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Encyclopedia > Orders in Council (1807)
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The Orders in Council of 1807 were a specific use of an order of the British Privy Council, made under the Royal prerogative, during the Napoleonic Wars. They had the effect of authorizing the Royal Navy to blockade the seaports of France and her European allies. An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth which is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council), or the Governor-General or Governor by the Executive Council (Governor-General-in-Council, Governor-in... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ... Jump to: navigation, search // The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule of France. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ...


Background

By 1806, Napoleon was master of continental Europe effectively locking the United Kingdom out of the continent. However, the defeat of the French and Spanish navies at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) ended any thoughts of an invasion of the United Kingdom. Napoleon, aware of British commercial strength, thus resorted to a policy of economic warfare, in what became known as the Continental System. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Battle of Trafalgar, fought on 21 October 1805, is part of the War of the Third Coalition assembled by Britain against France. ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


The Berlin Decree of 1806 forbade French, allied or neutral ships trading with Britain. By this means Napoleon hoped to destroy British trade, disrupt her growing industrial expansion and diminish her credit. The Berlin Decree was issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806. ...


The United Kingdom responded with the Orders in Council of 1807. These forbade French trade with the United Kingdom, her allies or neutrals, and instructed the Royal Navy to blockade French and allied ports.


Napoleon retaliated with the Milan Decree of 1807, which declared that all neutral shipping using British ports, or paying British tariffs, was to be regarded as British and seized. The Milan Decree was issued in 1807 by Napoleon I of France to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806 which had initiated the Continental System that was the basis for his plan to defeat the British by waging economic warfare. ...


Consequences

Due to the strength of the Royal Navy, the British blockade of continental Europe was reasonably effective. French trade suffered and her primitive industrial revolution was set back. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, remained able to trade with her overseas colonies; indeed, such trade increased over the period. Smuggling naturally persisted, and Napoleon was even forced to make exceptions to his embargo in order to procure necessary supplies for his war effort.

The Battle of Copenhagen was largely a consequence of economic warfare

More significantly, enforcing the economic blockades led both the United Kingdom and France into a series of military engagements. The British bombarded Copenhagen in September 1807 (Battle of Copenhagen) to prevent the Danish joining the Continental System, and the British policy of stopping neutral ships trading with France played a large part in the outbreak of the Anglo-American War of 1812. However, it was Napoleon's invasion of Russia in the same year, again in part to enforce his continental system, that proved to be the turning point of the war. He was never to recover militarily from that defeat. Image File history File links Slaget pÃ¥ reden - Battle og Copenhagen, 2. ... Image File history File links Slaget pÃ¥ reden - Battle og Copenhagen, 2. ... The Battle of Copenhagen The Battle of Copenhagen (Danish: Slaget på Reden) was a naval battle fought on 2 April 1801 by a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, against a Danish fleet anchored just off Copenhagen. ... Jump to: navigation, search The War of 1812 was a conflict fought on land in North America and at sea around the world between the United States and United Kingdom from 1812 to 1815. ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ...


The economic warfare ended with Napoleon's final defeat in 1815.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Order In Council - LoveToKnow 1911 (542 words)
But although theoretically orders in council are thus independent of parliamentary authority, in practice they are only issued on the advice of ministers of the crown, who are, of course, responsible to parliament for their action in the matter.
Orders in council were first issued during the 18th century, and their legality has sometimes been called in question, the fear being evidently prevalent that they would be used, like the earlier ordinances and proclamations, to alter the law.
Orders in council are used to regulate the matters which need immediate attention on the death of one sovereign and the accession of another.
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