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Encyclopedia > Order of the Holy Spirit

The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit, (French: L'Ordre du Saint Espirt; L'Ordre des Chevaliers du Saint Esprit) was an Order of Chivalry under the French Monarchy. It should not be confused with the Papal Order of the Holy Ghost. It was the senior chivalric order of France by precedence, although not by age (the Order of Saint Michael having been created one hundred years earlier). See also Orders of Chivalry in the British honours system After the failure of the crusades, the crusading military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... The Order of the Holy Ghost is a religious order, created by Innocent III ( 1161–June 16, 1216) in the the Hospital of the Holy Ghost in Rome. ... The Order of Saint Michael (French: LOrdre de Saint-Michel) was the first French chivalric order, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis chief competitor for the allegiance...

Contents


History

Prior to the creation of the Order of the Holy Spirit, the senior order of chivalry in France had been the Order of Saint Michael. This order had originally been created to rival the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece, and to help ensure that leading French nobles remained loyal to the Crown. It's membership was initially restricted to a small number of powerful princes and nobles, but this increased dramatically due to the pressures of the Wars of Religion: at the beginning of the reign of Henry III, the order had several hundred living members, ranging from kings to bourgeois. Recognising that the order had been signifcantly devalued, Henri founded the Order of the Holy Spirit in 1578- thereby creating a two-tier system: the new order would be reserved for princes and powerful nobles whilst the old Order of Saint Michael would be given to less eminent servants of the Crown. Flag of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro in Spanish) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabelle of Aviz. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; Polish: Henryk III Walezy; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589) was King of Poland (1573-1574) and subsequently King of France (1574-1589). ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ...


During the French Revolution the Order of the Holy Spirit was officially abolished by the French government along with all other chivalric orders from the Ancien Regime, although the exiled Louis XVIII continued to acknowledge it. Following the Restoration, the order was officially revived, only to be abolished again by the Orleanist Louis-Philippe following the July Revolution in 1830. However, the Legitimist pretenders to the French throne have continued to nominate members of the order, long after the abolition of the French monarchy itself. The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ... Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control... [[Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850) reigned as the Orléanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, was a revolt by the middle class against Bourbon King Charles X which forced him out of office and replaced him with the Orleanist King Louis-Philippe... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ...


Composition

The King of France was the Sovereign and Grand Master ("Souverain Grand MaƮtre"), and made all appointments to the order. Members of the order can be split into three categories:

  • 8 Ecclesiastic members
  • 4 Officers
  • 100 Knights

Initially, four of the ecclisiastic members had to be cardinals, whilst the other four had to be archbishops or prelates. This was later relaxed so that all eight had to be either cardinals, archbishops or prelates.


Members of the order had to be Roman Catholic, and had to be able to demonstrate three degrees of nobility. The minimum age for members was 35, although there were some exceptions:

  • Children of the king were members from birth, but weren't received into the order until they were 12.
  • Princes of the Blood could be admitted to the order from the age of 16
  • Foreign royalty could be admitted to the order from the age of 25

All Knights of the order were also members of the Order of Saint Michael. As such, they were generally known as "Chevalier des Ordres du Roi" (ie "Knights of the Royal Orders"), instead of the more lengthy "Chevalier de Saint-Michel et Chevalier du Saint-Esprit" (ie "Knight of Saint Michael and Knight of the Holy Spirit").


Officers

The officers of the order were as follows:

  • Chancellor
  • Provost and Master of Ceremonies
  • Treasurer
  • Clerk

Vestments and Accoutrements

The symbol of the order is known as the Cross of the Holy Spirit. This is a Maltese Cross (ie a cross formed by the meeting for the points of four isosceles triangles); at the periphery, the points of each triangle are rounded, and between each triangle there is a fleur-de-lis. Imposed on the centre of the cross is a dove. The eight rounded corners represent the Beatitudes, the four fleur-de-lis represent the Gospels, the twelve petals represent the Apostles, and the dove signifies the Holy Spirit. The Cross of the Holy Spirit was worn hung from a blue riband ("Le Cordon Bleu"). Maltese Cross The Maltese cross is identified as the symbol of the Christian warrior. ... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the name given to a well-known, and to some, such as Henri Nouwen, definitive and central, portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Cordon Bleu

Due to the blue riband from which the Cross of the Holy Spirit was hung, the Knights became known as "Les Cordon Bleus". Over time, this expression was extended to refer to other distinctions of the highest class - for example, Cordon Bleu cooking and Blue Riband sporting events. It has been suggested that the term Cordon Bleu in cooking has derived from the splendour of feasts held by the Knights and not simply from the term becoming synonymous with prestige; however, this is not confirmed. For the Schnitzel variant, see Cordon Bleu (food). ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ...


See also

The Order of Saint Michael (French: LOrdre de Saint-Michel) was the first French chivalric order, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis chief competitor for the allegiance...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Order of the Holy Spirit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (755 words)
The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit, (French: L'Ordre du Saint Espirt; L'Ordre des Chevaliers du Saint Esprit) was an Order of Chivalry under the French Monarchy.
During the French Revolution the Order of the Holy Spirit was officially abolished by the French government along with all other chivalric orders from the Ancien Regime, although the exiled Louis XVIII continued to acknowledge it.
The symbol of the order is known as the Cross of the Holy Spirit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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