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Encyclopedia > Orders of magnitude (data)
Orders of magnitude
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1. A group of 8 bits in a computer is called an octet. A byte is the same for most practical purposes, but does not equal 8 bits on all computer architectures.
2. The decimal prefixes kilo, mega etc. are strictly powers of 10. The powers of 2 are the binary prefixes kibi, mebi etc.

Accordingly, 8192 bits of data are a kibioctet and 8000 bits are a kilooctet. In computer technology and networking, an octet is a group of 8 bits. ... In computer science a byte is a unit of measurement of information storage, often containing eight bits. ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... In mathematics, a power of two is any of the nonnegative integer powers of the number two; in other words, two times itself a certain number of times. ... In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten. ...

Orders of magnitude (data)
Binary Decimal Item
Factor Term Factor Term
20 bit 100 bit 1 bit – 0 or 1, false or true
21   2 bits – a crumb (rarely used term)
3 bits – the size of an octal digit
22 semioctet

or nibble
(also
spelled
nybble) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... In general, data consist of propositions that reflect reality. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... Look up crumb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... A nibble (or less commonly, nybble) is the computing term for the aggregation of four bits, or half an octet (an octet being an 8-bit byte). ... A nibble (or less commonly, nybble) is the computing term for the aggregation of four bits, or half an octet (an octet being an 8-bit byte). ...

4 bits – the size of a hexadecimal digit
5 bits – the size of code points in the Baudot code, used in telex communication
6 bits – the size of code points in the Braille code, a tactile writing system for the blind
7 bits – the size of code points in the ASCII character set
23 octet 8 bits – equivalent to a byte on many computer architectures
101 decabit 10 bits

– minimum length to store a single group of 3 decimal digits
– minimum byte length to store a single octet with error-correcting memory
– minimum frame length to transmit a single octet with asynchronous serial protocols In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0â€“9 and Aâ€“F, or aâ€“f. ... The Baudot code, named after its inventor Ã‰mile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII and used originally and primarily on teleprinters. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... In computer technology and networking, an octet is a group of 8 bits. ... In computer science a byte is a unit of measurement of information storage, often containing eight bits. ... In computer science a byte is a unit of measurement of information storage, often containing eight bits. ... Look up Frame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

12 bits – wordlength of the PDP-8 of Digital Equipment Corporation (built from 1965 -1990)
24   16 bits

– in many programming languages, the size of an integer capable of holding 65,536 different values
– the "word size" (instruction length) for the various "second generation" console systems, including: Super Nintendo, Sega Genesis A PDP-8 on display at the Smithsonians National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.. This example is from the first generation of PDP-8s, built with discrete transistors and later known as the Straight 8. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... In computer science, the term integer is used to refer to any data type which can represent some subset of the mathematical integers. ...

25   32 bits (4 octets)

– size of an integer capable of holding 4,294,967,296 different values
– size of an IEEE 754 single-precision floating point number
– size of addresses in IPv4, the current Internet protocol The IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is the most widely-used standard for floating-point computation, and is followed by many CPU and FPU implementations. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... Internet Protocol version 4 is the fourth iteration of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ...

36 bits – size of word on Univac 1100-series computers
56 bits (7 octets) – cipher strength of the DES encryption standard
26   64 bits (8 octets)

– size of an integer capable of holding 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 different values
– size of an IEEE 754 double-precision floating point number The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ...

80 bits (10 octets) – size of an extended precision floating point number, for intermediate calculations that can be performed in floating point units of most processors of the x86 family
102 hectobit 100 bits
27   128 bits (16 octets)

– size of addresses in IPv6, the emerging Internet protocol
– minimum cipher strength of the Rijndael and AES encryption standards, and of the widely used MD5 cryptographic message digest algorithm Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12Ã—6. ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... This article is about the block cipher. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. ... In cryptography, a cryptographic hash function is a hash function with certain additional security properties to make it suitable for use as a primitive in various information security applications, such as authentication and message integrity. ...

160 bits – maximum key length of the SHA-1, standard Tiger (hash), and Tiger2 cryptographic message digest algorithms
28   256 bits (32 octets) – minimum key length for the recommended strong cryptographic message digests as of 2004
29   512 bits (64 octets) – maximum key length for the standard strong cryptographic message digests in 2004
103 kilobit 1000 bits
210 kibibit 1024 bits (128 octets)
1288 bits – approximate maximum capacity of a standard magnetic stripe card
211   2048 bits (256 octets)
212   4096 bits (512 octets) – typical sector size, and minimum space allocation unit on computer storage volumes, with most file systems
4704 bits (588 octets) – uncompressed single-channel frame length in standard MPEG audio (75 frames per second and per channel), with medium quality 8-bit sampling at 44,100 Hz (or 16-bit sampling at 22,050 Hz)
8000 bits (103 octets) – one kilooctet
213 kibioctet 8192 bits (1,024 octets)
9408 bits (1,176 octets) – uncompressed single-channel frame length in standard MPEG audio (75 frames per second and per channel), with standard 16-bit sampling at 44,100 Hz
104   15,350 bits – one screen of data displayed on an 8-bit monochrome text console (80x24)
214   16,384 (2 kibioctets)
20,000 bits – approximate amount of information on a sheet of single-spaced typewritten paper
215   32,768 bits (4 kibioctets)
216   65,536 bits (8 kibioctets)
105   100,000 bits
217   131,072 bits (16 kibioctets)
150 kilobits – approximate size of this article as of 20 April 2007
218   262,144 bits (32 kibioctets)
219   524,288 bits (64 kibioctets)
106 megabit 1,000,000 bits
220 mebibit 1,048,576 bits (128 kibioctets)
1,978,560 bits – a one-page, standard-resolution black-and-white fax (1728 × 1145 pixels)
221   2,097,152 bits (256 kibioctets)
4,147,200 bits – one frame of uncompressed NTSC DVD video (720 × 480 × 12 bpp Y'CbCr)
222   4,194,304 bits (512 kibioctets)
4,976,640 bits – one frame of uncompressed PAL DVD video (720 × 576 × 12 bpp Y'CbCr)
8,343,400 bits – one "typical" sized photograph with reasonably good quality (1024 × 768 pixels).
223 mebioctet 8,388,608 bits (1024 kibioctets)
107   11,520,000 bits – capacity of a lower-resolution computer monitor (as of 2006), 800 × 600 pixels, 24 bpp
11,796,480 bits – capacity of a 3.5 in floppy disk, colloquially known as 1.44 megabyte but actually 1.44 × 1000 × 1024 octets
224   16,777,216 bits (2 mebioctets)
25 Mbits – amount of data in a typical color slide
32,582,657 bits – size of the largest known Mersenne prime: All of its bits are 1.
225   33,554,432 bits (4 mebioctets)
46,080,000 bits – capacity of a high-resolution computer monitor (as of 2006), 1600 × 1200 pixels, 24 bpp
50–100 megabits – amount of information in a typical phone book
226
108
67,108,864 bit (8 mebioctets)
227   134,217,728 bits (16 mebioctets)
150 Mbits – amount of data in a large foldout map
228   268,435,456 (32 mebioctets)
423,360,000 bits: a five-minute audio recording, in CDDA quality
229   536,870,912 bits (64 mebioctets)
109 gigabit 1,000,000,000 bits
230 gibibit 1,073,741,824 bits (128 mebioctets)
231   2,147,483,648 bits (256 mebioctets)
232   4,294,967,296 bits (526 mebioctets)
5.45×109 bits (650 mebioctets) – capacity of a regular compact disc
5.89×109 bits (702 mebioctets) – capacity of a large regular compact disc
6.4×109 bits – capacity of the human genome, 3.2×109 base pairs (Each pair encodes two bits of data.)
233 gibioctet 8,589,934,592 bits (1024 mebioctets)
1010   10,000,000,000 bits
234   17,179,869,184 bits (2 gibioctets)
2.16×1010 bits (2.7 gigaoctets) – size of the English Wikipedia without images (compressed it is 1.1 gibioctets)
235   34,359,738,368 bits (4 gibioctets)
4.04×1010 bits (4.7 gigaoctets) – capacity of a single-layer, single-sided DVD
236   68,719,476,736 bits (8 gibioctets)
1011   100,000,000,000 bits
237   137,438,953,472 bits (16 gibioctets)
1.46×1011 bits (17 gigaoctets) – capacity of a double-sided, dual-layered DVD
2.15×1011 bits (25 gigaoctets) – capacity of a single-sided, single-layered 12-cm Blu-ray disc
238   274,877,906,944 bits (32 gibioctets)
239   549,755,813,888 bits (64 gibioctets)
1012 terabit 1,000,000,000,000 bits (125 gigaoctets) – approximate size of all Wikimedia projects
240 tebibit 1,099,511,627,776 bits (128 gibioctets) more than 137 gigaoctets
1.6×1012 bits (200 gigaoctets) – capacity of a hard disk that would be considered moderately large as of 2004
241   2,199,023,255,552 bits (256 gibioctets)
(approximately) 4.12×1012 bits – as of 2002, data of π to the largest number of digits ever calculated (1.24×1012)
242   4,398,046,511,104 bits (512 gibioctets)
243 tebioctet 8,796,093,022,208 bits (1024 gibioctets)
1013   10,000,000,000,000 bits (1.25 teraoctets) – capacity of a human being's functional memory, according to Raymond Kurzweil in The Singularity Is Near, p. 126
244   17,592,186,044,416 bits (2 tebioctets)
245   35,184,372,088,832 bits (4 tebioctets)
246   70,368,744,177,664 bits (8 tebioctets)
1014   100,000,000,000,000 bits
247   140,737,488,355,328 bits (16 tebioctets)
1.5×1014 bits (18.75 teraoctets) – amount of information in the Library of Congress, if it were all digitized
248   281,474,976,710,656 bits (32 tebioctets)
249   562,949,953,421,312 bits (64 tebioctets)
1015 petabit 1,000,000,000,000,000 bits
250 pebibit 1,125,899,906,842,624 bits (128 tebioctets)
2.4×1015 bits (300 teraoctets) – size of the Internet Archive in 2004
251   2,251,799,813,685,248 bits (256 tebioctets)
252   4,503,599,627,370,496 bits (512 tebioctets)
8,000,000,000,000,000 bits (1015 octets) – one petaoctet
253 pebioctet 9,007,199,254,740,992 bits (1024 tebioctets)
1016   10,000,000,000,000,000 bits
254   18,014,398,509,481,984 bits (2 pebioctets)
255   36,028,797,018,963,968 bits (4 pebioctets)
4.5×1016 bits (5.625 petaoctets) – estimated hard drive space in Google's server farm in 2004
256   72,057,594,037,927,936 bits (8 pebioctets)
1017   100,000,000,000,000,000 bits
257   144,115,188,075,855,872 bits (16 pebioctets)
258   288,230,376,151,711,744 bits (32 pebioctets)
259   576,460,752,303,423,488 bits (64 pebioctets)
8 ×1017, the storage capacity of the fictional Star Trek character Data
1018 exabit 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bits
260 exbibit 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bits (128 pebioctets)
1.6×1018 bits (200 petaoctets) – total amount of printed material in the world
261   2,305,843,009,213,693,952 bits (256 pebioctets)
262   4,611,686,018,427,387,904 bits (512 pebioctets)
263 exbioctet 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 bits (1024 pebioctets)
1019   10,000,000,000,000,000,000 bits
264   18,446,744,073,709,551,616, bits (2 exbioctets)
265   36,893,488,147,419,103,232, bits (4 exbioctets)
266   73,786,976,294,838,206,464, bits (8 exbioctets)
1020   100,000,000,000,000,000,000 bits
267   147,573,952,589,676,412,928 bits (16 exbioctets)
268   295,147,905,179,352,825,856 bits (32 exbioctets)
269   590,295,810,358,705,651,712 bits (64 exbioctets)
1021 zettabit 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bits
270 zebibit 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bits (128 exbioctets)
271   2,361,183,241,434,822,606,848 bits (256 exbioctets)
272   4,722,366,482,869,645,213,696 bits (512 exbioctets)
273 zebioctet 9,444,732,965,739,290,427,392 bits (1024 exbioctets)
1022   10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bits
1.8×1022 bits (2.25 zettaoctets) – amount of information which can be stored in 1 gram of DNA

Results from FactBites:

 Orders of magnitude - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (652 words) More precisely, the order of magnitude of a number can be defined in terms of the decimal logarithm, usually as the integer part of the logarithm. Thus, an order of magnitude is an approximate position on a logarithmic scale. For example, an order of magnitude estimate for a variable between about 3 billion and 30 billion (such as the human population of the Earth) is 10 billion.
More results at FactBites »

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