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Encyclopedia > Orders of magnitude (numbers)
Orders of magnitude
area
angular velocity
currency
data
density
energy
frequency
length
mass
numbers
power
pressure
specific heat capacity
speed
temperature
time
volume
Conversion of units
physical unit
SI
SI base unit
SI derived unit
SI prefix
Planck units

This list compares various sizes of positive numbers, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities. An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Categories: Orders of magnitude (area) ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various angular velocity levels between 1Ã—10âˆ’7 radÂ·sâˆ’1 and 1Ã—107 radÂ·sâˆ’1. ... This is a list of orders of magnitude for data (or information), measured in bits. ... Conversion Calculator for Units of Density PICKLES Category: ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various frequencies. ... Categories: | ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10âˆ’36 kg and 1053 kg. ... This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ... 1 At earth mean sea level. ... This is a table of specific heat capacities by magnitude. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between 1. ... Circumstances where water naturally occurs in liquid form are shown in light grey. ... The pages linked in the right-hand column contain lists of times that are of the same order of magnitude (power of ten). ... The pages linked in the right-hand column contain lists of volumes that are of the same order of magnitude (power of ten). ... Conversion of units refers to conversion factors between different units of measurement for the same quantity. ... The definition, agreement and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The SI system of units defines seven SI base units: physical units defined by an operational definition. ... SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... In physics, Planck units are physical units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of the five universal physical constants shown in the table below in such a manner that all of these physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of these units. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless number (or more precisely, a number with the dimensions of 1) is a pure number without any physical units. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ...

• Computing: The number 5×10-324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value.
• Computing: The number 1.4×10-45 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE floating-point value.

The IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is the most widely-used standard for floating-point computation, and is followed by many CPU and FPU implementations. ... The IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is the most widely-used standard for floating-point computation, and is followed by many CPU and FPU implementations. ...

## 10-36

(0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001)

## 10-33

(0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001)

## 10-30

(0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001)

## 10-27

(0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001), short scale: One octillionth, long scale: One quadrilliardth)

ISO: xonto- (x)

## 10-24

(0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001), short scale: One septillionth long scale: One quadrillionth) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ...

ISO: yocto- (y) Yocto (symbol y) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-24. ...

## 10-21

(0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001, short scale: One sextillionth, long scale: One trilliardth) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ...

ISO: zepto- (z) Zepto (symbol z) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-21. ...

## 10-18

(0.000 000 000 000 000 001, short scale: One quintillionth, long scale: One trillionth) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ...

ISO: atto- (a) Atto- (symbol a) is an SI prefix to a unit and means that it is 10-18 times this unit. ...

## 10-15

(0.000 000 000 000 001, short scale: One quadrillionth, long scale: One billiardth) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ...

ISO: femto- (f) Femto is a prefix (see all prefixes) to a unit and means that it is 10-15 times this unit, or, one quindecillionth (European) or one quadrillionth (American). ...

## 10-12

(0.000 000 000 001, short scale: One trillionth, long scale: One billionth) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ...

ISO: pico- (p) For other meanings of Pico see Pico (disambiguation) Pico (symbol p) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-12. ...

• Mathematics: Roughly the chances of getting heads 40 times in a row on a fair coin.

## 10-9

(0.000 000 001; short scale: one billionth; long scale: one milliardth) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ...

• Mathematics - Lottery: The odds of winning the Grand Prize (matching all 6 numbers) in the US Powerball Multistate Lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules as of 2006, are 146,107,962 to 1 against, for a probability of 7×10-9.
• Mathematics - Lottery: The odds of winning the Jackpot (matching the 6 main numbers) in the UK National Lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules as of 2003, are 13,983,816 to 1 against, for a probability of 7×10-8.

Lottery (U.S.) Here is a breakdown of lotteries in the United States by each state. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ...

## 10-6

(0.000 001; one millionth) One millionth is equal to 0. ...

ISO: micro- (μ) Micro is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10&#8722;6 (one millionth). ...

• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a royal flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.5 × 10-6
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a straight flush (other than a royal flush) in poker are 72,192 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10-5
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10-4

For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... A straight flush is a poker hand such as Q&#9824; J&#9824; 10&#9824; 9&#9824; 8&#9824;, which contains five cards in sequence, all of the same suit. ... Four of a kind is a poker hand such as 9&#9827; 9&#9824; 9&#9830; 9&#9829; J&#9829;, which contains four cards of one rank, and an unmatched card. ...

## 10-3

(0.001; one thousandth) This list compares various sizes of positive numbers, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities. ...

ISO: milli- (m) Milli (symbol m) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-3, or 1/1,000. ...

• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10-3
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.9 × 10-3
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10-3
• Physics: α = 0.007 297 352 533(27), the fine-structure constant

Two examples of a full house: The three kings on the right beats the three queens on the left A full house is a poker hand such as 3â™£ 3â™  3â™¦ 6â™£ 6â™¥, which contains three matching cards of one rank, plus two matching cards of another rank. ... A flush is a poker hand such as Qâ™£ 10â™£ 7â™£ 6â™£ 4â™£, which contains five cards of the same suit, not in rank sequence. ... A straight is a poker hand such as Q&#9827; J&#9824; 10&#9824; 9&#9829; 8&#9829;, which contains five cards of sequential rank, of varying suits. ... The fine-structure constant or Sommerfeld fine-structure constant, usually denoted , is the fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. ...

## 10-2

(0.01; one hundredth) In mathematics or arithmetic, a hundredth is one part of a unit or one divided equally into one hundred parts. ...

ISO: centi- (c) Centi (symbol c) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-2, or 1/100. ...

• BioMed - HIV: About 1.2% of all 15–49 year-old humans were infected with HIV at the end of 2001[citation needed]
• Mathematics - Lottery: The odds of winning any prize in the UK National Lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules as of 2003, are 54 to 1 against, for a probability of about 0.018 (1.8%)
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt a three of a kind in poker are 46 to 1 against, for a probability of 0.021 (2.1%)
• Mathematics - Lottery: The odds of winning any prize in the US Powerball Multistate Lottery, with a single ticket, under the rules as of 2006, are 36.61 to 1 against, for a probability of 0.027 (2.7%)
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt two pair in poker are 20 to 1 against, for a probability of 0.048 (4.8%).

Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Three of a kind is a poker hand such as 2â™¦ 2â™  2â™¥ Kâ™  6â™ , which contains three cards of the same rank, plus two unmatched cards. ... Lottery (U.S.) Here is a breakdown of lotteries in the United States by each state. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A poker hand such as Jâ™¦ Jâ™£ 4â™£ 4â™  9â™ , which contains two cards of the same rank, plus two cards of another rank (that match each other but not the first pair), plus one unmatched card, is called two pair. ...

## 10-1

(0.1; one tenth) In mathematics, arithmetic or plain old numbers a tenth is one part of a unit or one divided equally into ten parts. ...

ISO: deci- (d) Deci- is a Latin numerical prefix meaning 10. ...

• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against (2.37 to 1), for a probability of 0.42 (42%).
• Mathematics - Poker: The odds of being dealt no pair in poker are nearly 1 to 2, for a probability of about 0.5 (50%)

One pair is a poker hand such as 4&#9829; 4&#9824; K&#9824; 10&#9830; 5&#9824;, which contains two cards of the same rank, plus three unmatched cards. ... A no pair hand is a poker hand such as K&#9829; J&#9827; 8&#9827; 7&#9830; 3&#9824;, in which no two cards have the same rank, the five cards are not in sequence, and the five cards are not all the same suit. ...

## 101

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

## 102

(100; hundred) 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ...

ISO: hecto- (h) Hecto (symbol h) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 102 (100). ...

Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

## 103

(1 000; thousand) Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

ISO: kilo- (k) Kilo (symbol: k) is a prefix in the SI system denoting 103 or 1,000. ...

• Language: 2000–3000 letters on a typical typed page of text
• BioMed: the DNA of the simplest viruses has some 5000 base pairs.
• Language: There are about 6500 mutually unintelligible languages and dialects.

The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...

## 104

(10 000; ten thousand) Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

• BioMed: Each neuron in the human brain is estimated to connect to 10,000 others
• Language: There are 20,000–40,000 distinct Chinese characters, depending on how you count them
• BioMed: Each human being is estimated to have 30,000 to 40,000 genes
• Records: As of July 2004, the largest number of decimal places of π that have been recited from memory - > 42000
• Mathematics: 65537 is the largest known Fermat prime

This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quá»‘c ngá»¯: HÃ¡n tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ... In mathematics, a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form where n is a nonnegative integer. ...

## 105

(100 000; one hundred thousand) One hundred thousand (100000) is the natural number following 99999 and preceding 100001. ...

For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... The New Oxford Dictionary of English (often abbreviated to NODE) is an English language dictionary first published in 1998 by the Oxford University Press. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... One possible solution The eight queens puzzle is the problem of putting eight chess queens on an 8Ã—8 chessboard such that none of them is able to capture any other using the standard chess queens moves. ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... freedb is a database of compact disc track listings where all the content is under the GNU General Public License. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

## 106

(1 000 000; 1 million) Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

ISO: mega- (M) Mega (symbol M) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ...

• Geography/Computing - Geographic places: The NIMA GEOnet Names Server contains approximately 3.88 million named geographical features outside the United States, with 5.34 million names. The USGS Geographic Names Information System claims to have almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features within the United States.
• BioMed - Species: The World Resources Institute claims that approximately 1.4 million species have been named, out of an unknown number of total species (estimates range between 2 and 100 million species).
• Mathematics - Chess: There are 2 279 184 solutions to n-Queens Problem for n = 15
• Mathematics - Playing cards: There are 2 598 960 different 5-card poker hands that can be dealt from a standard 52-card deck.
• Info - Web sites: as of July 2003, the Netcraft web survey estimates that there are 42 million distinct web sites
• Info - Books: The British Library claims that it holds over 150 million items. The Library of Congress claims that it holds approximately 119 million items. See The Gutenberg Galaxy
• Mathematics: 14,772,512 solutions to n-Queens Problem for n = 16
• Mathematics: 95,815,104 solutions to n-Queens Problem for n = 17
• Mathematics: 215,000,000 - The approximate number of mathematical constants collected on the Plouffe's Inverter as of August 2005 
• Mathematics: 275,305,224 is the number of 5x5 normal magic squares, not counting rotations and reflections. This result was found in 1973 by Richard Schroeppel. It is the third 91768409-gonal number.
• Mathematics: 358,833,097 stellations of the rhombic triacontahedron
• Demographics: approx. 402,000,000 native speakers of English
• Astronomy - Cataloged stars: The Guide Star Catalog II has entries on 998,402,801 distinct astronomical objects

The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agencys (NGA) and the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) database of foreign geographic feature names. ... GNIS (The Geographic Names Information System) contains name and locative information about almost two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its Territories. ... World Resources Institute (WRI) is an environmental think tank based in Washington, D.C. It was established by James Gustave (Gus) Speth. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... One possible solution The eight queens puzzle is the problem of putting eight chess queens on an 8Ã—8 chessboard such that none of them is able to capture any other using the standard chess queens moves. ... A hand in poker can mean any of the following: A synonym for round, a unit of play consisting of a deal, betting, and possibly a showdown. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (University of Toronto Press) is a 1962 book by Marshall McLuhan. ... One possible solution The eight queens puzzle is the problem of putting eight chess queens on an 8Ã—8 chessboard such that none of them is able to capture any other using the standard chess queens moves. ... One possible solution The eight queens puzzle is the problem of putting eight chess queens on an 8Ã—8 chessboard such that none of them is able to capture any other using the standard chess queens moves. ... In mathematics and the mathematical sciences, a constant is a fixed, but possibly unspecified, value. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In recreational mathematics, a magic square of order n is an arrangement of nÂ² numbers, usually distinct integers, in a square, such that the n numbers in all rows, all columns, and both diagonals sum to the same constant. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Richard Schroeppel is an American mathematician who discovered the number of 5x5 magic squares. ... In mathematics, a polygonal number is a number that can be arranged as a regular polygon. ... Stellation is a process of constructing new polygons (in two dimensions), new polyhedra in three dimensions, or in general new polytopes in n dimensions. ... The Rhombic triacontahedron is a convex polyhedron with 30 rhombic faces. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Guide Star Catalog II has entries on 998,402,801 distinct astronomical objects. ...

## 109

(1 000 000 000; short scale: 1 billion; long scale: 1 thousand million (old term: milliard) The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term Ã©chelle courte. ... Milliard is a French-derived word meaning the number 1,000,000,000 (109; one thousand million; SI prefix giga). ...

ISO: giga- (G) Look up giga- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

• Demographics - India: 1,096,000,000 - approximate population of India in 2007
• Demographics - China: 1,311,000,000 - approximate population of the People's Republic of China in 2007.
• Computing - Computational limit of a 32-bit CPU: 2 147 483 647 is equal to 231−1, and as such is the largest number which can fit into a signed (two's complement) 32-bit integer on a computer, thus marking the upper computational limit of a 32-bit CPU such as Intel's Pentium-class computer chips.
• Mathematics: 2,147,483,647 is a Mersenne prime.
• BioMed - base pairs in the genome: approximately 3×109 base pairs in the human genome
• Computing - IPv4: 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique IP addresses.
• Computing: 4,294,967,296 - the number of bytes in 4 gibibytes; in computation, the 32-bit computers can directly access 232 pieces of address space, this leads directly to the 4 gigabyte limit on main memory.
• Mathematics: 4,294,967,297 is a Fermat number and semiprime. It is the smallest number of the form $2^{2^n}+1$ which is not a prime number.
• Demographics - world population: 6,587,890,000 - Estimated total mid-year population for the world in 2007 (April 10).
• Computing - web pages: approximately 8×109 web pages indexed by Google as of 2004
• Astronomy - Observable galaxies: as of 2003 there are between 1×1010 and 8×1010 galaxies in the observable Universe
• BioMed - bacteria in the human body: there are roughly 1010 bacteria in the human oral cavity 
• Mathematics: 27,704,267,971 and 27,704,267,977 are sexy primes.
• BioMed - Neurons in the brain: approximately 1011 neurons in the human brain
• Astronomy - stars in our galaxy: approximately 4×1011 stars in the Milky Way galaxy
• Mathematics: 258,584,046,368 is the number of domino tilings of a 10×10 checkerboard.

## 1012

(1 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 trillion; long scale: 1 billion) One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Trillion may mean either of the two numbers (see long and short scales for more detail): 1,000,000,000,000 (one million million; ) - increasingly common meaning in English language usage. ... Look up billion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

ISO: tera- (T) Tera (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ...

• BioMed - Bacteria on the human body: the surface of the human body houses roughly 1012 bacteria 
• Mathematics: 1.1×1012 - The approximate number of known non-trivial zeros of Riemann zeta function as of August 2005 
• Mathematics - Known digits of pi: As of 2002, the number of known digits of pi was 1 241 100 000 000
• BioMed - Cells in the human body: the human body consists of roughly 1014 cells
• Computing - MAC-48: 281,474,976,710,656 (248) possible unique physical addresses.
• Mathematics: 953,467,954,114,363 is the largest known Motzkin prime.
• Computing - magnetic storage: 1TB largest 3.5inch hard disk as of 2007.

Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... In mathematics, the Riemann zeta function, named after German mathematician Bernhard Riemann, is a function of significant importance in number theory, because of its relation to the distribution of prime numbers. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... In computer networking a Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier attached to most network adapters (NICs). ... In computer science, a physical address is the address presented to a computers main memory in a virtual memory system, in contrast to the virtual address which is the address generated by the CPU. Virtual addresses are translated into physical addresses by a memory management unit (abbreviated MMU). ... In mathematics, a Motzkin prime is a Motzkin number that is prime. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...

## 1015

(1 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 quadrillion; long scale: 1 thousand billion (old term: billiard) The quadrillion is a large number which has one of two values depending on how or where it is being used. ... In some countries and languages using the long scale: one billiard = = one short scale quadrillion. ...

• BioMed - Bacteria in the human body: there are roughly 1015 bacteria in the human body ( speaks of 1014), the overwhelming majority in the intestinal tract
• Mathematics: 48,988,659,276,962,496 is the fifth taxicab number.
• Mathematics: 53,060,477,521,960,000 is the number of domino tilings of a 12×12 checkerboard.

The human body contains a large number of bacteria, most of them performing tasks that are useful or even essential to human survival. ... In mathematics, the n-th taxicab number, typically denoted Ta(n) or Taxicab(n), is defined as the smallest number which can be expressed as a sum of two positive cubes in n distinct ways, up to order of summands. ...

## 1018

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 quintillion; long scale: 1 trillion) Main article: Names of large numbers A quintillion is a number written as either: a 1 followed by 18 zeros (10 to the 18th power, as used in the short scale system of numeration. ... Trillion may mean either of the two numbers (see long and short scales for more detail): 1,000,000,000,000 (one million million; ) - increasingly common meaning in English language usage. ...

ISO: exa- (E) Exa (symbol E) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1018 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000. ...

• BioMed - Insects: It has been estimated that the insect population of the Earth comprises roughly 1018 insects.
• Mathematics: 2,305,843,009,213,693,951 (261-1) is a Mersenne prime
• Computing - Computational limit of a 64-bit CPU: 9.22×1018 is equal to 263-1, and as such is the largest number which can fit into a signed (two's complement) 64-bit integer on a computer.
• Mathematics - Rubik's Cube: There are 4.3×1019 different positions of a Rubik's Cube
• Mathematics - NCAA Basketball Tournament: There are 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 (263) possible ways to enter the bracket.

In mathematics, a Mersenne number is a number that is one less than a power of two. ... CPU redirects here. ... The twos complement of a binary number is the value obtained by subtracting the number from a large power of two (specifically, from 2N for an N-bit twos complement). ... Variations of Rubiks Cubes (from left to right: Rubiks Revenge, Rubiks Cube, Professors Cube, & Pocket Cube). ... Bracketology is a slang term for predicting the field of the NCAA Basketball Tournament, named as such because it is commonly used to fill in tournament brackets for the postseason. ...

## 1021

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 sextillion; long scale: 1,000 trillion)

ISO: zetta- (Z) Zetta (symbol Z) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1021 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ...

• Mathematics - Sudoku: There are 6,670,903,752,021,072,936,960 (≈6.7×1021) 9×9 sudoku grids. 
• Astronomy - Stars: 70 sextillion = 7×1022 was estimated in 2003 by Australian astronomers as the number of stars within range of telescopes. This estimate is based on galaxy counts and star estimates: 
• Geo - Grains of sand: all the world's beaches put together hold roughly 1023 grains of sand. 
• Mathematics: 112,202,208,776,036,178,000,000 is the number of domino tilings of a 14×14 checkerboard.
• Chemistry: there are roughly 6.022×1023 molecules in one mole of any substance (Avogadro's number)

## 1024

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 septillion; long scale: 1 quadrillion) Main article: Names of large numbers A septillion is a number written as either: a 1 followed by 24 zeros (10 to the 24th power, as used in the short scale system of numeration. ...

ISO: yotta- (Y) Yotta (symbol Y) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1024 or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000. ...

A yottabyte (derived from the SI prefix yotta-) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one septillion (one long scale quadrillion or 1024) bytes. ... For the computer industry magazine, see Byte (magazine). ... A unitary perfect number is an integer which is the sum of its positive proper unitary divisors, not including the number itself. ... In mathematics, a Woodall number or Riesel number is a natural number of the form n · 2n &#8722; 1 (written Wn). ...

## 1027

(1 000 000 000 000 ; short scale: 1 octillion; long scale: 1,000 quadrillion)

ISO: xona- (X)

• BioMed - Atoms in the human body: the average human body contains roughly 7×1027 atoms, see 
• Mathematics - Poker: the number of unique combinations of hands and shared cards in a 10-player game of Texas Hold'em is approximately 2.117×1028, see Poker probability (Texas hold 'em).

Texas hold em (or simply hold em or holdem) is the most popular of the community card poker games. ... In poker, the probability of many events can be determined by direct calculation. ...

## 1030

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 nonillion; long scale: 1 quintillion)

• BioMed: number of bacterial cells on Earth
• Mathematics: 2,444,888,770,250,892,795,802,079,170,816 is the number of domino tilings of a 16×16 checkerboard.
• Mathematics: The partition of 1000 is 24,061,467,864,032,622,473,692,149,727,991.

A partition of U into 6 blocks: an Euler diagram representation. ...

## 1033

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 decillion; long scale: 1,000 quintillion)

• Mathematics: 1,298,074,214,633,706,835,075,030,044,377,087 (≈1.3×1034) is a Carol prime

A Carol number is an integer of the form . ...

## 1036

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 undecillion; long scale: 1 sextillion) The standard dictionary numbers Throughout this article, exponential or scientific notation is used. ... Main article: Names of large numbers A sextillion is a number written as either: a 1 followed by 21 zeros (10 to the 21st power, as used in the short scale system of numeration. ...

• Computing: The address range of IPv6 (2128) is approximately equal to 3.4×1038, and is the theoretical maximum number of Internet addresses that can be allocated under the IPv6 addressing system.
• Computing: The IEEE floating-point number 3.4028235×1038 is approximately equal to the largest value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE floating-point value.
• Mathematics: 548,943,583,215,388,338,077,567,813,208,427,340,288 is the number of domino tilings of a 18×18 checkerboard.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is the most widely-used standard for floating-point computation, and is followed by many CPU and FPU implementations. ...

## 1039

(1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000; short scale: 1 duodecillion; long scale: 1,000 sextillion) The standard dictionary numbers Throughout this article, exponential or scientific notation is used. ... Main article: Names of large numbers A sextillion is a number written as either: a 1 followed by 21 zeros (10 to the 21st power, as used in the short scale system of numeration. ...

• Mathematics: 170,141,183,460,469,231,731,687,303,715,884,105,727 (≈1.7×1038) is a double Mersenne prime
• Cosmology: The Eddington-Dirac number is roughly 1040.
• Physics: $e^2/Gm^2 ,$, the ratio of the electrical to the gravitational forces between two protons, is roughly 1040.

A double Mersenne prime in number theory is a double Mersenne number which is also prime. ... The Dirac large numbers hypothesis refers to an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the universe to that of force scales. ... In physics, the electromagnetic force is the force that the electromagnetic field exerts on electrically charged particles. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ...

## 1042 to 10100

See names of large numbers for the names of these and larger numbers. // Throughout this article, exponential or scientific notation is used. ...

• Mathematics: 53,694,226,297,143,959,644,031,344,050,777,763,036,004,353 (≈5.4×1043) is a Pierpont prime
• Mathematics: 393,050,634,124,102,232,869,567,034,555,427,371,542,904,833 (≈3.9×1044) is a Cullen prime
• Mathematics: 359,334,085,968,622,831,041,960,188,598,043,661,065,388,726,959,079,837 (≈3.6×1053) is a prime Bell number
• Mathematics: 808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,005,754,368,000,000,000 is order of Monster group
• Cosmology: 8×1060 is roughly the number of Planck time intervals since the universe is theorized to have been created in the Big Bang 13.7 ± 0.2 billion years ago
• Mathematics: 709,601,635,082,267,320,966,424,084,955,776,789,770,864,725,643,996,885,415,676,682,297 (≈7×1065) - The largest known prime factor found by ECM factorization as of August 2005 
• Mathematics - Cards: 52! = 80,658,175,170,943,878,571,660,636,856,403,766,975,289,505,440,883,277,824,000,000,000,000 (≈8×1067) - the number of ways to order the cards in a 52-card deck.
• Mathematics: 475,420,437,734,698,220,747,368,027,166,749,382,927,701,417,016,557,193,662,268,716,376,935,476,241 (≈4.8×1071) is a Fibonacci prime
• Cosmology: various sources estimate the total number of fundamental particles in the observable universe in the range 1080 to 1085. However, these estimates are generally regarded as guesswork.
• Mathematics: 10100, a googol

A Pierpont prime is a prime number greater than 3 having the form for some integers u,v â‰¥ 0. ... In mathematics, a Cullen number is a natural number of the form n · 2n + 1 (written Cn). ... The Bell numbers, named in honor of Eric Temple Bell, are a sequence of integers arising in combinatorics that begins thus (sequence A000110 in OEIS): In general, Bn is the number of partitions of a set of size n. ... In mathematics, the Monster group M is a group of order    246 Â· 320 Â· 59 Â· 76 Â· 112 Â· 133 Â· 17 Â· 19 Â· 23 Â· 29 Â· 31 Â· 41 Â· 47 Â· 59 Â· 71 = 808017424794512875886459904961710757005754368000000000 â‰ˆ 8 Â· 1053. ... In physics, the Planck time (tP), is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... This article is about the concept in number theory. ... The Lenstra elliptic curve factorization or the elliptic curve factorization method (ECM) is a fast, sub-exponential running time algorithm for integer factorization which employs elliptic curves. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For factorial rings in mathematics, see unique factorisation domain. ... A Fibonacci prime is a Fibonacci number that is prime. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... See universe for a general discussion of the universe. ... Not to be confused with Google, the Internet company, and Nikolai Gogol, the author. ...

## Larger than 10100

• Board games: 4.8231×10115, number of ways to arrange the tiles in English Scrabble (100! / 9! / 2! / 2! / 4! / 12! / 2! / 3! / 2! / 9! / 1! / 1! / 4! / 2! / 6! / 8! / 2! / 1! / 6! / 4! / 6! / 4! / 2! / 2! / 1! / 2! / 1! / 2!).
• Chess: Shannon number, 10120, an estimation of the game-tree complexity of chess.
• Physics: 8×10120, ratio of the mass-energy in the observable universe to the energy of a photon with a wavelength the size of the observable universe.
• Mathematics - History: Asankhyeya is equal to 10140 in ancient India.
• Xiangqi: 10150, an estimation of the game-tree complexity of xiangqi.
• Physics: 4×10185, approximate number of Planck volumes in the observable universe.
• Computing: 1.7976931348623157×10308 is approximately equal to the largest value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point number.
• Go: 10365, an estimation of the game-tree complexity in the game of Go.[citation needed]
• Mathematics: 26384405 + 44052638 is a 15071-digit Leyland prime; the largest which has been proven as of 2007.
• Mathematics: 137211941292195 · 2171960 − 1 is a 51780-digit Sophie Germain prime; the largest known as of 2007.
• Mathematics: 2003663613 · 2195000 ± 1 are 58711-digit twin primes; the largest known as of 2007.
• Mathematics: 34790! – 1 is a 142891-digit factorial prime; the largest known as of 2007.
• Mathematics: 10150006 + 7426247×1075000 + 1 is a 150007-digit happy prime. It is also a palindromic prime.
• Mathematics: 392113# + 1 is a 169966-digit primorial prime; the largest known as of 2007.
• Mathematics: approximately 7.76 · 10206544 cattle in the smallest herd which satisfies the conditions of the Archimedes' cattle problem.
• Mathematics: 232,582,657 − 1 is a 9,808,358-digit Mersenne prime; the largest known prime as of September 2006.
• Mathematics: 232,582,656 × (232,582,657 − 1) is a 19,616,714-digit perfect number, the largest known as of 2007.
• Mathematics: (232,582,657 − 1)2 is a 19,616,715-digit semiprime, the largest known as of 2007.
• Mathematics - History: 1080,000,000,000,000,000, largest named number in Archimedes' Sand Reckoner.
• Mathematics: 10googol ( $10^{10^{100}}$), a googolplex.
• Mathematics: $10^{,!10^{10^{34}}}$, order of magnitude of an upper bound that occurred in a proof of Skewes.
• Mathematics: $10^{,!10^{10^{1000}}}$, order of magnitude of another upper bound in a proof of Skewes.
• Mathematics: Moser's number should appear somewhere in this section, but is difficult to calculate.
• Mathematics: Graham's number, probably the largest number seriously used in a mathematical proof; representation in powers of 10 would be impractical (the number of digits in the exponent far exceeds the number of particles in the observable universe).

Note: To correctly interpret the last few entries, keep in mind that exponentiation is performed from right to left. For example, The Shannon number, 1078, is an estimation of the game-tree complexity of chess. ... In game theory, game complexity is a measure of the complexity of a game. ... See universe for a general discussion of the universe. ... See universe for a general discussion of the universe. ... Asankhyeya. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Chinese chess redirects here. ... The Planck length, denoted by , is the unit of length in the system of units known as Planck units. ... See universe for a general discussion of the universe. ... The IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is the most widely-used standard for floating-point computation, and is followed by many CPU and FPU implementations. ... Go is a strategic board game for two players. ... A Leyland number is an integer of the form xy + yx with 1 < x â‰¤ y. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime number p is called a Sophie Germain prime if 2p + 1 is also prime. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A twin prime is a prime number that differs from another prime number by two. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A factorial prime is a number that is one less or one more than a factorial and is also a prime number. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A happy prime is a happy number that is prime. ... A palindromic prime is a prime number that is also a palindromic number. ... In mathematics, primorial primes are prime numbers of the form pn# Â± 1, where: pn# is the primorial of pn. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Archimedes cattle problem (or the problema bovinum or problema Archimedis) is a problem in Diophantine analysis, the study of polynomial equations with integer solutions. ... In mathematics, a Mersenne number is a number that is one less than a power of two. ... Graph of number of digits in largest known prime by year - electronic era. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In mathematics, a perfect number is defined as an integer which is the sum of its proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of the positive divisors not including the number. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In mathematics, a semiprime (also called biprime or 2-almost prime, or pq number) is a natural number that is the product of two (not necessarily distinct) prime numbers. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... The Sand Reckoner (Greek: Î¨Î±Î¼Î¼Î¯Ï„Î·Ï‚, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe. ... This article is about a number. ... In number theory, Skewes number can refer to several extremely large numbers used by the South African mathematician Stanley Skewes. ... In mathematics, Mosers polygon notation is a means of expressing certain extremely large numbers. ... Grahams number, named after Ronald Graham, is often described as the largest number that has ever been seriously used in a mathematical proof. ... In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ... $10^{,!10^{100}} mbox{ means } 10^{,!(10^{100})}$

Big numbers redirects here. ... This is a list of articles about numbers (not about numerals). ... In physics, Planck units are physical units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of the five universal physical constants shown in the table below in such a manner that all of these physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of these units. ... A mathematical constant is a quantity, usually a real number or a complex number, that arises naturally in mathematics and does not change. ... Results from FactBites:

 Orders of magnitude (260 words) An order of magnitude is a factor of ten. For example, two numbers are said to differ by "3 orders of magnitude" if one is 1000 times larger than other. Orders of magnitude are quite easily and commonly described through the use of scientific notation and powers of ten.
 Magnitude (220 words) In mathematics, the magnitude of an object is a non-negative real number, which in simple terms is its length. In astronomy, magnitude refers to the logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object, measured in a specific wavelength or passband, usually in optical or near-infrared wavelengths: see apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude. In geology, the magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the energy released during an earthquake.
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