FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Order of St Patrick

The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. The Order was created in 1783 by George III. The regular creation of knighthoods of St Patrick lasted until 1922, when Southern Ireland became independent as the Irish Free State. While the Order technically still exists, no knighthood of St Patrick has been created since 1934, and the last surviving knight died in 1974. The patron saint of the Order is St Patrick. Its motto is Quis separabit? (Latin for "Who will separate us?"). The honours system of the United Kingdom is a means of rewarding personal bravery, achievement or service to the country. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Southern Ireland was the twenty-six county Irish state created in the Government of Ireland Act 1920. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Most British orders of chivalry cover the entire kingdom, but the three most exalted ones each pertain to one constitutent nation only. The Order of St Patrick, which pertains to Ireland, is the third-most senior in precedence and age. Its equivalent in England, The Most Noble Order of the Garter, is the oldest documented order of chivalry in the United Kingdom, dating to the middle fourteenth century. The Scottish equivalent is The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, dating in its modern form to 1687. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ...


The Order of St Patrick earned international coverage when in 1907 its insignia, known generally as the Irish Crown Jewels, were stolen from Dublin Castle shortly before a visit by the Order's Sovereign, King Edward VII. Their whereabouts remain a mystery. 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Insignia of the Knights of St. ... Dublin Castle in Dublin, Ireland was the seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922. ... His Majesty King Edward VII (9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth realms, and the Emperor of India. ...

Contents

History

The Order was founded in 1783 in order to honour senior Irish peers. After the Irish Free State came into being in 1922, the Executive Council decided not to continue admitting knights to the Order. During the 1940s, Arthur Forbes, 9th Earl of Granard, a Knight of St Patrick and a member of the Council of State, which advises the President of Ireland, campaigned for the revival of the Order. Taoiseach Sean Lemass considered reviving the Order during the 1960s, but did nothing to accomplish the task. 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Executive Council (Irish: Ard-Chomhairle) was the cabinet and de facto executive branch of government of the 1922-1937 Irish Free State. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Years: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Events and trends Technology First nuclear bomb First cruise missile, the V1 flying bomb and the first ballistic missile, the... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... The Council of State is the name of an organ of government in many states, and especially in republics. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...


It is possible, but highly unlikely, for the British Sovereign to unilaterally revive the Order. It is also possible for the Sovereign and the Republic of Ireland to re-establish the Order as a part of a joint Anglo-Irish honours system. The Sunday Independent, the Republic of Ireland's biggest selling weekend newspaper, published an article urging the ressurrection of the Order and the conferring of membership of the Order jointly by the President of Ireland and the British Sovereign to individuals who had distinguished themselves in the field of Anglo-Irish relations, as recently as June 2004. The Irish Independents header consists of its name and a green harp The Irish Independent is Irelands best-selling broadsheet newspaper. ... The term Anglo-Irish means British-Irish and is used frequently to describe formal contacts, negotiations or treaties between both states. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Constitution of Ireland provides, "Titles of nobility shall not be conferred by the State" and "No title of nobility or of honour may be accepted by any citizen except with the prior approval of the Government." Legal experts are divided on whether this clause prohibits the awarding of membership of the Order of St Patrick to Irish individuals, but many suggest that the phrase "titles of nobility" implies hereditary peerages and other noble titles, not lifetime honours such as knighthoods. The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ...


Composition

The British Sovereign was, and still is, the Sovereign of the Order of St Patrick and appoints the other members. The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Sovereign's representative in Ireland, served as the Grand Master. The office of Lord Lieutenant was abolished in 1922; the last Lord Lieutenant and Grand Master was Edmund Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent. The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (also known as the Viceroy or in the Middle Ages as the Lord Deputy) was the head of Englands (pre-1707) or Britains (post 1707) administration in Ireland. ... Edmund Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent (June 1, 1855 - May 18, 1947), previously known as Lord Edmund Talbot, was the last Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and the first Roman Catholic to hold the post. ...


The Order also originally consisted of fifteen knights. In 1821, however, George IV appointed six additional knights; he did not issue a Royal Warrant authorising the change until 1829. William IV formally changed the statutes in 1833, increasing the limit to twenty-two knights. After Southern Ireland separated from the United Kingdom, only two knighthoods of St Patrick were created: for Edward, Prince of Wales (in 1927) and Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (in 1934). They were created Knights of St Patrick on the initiative of their father, George V, with the approval of the Irish Governments of W.T. Cosgrave and Eamon de Valera respectively. They were also the last surviving members of the order, dying in 1972 and 1974, respectively. Unlike the Orders of the Garter and the Thistle, the Order of St Patrick was limited to princes and peers. Women were never admitted to the Order of St Patrick; nor were they eligible to the other two aforementioned orders until 1987. 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the House... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... His Royal Highness The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert Windsor) (31 March 1900 - 10 June 1974), was the third son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, the brother of King Edward VIII (later Duke of Windsor) and King George VI, and... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ... Eamon de Valera1 (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara) (October 14, 1882 - August 29, 1975), was a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and of the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War, and was subsequently... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Order of St Patrick has seven officers: the Prelate, the Chancellor, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Usher, the Secretary and the Genealogist. Many were once held by clergymen of the Church of Ireland, once an established church. After the disestablishment of the Church in 1871, the ecclesiastics were allowed to remain in office until their deaths, when the offices were either abolished or reassigned to lay officials. All offices except that of Registrar and King of Arms are now vacant. The Church of Ireland is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating both in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The office of Prelate was held by the Archbishop of Armagh, the most senior clergyman in the Church of Ireland. Since 1885, the office of Prelate has remained vacant. The Church of Ireland's second highest cleric, the Archbishop of Dublin, originally served as the Chancellor. From 1886 onwards, the office was held instead by the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Since the abolition of the position of Chief Secretary in 1922, the office of Chancellor has remained vacant. Primate of All Ireland is the title held by the Archbishop of Armagh. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Primate of Ireland is a title possessed by the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland (Anglican) Archbishops of Dublin. ... 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) Events January 18 _ Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ...


The Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral was originally the Registrar of the Order. In 1890, however, the Ulster King of Arms, Ireland's highest heraldic officer, took the post instead. The Ulster King of Arms also served as the King of Arms of the Order. In 1943, the post of Ulster King of Arms was in effect divided in two, reflecting the partition of Ireland in the Government of Ireland Act, 1920. The position, insofar as it related to Northern Ireland, was combined with that of Norroy King of Arms (the heraldic authority in north England). The post of Norroy and Ulster King of Arms still exists; it is attached to the Order of St Patrick's positions of Registrar and King of Arms. The office of Ulster King of Arms, insofar as it related to the state of Eire (now the Republic of Ireland), became the position of Chief Herald of Ireland. Both the Norroy and Ulster King of Arms and the Chief Herald of Ireland thus assert that they are successors of previous Ulster Kings of Arms. St. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The office of the Chief Herald of Ireland, (sometimes, though incorrectly, called the Office of Arms) is the Republic of Irelands authority on all heraldic matters relating to Ireland and is located at the National Library of Ireland. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... Map of Éire Éire (pronounced AIR uh, in the Irish language, translated as Ireland) is the name given in Article 4 of the 1937 Irish constitution to the 26-county Irish state, created under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, which was known between 1922 and 1937 as the Irish Free... The office of the Chief Herald of Ireland, (sometimes, though incorrectly, called the Office of Arms) is the Republic of Irelands authority on all heraldic matters relating to Ireland and is located at the National Library of Ireland. ...


The Usher of the Order was the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod. The Irish Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod was distinct from the British officer of the same name; the latter continues to serve as Usher to the Order of the Garter and as Serjeant-at-Arms of the House of Lords. The Irish post has been vacant since 1933. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The office of Secretary has been vacant since 1926. The position of Genealogist was left vacant in 1885, restored in 1889, but left vacant again in 1930. 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


Vestments and accoutrements

For important occasions, such as coronations and investitures of new members of the Order, Knights of St Patrick wore elaborate vestments: British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ...

  • The mantle was a celestial blue robe lined with white silk. The star of the Order (see below) was depicted on the left of the mantle. A blue hood was attached to the mantle.
  • The hat of the Order was made of black velvet. It was plumed with three feathers, one red, one white and one blue.
  • The collar was made of gold, consisting of roses and harps attached with knots. The central harp was surmounted by a crown. The collar was worn around the neck.

Aside from these special occasions, however, much simpler accoutrements were used:

  • The star of the Order was an eight-pointed figure, with the four cardinal points longer than the intermediate points. Each point was shown as a cluster of rays. In the centre was the same motto, year and design that appeared on the badge. The star was worn pinned to the left breast.
The Irish Crown Jewels included the Grand Master's star and badge.
  • The broad riband was a celestial blue sash worn across the body, from the left shoulder to the right hip.
  • The badge was was pinned to the riband at the right hip (or, when collars are worn, suspended from the collar). Made of gold, it depicted a shamrock bearing three crowns, on top of a cross of St Patrick and surrounded by a blue circle bearing the motto in majusclues, as well as the date of the Order's foundation in Roman numerals ("MDCCLXXXIII").

The Grand Master's insignia were of the same form and design as those of the Knights. In 1831, however, William IV presented the Grand Master with a star and badge, each composed of rubies, emeralds and Brazilian diamonds. These two insignia became known as the Irish Crown Jewels. They, along with five collars belonging to Knights, were famously stolen in 1907; they have not since been recovered. image of the stolen Irish Crown Jewels, published in Hue and Cry, which was published by the Royal Irish Constabulary and the Dublin Metropolitican Police twice a week. ... image of the stolen Irish Crown Jewels, published in Hue and Cry, which was published by the Royal Irish Constabulary and the Dublin Metropolitican Police twice a week. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Ruby is a red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum in which the color is caused mainly by chromium. ... For other things of this name, see Emerald (disambiguation). ... A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets. ... The Insignia of the Knights of St. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The robes of one former Knight of St Patrick are now on display in the Heraldic Museum in Dublin.


Chapel and Chancery

St Patrick's Cathedral was the Chapel of the Order.

The Chapel of the Order was originally in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Each member of the Order, including the Sovereign, was allotted a stall in the choir of the Chapel, above which his or her heraldic devices were displayed. Perched on the pinnacle of a knight's stall was his helm, decorated with a mantling and topped by his crest. Above the crest or coronet, the knight's or lady's heraldic banner was hung, emblazoned with his or her coat of arms. At a considerably smaller scale, to the back of the stall was affixed a piece of brass (a "stall plate") displaying its occupant's name, arms and date of admission into the Order. Upon the death of a Knight, the banner, helm, mantling, crest (or coronet or crown) and sword are taken down. The stall plates, however, were not removed; rather, they remained permanently affixed somewhere about the stall, so that the stalls of the chapel were festooned with a colourful record of the Order's Knights. After the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1871, the Chapel ceased to be used; the heraldic devices of the knights at the time, however, remain. St. ... St. ... Dublins Hapenny Bridge. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other meanings of the term banner, see banner (disambiguation). ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


The Chancery of the Order was the Great Hall (now St Patrick's Hall) in Dublin Castle. Each St Patrick's Day, a banquet was held in the Hall, and any new knights installed. St Patrick's Hall now serves as the location for the inauguration of the President of Ireland. This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Dublin Castle in Dublin, Ireland was the seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922. ... (Redirected from 17 March) March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Precedence and privileges

Knights of St Patrick could prefix "Sir" to their forenames, but the form was never used in speech, as they were all peers and therefore referred to by their peerage dignities. They were assigned positions in the order of precedence, but had higher positions by virtue of their peerage dignities. The Order of precedence in England and Wales as of 29 October 2004: Gentlemen The Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II) HRH The Duke of Edinburgh HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duke of York HRH The Earl of Wessex HRH Prince William of Wales HRH Prince Harry of Wales Peter...


Knights used the post-nominal letters "KP". When an individual was entitled to use multiple post-nominal letters, KP appeared before all others, except "Bt" (Baronet), "VC" (Victoria Cross), "GC" (George Cross), "KG" (Knight of the Garter) and "KT" (Knight of the Thistle). A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) is the holder of a title, similar to a knighthood except that it is hereditary, known as a baronetcy. ... Victoria Cross, Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Victoria Cross (official post-nominal letters VC) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service and civilians under military command. ... The George Cross The George Cross (GC) is the highest Commonwealth decoration awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry not in the face of the enemy and is equal to the Victoria Cross. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ...


Knights could encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a blue circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar.


Knights were also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. This high privilege was, and is, only shared by members of the Royal Family, peers, Knights and Ladies of the Garter, Knights and Ladies of the Thistle, and Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights Grand Commanders of the junior orders. (Of course, Knights of St Patrick, all being members of the Royal Family or peers, were entitled to supporters in any event.)


Current Members and Officers

  • Sovereign: HM The Queen
  • Registrar and King of Arms: Thomas Woodcock Esq. LVO (Norroy and Ulster King of Arms)

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The Queen, is the Queen regnant and Head of State of the United Kingdom, as well as the Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea... Post-nominal letters are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, office, or honour. ...

See also

The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick was founded in 1783. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross...

References

  • Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society. (2002). "The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick." (http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/cuhags/orderofc/spatrick.htm)
  • Galloway, P. (1999.) The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick 1783-1983. London: Phillimore & Co Ltd.
  • "Knighthood and Chivalry." (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • The National Cathedral and Collegiate Church of Saint Patrick. (2004). "Knights of St Patrick." (http://www.stpatrickscathedral.ie/knights.htm)
  • Rayment, L. (2003). "Knights of St Patrick." (http://www.angeltowns.com/town/peerage/02patrick.htm)
  • Velde, F. R. (2003). "Order of Precedence in England and Wales. (http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/order_precedence.htm)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Order of St. Patrick - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2109 words)
After most of Ireland separated from the United Kingdom, only two Knights of St Patrick were created: for Edward, Prince of Wales (in 1927) and Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (in 1934); on the initiative of their father, George V, with the approval of the Irish Governments of W.T. Cosgrave and Eamon de Valera respectively.
Unlike the Orders of the Garter and the Thistle, the Order of St Patrick was limited to princes and peers.
St Patrick's Cathedral was the Chapel of the Order.
Article about "Order of St Patrick" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (539 words)
It was the Irish equivalent of the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle.
The Order was created by King George III and was awarded by him and subsequent kings as King of Ireland (1783-1800), the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1922) and again as King of Ireland (1922-1937).
One member of the order, the Earl of Granard, who served as the member of the President of Ireland's Council of State during the 1940s and who was friendly with many leading Irish politicians, constantly campaigned for the reinstatement of the Order of St. Patrick.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m