organ. ... Image File history File links Footpropelled_organ. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ...

Early instruments

  • the Hydraulos, ancient Greek water-powered instrument (see water organ)
  • the Magrepha, ancient Hebrew organ
  • the portative organ, a small portable medieval instrument
  • the positive organ, a somewhat larger though still portable medieval instrument

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A portative organ (or portatif organ) was a small medieval organ carried by the performer, who manipulated the bellows with one hand and fingered the keys with the other. ... A positive organ (or portable organ) was a medieval chamber organ that could be carried from place to place without being taken to pieces. ...

Hand- or foot-powered instruments

  • the accordion and concertina, in which the bellows is operated by the squeezing action of the instrumentalist;
  • the Harmonium or parlor organ, a reed instrument usually with many stops and two foot-operated bellows which the instrumentalist operates alternately;
  • the American Reed Organ is another foot bellow reed keyboard very similar to the Harmonium but it works on negative pressure rather than positive so it sucks air through the reeds;
  • the melodeon, a reed instrument with an air reservoir and a foot operated bellows, popular in the USA in the mid-19th century;

For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ... Wheatstone English concertina, circa 1920 This article is about the musical instrument. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... The terms melodeon and melodion can refer to any of several related musical instruments of the free reed aerophone family: A type of 19th century reed organ with a foot-operated vacuum bellows, and a piano keyboard. ...

Entertainment instruments

  • the barrel organ, made famous by the organ grinder in its portable form, and relatively invisible in its larger form because it was then often fitted out with keyboards to give the option for an entirely human performance
  • the steam calliope, a pipe organ operated on steam rather than air;
  • the fairground organ, a pipe organ which uses mechanical means instead of a keyboard to play a prepared song.
  • various sorts of novelty instruments operating on the same principles

A barrel organ player in Vienna, Austria. ... An Austrian organ grinder (locally called Werklmann) with his paper-roll driven Berlin style barrel organ in Vienna The organ grinder was a musical novelty street performer of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, and refers to the operator of a street organ. ... Circus calliope, lithograph by Gibson & Co. ... Fairground organ A fairground organ is a pipe organ which is not played from a keyboard, but rather by mechanical means such as music roll or book music, and designed originally to be used on a fairground or in the United States on a carousel or in a dance-hall...

Mouth-played instruments

A harmonica is a free reed wind instrument. ... A harmonica is a free reed musical wind instrument (also known, among other things, as a mouth organ, french harp, simply harp, or Mississippi saxophone), having multiple, variably-tuned brass or bronze reeds, each secured at one end over an airway slot of like dimension into which it can freely... Pan pipes (also known as the panflute or the syrinx or quills) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the stopped pipe, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ...

See also

Hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water (hydor) into air pressure to drive the pipes. ... A Street organ is a mechanical organ designed to play in the street. ... An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. ... The organ repertoire consists of music written for the organ. ... Organ Recital A discussion carried on by senior citizens, at a social gathering, covering the various conditions of ones organs. ... The following is a list of organ composers. ... This is a list of famous and notable organists. ... Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... In the field of acoustics, a tone is created by the periodic vibrations of air. ... In the field of acoustics, a tone is created by the periodic vibrations of air applied to a resonator. ... This is a list of notable pipe organ and electronic organ builders. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Wanamaker Organ is built from the 2nd to 7th floors.
  2. ^ The King of Instruments - National Catholic Register
  3. ^ http://www.hansvankoolwijk.nl

A view of the Grand Court in Macys department store in Philadelphia. ... The National Catholic Register is the oldest national Roman Catholic newspaper in the United States. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Organs (music)
 
  • Organ music sample
    Improvisation in e (Münsterorgel Dinkelsbühl)
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Streaming media is just-in-time delivery of multimedia information. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... Louis Victor Jules Vierne, (October 8, 1870–June 2, 1937) was a French organist and composer. ... Charles-Marie Jean Albert Widor (February 21, 1844 – March 12, 1937) was a French organist, composer and teacher. ...

References

Michael Markovits, Die Orgel im Altertum (Leiden: Brill, 2003), Pp. xxiii, 783.



  Results from FactBites:
 
French Organ Music Seminar and British Organ Music Seminar home page www.bfoms.com (1113 words)
Since 1988 the French Organ Music Seminar has featured study tours to Paris and other locations where participants hear and play the magnificent instruments and receive instruction in the form of master classes, lectures and recitals from leading organists.
Joseph is a former participant in the French Organ Music Seminar, and currently serves as the Director of Music at Lamington Presbyterian Church in Bedminster, NJ.
Samuel is a featured organ recitalist in the AGO Regional Convention in Lincoln, Nebraska in June.
Organ (music) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2206 words)
The organ is one of the oldest musical instruments in the Western musical tradition, with a rich history connected with Christian liturgy and civic ceremony.
The organ repertoire encompasses a wide variety of styles and eras; the most famous composer of music for the organ is Johann Sebastian Bach.
The introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the seventh century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m