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Encyclopedia > Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon
Established 1978
Governing body National Park Service
The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker.
The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker.

Pioneers traveled across the Oregon trail, one of the main overland migration routes on the North American continent, in wagons in order to settle new parts of the United States of America during the 19th century.[1] The Oregon Trail helped the United States implement its cultural goal of Manifest Destiny, that is, to expand the nation from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The five to six month journey spanned over half the continent as the wagon trail proceeded 2,170 miles (3,500 kilometers) west through territories and land later to become six U.S. states (Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon). Between 1841 and 1869, the Oregon Trail was used by settlers migrating to the Pacific Northwest of what is now the United States. Once the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, the use of this trail by long distance travelers diminished as the railroad slowly replaced it. Oregon Trail may refer to: The Oregon Trail, the historic migration route across the western United States. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The route of the Oregon Trail is shown on a map of the western United States from Saint Joseph, Missouri (on the eastern end) to Oregon City, Oregon (on the western end). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 281 pixelsFull resolution (1595 × 561 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Oregon Trail. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 281 pixelsFull resolution (1595 × 561 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Oregon Trail. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ...

Contents

History

Astorians

The first land route across what is now the United States that was well-mapped was that taken by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1805. They believed they had found a practical route to the west coast. However, the pass through the Rocky Mountains they took, Lolo Pass, turned out to be too difficult for wagons to pass. In 1810, John Jacob Astor outfitted an expedition (known popularly as the Astor Expedition or Astorians) to find an overland supply route for establishing a fur trading post at the mouth of the Columbia River at Fort Astoria. Most of Astor's partners and all of his staff were former employees of the Northwest Company, known as Nor'Westers. Lewis and Clark redirects here. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Lolo Pass (elevation 5233 ft/1595 m) is a mountain pass in the northern Rocky Mountains located on the border between the U.S. states of Montana and Idaho approximately 25 mi (40 km) WSW of Missoula, Montana. ... John Jacob Astor, detail of an oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1794 John Jacob (originally either Johann Jakob or Johann Jacob) Astor (July 17, 1763 - March 29, 1848) was the first of the Astor family dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, the creator of the first Trust... The Astor Expedition in 1810-1812 was the first overland expedition from St. ... The fur trade was a huge part in the early economic development of North America. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... Fort Astoria was the Pacific Fur Companys primary fur trading post in the Northwest, and was the first permanent U.S. settlement on the Pacific coast. ... The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in the city of Montreal in British North America. ...


Fearing attack by Blackfeet, the expedition veered south of the Lewis and Clark route in what is now South Dakota and in the process passed through what is now Wyoming and then down the Snake River to the Columbia River. Sahpo Muxika, also known as Crowfoot, former Head Chief of the Blackfeet Nation. ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...


Members of the party, including Robert Stuart, one of the Nor'wester partners, returned back east after the American Fur Company staff there sold the fort to British Northwest Company staff, who took over the outpost in the War of 1812 via the Snake River. The party stumbled upon South Pass: a wide, low pass through the Rockies in Wyoming. The party continued via the Platte River. This turned out to be a practical wagon route, and Stuart's journals were a meticulous account of it.[2] Robert Stuart (1785-1848) was a partner of John Jacob Astor and an American explorer who blazed the Oregon Trail, though his achievement was not recognized until much later. ... The American Fur Company was founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808. ... The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in the city of Montreal in British North America. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ...


Fort Astoria was returned to United States control at the end of the war. However, the British Hudson's Bay Company came to control the fur trade in the region, especially after its merger with the North West Company in 1821. Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... For the grocery chain, see The North West Company The North West Company a fur trading business headquartered in the city of Montreal in British North America from 1779 to 1821. ...


Great American Desert

Westward expansion did not begin immediately, however. Reports from expeditions in 1806 by Lieutenant Zebulon Pike and in 1819 by Major Stephen Long described the Great Plains as "unfit for human habitation" and "The Great American Desert". These descriptions were mainly based on the relative lack of timber and surface water. The images of sandy wastelands conjured up by terms like "desert" were tempered by the many reports of vast herds of bison. It was not until later that the Ogallala Aquifer would be discovered and used for irrigation, and railroads would allow farm products to be transported to distant markets and lumber imported. In the meantime, the Great Plains remained unattractive for general settlement, especially when compared to the fertile lands, big rivers, and seaports of Oregon. Zebulon Pike Jr. ... Stephen Harriman Long (1784 - 1864) was a U.S. army officer and explorer. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The Great American Desert was an inaccurate term that described the area west of the Missouri River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the 19th century. ... The Ogallala aquifer underlies portions of eight states. ...


The route of the Oregon Trail began to be scouted out as early as 1823 by fur traders and explorers. The trail began to be regularly used by fur traders, missionaries, and military expeditions during the 1830s. At the same time, small groups of individuals and the occasional family attempted to follow the trail, and some succeeded in arriving at Fort Vancouver in Washington. The fur trade was a huge part in the early economic development of North America. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Elm Grove Expedition

On May 16, 1842 the first organized wagon train on the Oregon Trail set out from Elm Grove, Missouri, with more than 100 pioneers (members of the party later disagreed over the size of the party, one stating 160 adults and children were in the party, while another counted only 105). The party was led by Elijah White, appointed Indian Sub-Agent to Oregon, the first U.S. official in the region (never confirmed by Congress). Despite company policy to discourage U.S. emigration, John McLoughlin, Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, offered the American settlers food and farming equipment on credit, being unwilling to watch able-bodied people starve.[citations needed] is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Wagon Train was a television series on NBC from 1957 to 1962 and on ABC from 1962 to 1965. ... Elm Grove, Missouri is cited in historical accounts as the site of the start of the first Oregon Trail expedition. ... Dr. Elijah White (1806-1879) was a missionary and agent for the United States government in Oregon Country during the mid 1800s. ... John McLoughlin (NSHC statue) Dr. John McLoughlin (pronounced mc-lock-lin, October 19, 1784 – September 3, 1857), the Father of Oregon, was a fur trader and early settler in the Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...


Free land

The biggest driving force for settlement was the offer of free land.


In 1843 the settlers of the Willamette Valley by a vote of 52 to 50 drafted a constitution that organized the land claim process in the state. Married couples were allowed to claim up to 640 acres (a "section" which is a square mile, or 260 hectares) at no cost and singles could claim 320 acres (130 ha).[1] The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. ...


In 1848, the United States formally declared what was left of the Oregon Country a U.S. territory, after it effectively partitioned it in 1846. The Donation Land Act of 1850 superseded the earlier laws, but it did recognize the earlier claims. Settlers after 1850 could be granted half a section (320 acres) if married and a quarter section if single. A four-year residence and cultivation was required. In 1854 the land was no longer free (although still cheap—initially $1.25/acre, or $0.51/ha). Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850, sometimes known just as the Donation Land Act, was a historic law passed by the Congress of the United States intended to promote homestead settlement in the Oregon Territory in the Pacific Northwest (comprising the present-day states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho). ...


Opening of the trail

In what was dubbed "The Great Migration of 1843" or the "Wagon Train of 1843", [2] [3] an estimated 1000 immigrants, led by Marcus Whitman, arrived in the Willamette Valley. Hundreds of thousands more followed, especially after gold was discovered in California in 1848. The trail was still in use during the Civil War, but traffic declined after 1869 when the transcontinental railroad was completed. The trail continued to be used into the 1890s, and modern highways eventually paralleled large portions of the trail, including U.S. Highway 26 which follows the trail for much of its length. Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802–November 29, 1847) was an American physician and missionary in the Oregon Country. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... A Transcontinental Railroad is a railway that crosses a continent typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... United States Highway 26 is an east-west United States highway. ...


Other migration paths for early settlers prior to the establishment of the transcontinental railroads involved taking passage on a ship rounding the Cape Horn of South America or to the Isthmus (now Panama) between North and South America. There, an arduous mule trek through hazardous swamps and rain forests awaited the traveler. A ship was then typically taken to San Francisco, California. Cape Horn from the South. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... San Francisco redirects here. ...


Routes

The trail is marked by numerous cutoffs and shortcuts from Missouri to Oregon. The basic route follows river valleys. Starting initially in Independence/Kansas City, the trail followed the Santa Fe Trail south of the Wakarusa River. After crossing The Hill at Lawrence, Kansas, it crossed the Kansas River near Topeka, Kansas, and angled to Nebraska paralleling the Little Blue River until reaching the south side of the Platte River. It followed the Platte, North Platte, and Sweetwater Rivers to South Pass in the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. From South Pass the trail approximately parallels the Snake River to the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon. From there, several branches and route variations over time led to the Willamette Valley, including boats down the Columbia River, the Santiam Wagon Road, the Applegate Trail and—the most popular route—the Barlow Road. Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Trail logo The Santa Fe Trail was an historic 19th century transportation route across southwestern North America connecting Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. ... The Wakarusa River is a tributary of the Kansas River, approximately 50 mi (80 km) long, in eastern Kansas in the United States. ... Mount Oread is a geographical feature located near Lawrence, Kansas, to the southwest of Lawrence, at approximately 38°5747. ... Lawrence is a river city in and the seat of Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... The Kansas River near De Soto Kaw River (map) looking southward from middle of Turner Diagonal bridge. ... This article is about the state capital of Kansas. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... For the Jackson County, Missouri river see: Little Blue River (Missouri) The Little Blue River is 450-mile long river in southern Nebraska and northern Kansas that was used by Pony Express horseback riders. ... The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... Location in Oregon Coordinates: County Wasco County Incorporated 1857 Government  - Mayor Robb Van Cleave Area  - City 14. ... The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. ... The Santiam Wagon Road was an important freight route in the U.S. state of Oregon between the Willamette Valley and Central Oregon regions from 1965 to the 1930s. ... The Applegate Trail was a north-south wilderness trail through Oregon Territory. ... The Barlow Road was the last overland segment of the Oregon Trail before reaching the Willamette Valley. ...


While the first few parties organized and departed from Elm Grove, the Oregon Trail's generally designated starting point was Independence or Westport on the Missouri River. Several towns along the Missouri River had feeder trails and make claims to being the starting point including Weston, Missouri; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; Atchison, Kansas; and St. Joseph, Missouri. Kansas City Pioneer Square monument in Westport features Pony Express founder Alexander Majors, Westport/Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy and Mountainman Jim Bridger who owned Chouteaus Store next to Kellys Kellys at 500 Westport Road or neighboring Chouteaus Store at 504 Westport are considered to... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Weston is a city in Platte County, Missouri, United States. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... Two views of a pedestrian mall on Commercial Street in downtown Atchison Commercial Street in downtown Atchison A statue of Amelia Earhart on Commercial Street in downtown Atchison Atchison is a city situated along the Missouri River in the eastern part of Atchison County, located in northeast Kansas, in the... Saint Joseph (also known as St. ...


The Oregon Trail's termination point was Oregon City, at the time the proposed capital of the Oregon Territory. However, many settlers branched off or stopped short of this goal and settled at convenient or promising locations along the trail. Commerce with pioneers going further west greatly assisted these early settlements in getting established and launched local micro-economies critical to these settlements' prosperity. Nickname: End of the Oregon Trail, OC Motto: Urbs civitatis nostrae prima et mater Location in Oregon Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Clackamas Founded 1829 Incorporated 1844 Government  - Mayor Alice Norris Area  - City  8. ... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ...


At many places along the trail, alternate routes called "cutoffs" were established either to shorten the trail or to get around difficult terrain. The Lander and Sublette cutoffs provided shorter routes through the mountains than the main route, bypassing Fort Bridger. In later years, the Salt Lake cutoff provided a route to Salt Lake City. Fort Bridger Fort Bridger was a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 near present-day Evanston, Wyoming in the western United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ...


Numerous other trails followed the Oregon Trail for part of its length. These include the Mormon Trail from Illinois to Utah, and the California Trail to the gold fields of California. The Mormon Trail or Mormon Pioneer Trail is the 1,300 mile route that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846-1857. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Main route of California Trail (thick red line), including Applegate-Lassen and Beckwourth variations (thinner red lines) The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ...


Remnants of the trail in Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, and Wyoming, have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ...


Landmarks

Many rock formations became famous landmarks that the Oregon Trail pioneers used to navigate as well as leave messages for pioneers following behind them. The first landmarks that the pioneers encountered were in western Nebraska, such as Courthouse and Jail Rocks, Chimney Rock, and Scotts Bluff. In Wyoming, names of pioneers can be seen carved into a landmark bluff called Register Cliff, and in Independence Rock. One Wyoming landmark along the trail, Ayres Natural Bridge, is now a state park of the same name. Courthouse (right) and Jail (left) Rocks Courthouse and Jail Rocks are two of the most famous landmarks along the Oregon Trail. ... Categories: Rock formations in the United States | U.S. National Historic Sites | Nebraska landmarks | Morrill County, Nebraska | Oregon Trail | US geography stubs ... Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska includes an important 19th century landmark on the Oregon Trail. ... Independence Rock Independence Rock is a large granite rock, approximately 120 feet (36 m) high, in southwestern Natrona County, Wyoming, along Wyoming Highway 220. ... Ayres Natural Bridge Ayres Natural Bridge State Park is a state park of Wyoming in the United States. ...


Travel equipment

The Oregon Trail was too long and arduous for the standard Conestoga wagons used in the Eastern United States at that time for most freight transport. These big wagons had a reputation for killing their oxen teams approximately two thirds along the trail and leaving their unfortunate owners stranded in desolate, isolated territory. The only solution was to abandon all belongings and traipse onward with the supplies and tools that could be carried or dragged. In one case in 1846 on the California Trail, the Donner Party, en route to California, was stranded in the Sierra Nevada in November and three members are suggested to have resorted to cannibalism to survive. A covered wagon replica at the High Desert Museum The Conestoga wagon is a heavy, broad-wheeled covered freight carrier used extensively during the United States Westward Expansion in the late 1700s and 1800s. ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... Main route of California Trail (thick red line), including Applegate-Lassen and Beckwourth variations (thinner red lines) The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ... The Donner Party Memorial at Donner Memorial State Park. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... Cannibal redirects here. ...


This led to the rapid development of the prairie schooners. The wagon was approximately half the size of the big Conestogas but was also manufactured in quantity. It was designed for the Oregon Trail's conditions and was a marvel of engineering in its time. The covers of the wagons were treated with linseed oil to keep out the rain. However, the covers eventually leaked anyway.[citation needed] A covered wagon replica at the High Desert Museum The Conestoga wagon is a heavy, broad-wheeled covered freight carrier used extensively during the United States Westward Expansion in the late 1700s and 1800s. ...


The recommended amount of food to take for an adult was 150 pounds (70 kg) of flour, 20 pounds (9 kg) of corn meal, 50 pounds (25 kg) of bacon, 40 pounds (20 kg) of sugar, 10 pounds (5 kg) of coffee, 15 pounds (7 kg) of dried fruit, 5 pounds (2 kg) of salt, half a pound (0.25 kg) of saleratus (baking soda), 2 pounds (1 kg) of tea, 5 pounds (2 kg) of rice, and 15 pounds (7 kg) of beans.[3] For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Cornmeal is dried, ground maize corn. ... For other uses, see Bacon (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a dehydrator. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is on the plant. ...


Statistics

Immigration to Oregon Territory increased vastly between 1840 and 1852, the year of greatest migration. According to Oregon Trail Statistics by William E. Hill, the figures rocketed from 13 in 1840 to 1,475 four years later, nearly doubled the following year, and hit 4,000 in 1847. Emigration declined considerably prior to 1850, when 6,000 people trekked to Oregon. In 1851 the number dropped again (3,600) but sustained a huge comeback with 10,000 in 1852. (That same year some 60,000 people emigrated to Utah and California, a stand-alone record.) Another 13,500 people moved to Oregon in 1853-54, with 5,000 more making the trip as of 1859, the year of statehood.


In the 20 years from 1840-1859 some 52,000 emigrants moved to Oregon, but nearly five times that number opted for California or Utah.


Though the numbers appear significant—and they were, especially in context of the times—vastly more people chose to remain at home in the 31 states. Part of the explanation is attributed to scout Kit Carson who reputedly said, "The cowards never started and the weak died on the way." According to some sources, one tenth of the emigrants perished on the way west. [4] Kit Carson Christopher Houston Kit Carson (December 24, 1809 – May 23, 1868) was an American frontiersman. ...


Legacy

The western expansion and the Oregon Trail in particular inspired many songs that told of the settlers' experiences. "Uncle Sam's Farm," encouraged east-coast dwellers to "Come right away. Our lands they are broad enough, so don't be alarmed. Uncle Sam is rich enough to give us all a farm." In "Western Country," the singer exhorts that "if I had no horse at all, I'd still be a hauling, far across those Rocky Mountains, goin' away to Oregon."


When purchasing a new vehicle from 1995-1998, Oregonians could purchase special commemorative Oregon Trail license plates for their cars for an added fee. [4]


The story of the Oregon Trail inspired a popular educational computer game of the same name, The Oregon Trail. The Oregon Trail is an educational computer game developed by Don Rawitsch, Bill Heinemann and Paul Dillenberger in 1971 and produced by MECC in 1974. ...


See also

map of Kansas Territory Kansas Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854 to January 29, 1861, when Kansas became the 34th U.S. state admitted to the Union. ... Nebraska Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States from May 30, 1854 until March 1, 1867 when Nebraska became the 37th U.S. state. ... Francis Parkman Francis Parkman (September 16, 1823 – November 8, 1893) was born in Boston, Massachusetts and died in Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts. ... Landmarks of the Nebraska Territory were important to settlers on the Oregon, California and Mormon trails. ...

References

  1. ^ The Oregon Trail
  2. ^ Philip Ashton Rollins, ed., The Discovery of the Oregon Trail: Robert Stuart's Narratives of His Overland Trip Eastward from Astoria in 1812-13, University of Nebraska, 1995, ISBN 0-803-29234-1
  3. ^ http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/outfit.html
  4. ^ Lloyd W. Coffman, 1993, Blazing A Wagon Trail To Oregon

Further reading

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

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American West - The Oregon Trail (1696 words)
Today the 2,170 mile Oregon Trail still evokes an instant image, a ready recollection of the settlement of this continent, of the differences between American Indians and white settlers, and of new horizons.
The Oregon National Historic Trail, designated by Congress in 1978, is administrated by the National Park Service in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, the Forest Service, state and local governmental units, citizen organizations, and numerous private individuals whose property the trail crosses.
Oregon Trail Prepared by students in Clackamas County.
Oregon Trail - MSN Encarta (414 words)
The trail continued along the North Platte and Sweetwater rivers to South Pass in the Wind River Range of the Rocky Mountains.
As early as 1742, part of the trail in Wyoming had been blazed by the French Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Vérendrye; the Lewis and Clark Expedition, between 1804 and 1806, made more of it known.
At first, the termination point of the Oregon Trail was Oregon City, Oregon; later, settlers continued south to the fertile and valuable land in the Willamette Valley.
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