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Encyclopedia > Order of Friars Minor Capuchin

The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ...

Contents

Origins

The order arose in 1520, when Matteo da Bascio, a native of the region of Marche, Italy, an "Observant" Franciscan friar, became possessed of the idea that the manner of life led by the Franciscans of his day was not the one which St Francis had envisioned. He sought to return to the primitive way of life in solitude and penance as practiced by the founder of his order. This article is about the Italian region. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ...


His superiors tried to suppress these innovations, and Friar Matteo and his first companions were forced into hiding from Church authorities, who sought to arrest them for having abandoned their religious duties. They were given refuge by the Camaldolese monks, in gratitude for which they later adopted the hood (capuche) worn by that order--which was the mark of a hermit in that region of Italy--and the practice of wearing a beard. Ironically, the popular name of their movement originates from this feature of their habit. In 1528, Friar Matteo obtained the approval of Pope Clement VII and was given permission to live as a hermit and to go about everywhere preaching to the poor. These permissions were not only for himself, but for all such as might join him in the attempt to restore the most literal observance possible of St Francis' rule. Matteo and the original band was soon joined by others. The Observants opposed the movement, but the Conventuals supported it, and so Matteo and his companions were formed into a congregation, called the Hermit Friars Minor, as a branch of the Conventual Franciscans, but with a vicar of their own, subject to the jurisdiction of the general of the Conventuals. Camaldolese Priory on Bielany in Kraków The Camaldolese are part of the Benedictine family of monastic orders founded by St. ... A religious habit refers to the distinctive garment(s) worn by members of religious orders, e. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ... The Order of Friars Minor Conventual (OFM Conv), commonly known as the Conventual Franciscans, is a branch of the order of Roman Catholic Friars founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209. ...


The order's rules

In 1529, they had four houses and held their first general chapter, at which their special rules were drawn up. The eremitical idea was abandoned, but the life was to be one of extreme austerity, simplicity and poverty—in all things as near an approach to St Francis's idea as was practicable. Neither the monasteries nor the congregation should possess anything, nor were any devices to be resorted to for evading this law; no large provision against temporal wants should be made, and the supplies in the house should never exceed what was necessary for a few days. Everything was to be obtained by begging, and the friars were not allowed even to touch money. The communities were to be small, eight being fixed as the normal number and twelve as the limit. In furniture and clothing extreme simplicity was enjoined and the friars were discalced, required to go bare-footed without even sandals. For alternate uses of time, see Time (disambiguation) or see TIME (magazine). ... Discalced is a term applied to those religious congregations of men and women, the members of which go entirely barefoot or wear sandals, with or without other covering for the feet. ...


Besides the choral canonical office, a portion of which was recited at midnight, there were two hours of private prayer daily. The fasts and disciplines were rigorous and frequent. The great external work was preaching and spiritual ministrations among the poor. In theology the Capuchins abandoned the later Franciscan school of Scotus, and returned to the earlier school of Bonaventura. Scotism is the name given to the philosophical and theological system or school named after John Duns Scotus. ... For other uses, see Bonaventure (disambiguation). ...


The Capuchines

The Capuchines are Capuchin nuns. They were founded in 1538 in Naples. They lived according to the rules and regulations of the Capuchin friars, and so austere was the life that they were called "Sisters of Suffering." The order spread to France and Spain. A few convents still exist. The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ...


Early setbacks

The new congregation at the outset of its history underwent a series of severe blows. The two founders left it, Matteo di Bassi to return to the Observants, while his first companion, on being superseded in the office of vicar, became so insubordinate that he had to be expelled. The case of the third vicar, Bernardino Ochino, who became a Calvinist, 1543, and married, was even more extreme. The Ultimate Enemy is the second TV movie of Danny Phantom, which aired on September 16th, 2005. ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting as a substitute or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... Bernardino Ochino (1487-1564), was an Italian Reformer, born at Siena in 1487. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and...


The whole congregation came under the suspicion of heretical tendencies and the pope resolved to suppress it; he was with difficulty induced to allow it to continue, but the Capuchins were forbidden to preach.


Expansion

In a couple of years the authorities were satisfied as to the soundness of the general body of Capuchin friars, and the permission to preach was restored. The congregation at once began to multiply with extraordinary rapidity, and by the end of the 16th century the Capuchins had spread all over the Catholic parts of Europe, so that in 1619 they were freed from their dependence on the Conventual Franciscans and became an independent order, with a general of their own. They are said to have had at that time 1500 houses divided into fifty provinces. They were one of the chief factors in the Catholic Counter-reformation, working assiduously among the poor, preaching, catechizing, confessing in all parts, and impressing the minds of the common people by the great poverty and austerity of their life. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


By these means they were also extraordinarily successful in making converts from Protestantism to Catholicism. Nor were the activities of the Capuchins confined to Europe. From an early date they undertook missions to the heathen in America, Asia and Africa, and was founded in Rome for the purpose of preparing their subjects for foreign missions. A large number of Capuchins have suffered martyrdom for the Gospel. This activity in Europe and elsewhere continued until the close of the 18th century, when the number of Capuchin friars was estimated at 31,000.


Cimitero dei Cappuccini: The Crypt

The remains of 4,000 friars adorn the ossuary of the Santa Maria della Concezione
The remains of 4,000 friars adorn the ossuary of the Santa Maria della Concezione

The crypt is located just under Santa Maria della Concezione, a church commissioned by Pope Urban XIII in 1626. The pope's brother, Cardinal Antonio Barberini, who was of the Capuchin order, in 1631 ordered the remains of thousands of Capuchin friars exhumed and transferred from the friary Via dei Lucchesi to the crypt. The bones were arranged along the walls, and the friars began to bury their own dead here, as well as the bodies of poor Romans, whose tomb was under the floor of the present Mass chapel. Here the Capuchins would come to pray and reflect each evening before retiring for the night. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 2043 KB) cripta de Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Order of Friars Minor Capuchin Santa Maria della Concezione dei... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 2043 KB) cripta de Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Order of Friars Minor Capuchin Santa Maria della Concezione dei... Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini, or Our Lady of the Conception of the Capuchins, is a church in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Pope Urban VIII, whose brother, Antonio Barberini, was a Capuchin. ... Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini, or Our Lady of the Conception of the Capuchins, is a church in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Pope Urban VIII, whose brother, Antonio Barberini, was a Capuchin. ...


The crypt, or ossuary, now contains the remains of 4,000 friars buried between 1500-1870, during which time the Roman Catholic Church permitted burial in and under churches. The underground crypt is divided into five chapels, lit only by dim natural light seeping in through cracks, and small fluorescent lamps. The crypt walls are decorated with the remains in fantastic fashion, making this crypt a true work of art. Some of the skeletons are intact and draped with Franciscan habits, but for the most part, individual bones are used to create elaborate ornamental designs. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ...


Visitors to the crypt should keep in mind the historical moment of its origins, when Christians had a rich and creative cult for their dead and great spiritual masters meditated and preached with a skull in hand.


"What you are now, we once were; what we are now, you shall be."


To the present day

Like all other orders, the Capuchins suffered severely from the secularizations and revolutions of the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th; but they survived the strain, and during the latter part of the 19th century rapidly recovered ground. At the beginning of the 20th century there were fifty provinces with some 500 friaries and 300 hospices or lesser houses; and the number of Capuchin friars, including lay brothers, was reckoned at 9500. In Britain there are currently six Capuchin houses, and in Ireland about a dozen. The Capuchins still keep up their missionary work and have some 200 missionary stations in all parts of the world—notably India, Abyssinia and the Turkish empire. Though "the poorest of all orders," it has attracted into its ranks an extraordinary number of the highest nobility and even of royalty. The celebrated Father Mathew, the apostle of Temperance in Ireland, was a Capuchin friar. Like the Franciscans the Capuchins wear a brown habit. Lay brothers are Catholic religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or friary. ... Father Mathew Theobald Mathew (1790-1856) was an Irish temperance reformer, popularly known as Father Mathew was born at Thomastown, near Cashel, County Tipperary, on October 10, 1790. ...


In the Imperial Crypt, underneath the Church of the Capuchins in Vienna, over 140 members of the Habsburg dynasty are buried. The most recent burial in the crypt was in 1989 for Empress Zita, consort of the last Austrian Emperor Charles I. An ornament of the sarcophagus of Emperor Karl VI: a deaths head with the crown of the Holy Roman Empire Tomb of Franz Josef I, flanked by wife Elisabeth and son Rudolf. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... From left to right: Otto von Habsburg, his son Karl, Cardinal Mindszenty and Ottos mother Zita in 1972 Zita of Bourbon-Parma (German: Zita von Bourbon-Parma) (May 9, 1892 - March 14, 1989) was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary. ... Karl I of Austria, Károly IV. of Hungary, Karel III of Bohemia Karl I (August 17, 1887 – April 1, 1922), Karl Franz Josef Ludwig Hubert Georg Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen (Hungarian: Károly IV (Károly Ferenc József)), was (among other titles) the last Emperor of Austria, the...


United States of America

The United States has six provinces throughout the country. The Province of St. Joseph, or Province of Calvary, headquartered in Detroit, Michigan was the first Capuchin Province to be established in the country. It was started by Fathers Francis Haas and Bonaventure Frey, two Swiss diocesan priests who eventually joined the Capuchin Order. The priests started St. Lawrence Seminary High School in Mount Calvary, Wisconsin, a school that is still owned and operated by the Capuchin Order. One of the friars of this community, Fr. Solanus Casey, was noted for the holiness of his life, serving as the porter of several Capuchin houses for decades, and is currently being considered for canonization. Nickname: Motor City, Motown Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area    - City 370. ... St. ... Mount Calvary is a village located in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. ... Venerable Solanus Casey Bernard Francis Casey (November 25, 1870 – July 31, 1957) was born in Oak Grove, Wisconsin. ... Look up Porter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she qualifies for this. ...


The other provinces are: Western America, based in Burlingame, CA; Mid-America, based in Denver, CO; St. Augustine, headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to which Cardinal Sean O'Malley belongs, New Jersey, based in Union City, NJ; New York - New England, based in White Plains, NY. The latter has a sub-province under it which minsters in the Pacific, namely in Guam and on the Hawaiian island of O'ahu. There is a Vice-Province based in Dallas, Texas. City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Cardinal-Designate Sean P. OMalley, OFM Cap. ... The Island of Oahu. ...


Trivia

The cappuccino coffee is supposedly named after the Capuchin friars who are said to have invented the drink [1]. Other sources, such as Merriam-Webster, state that the cappuccino is so named based on the likeness of its color to that of the Capuchin habit. An alternative explanation is that a cappuccino resembles a Capuchin friar's characteristic manner of hairstyle, namely the tonsure, where the milky center represents the shaved top of the head, and the darker edge the ring of (brown) hair around it. A typical cappuccino with foam. ... A cup of coffee Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... A religious habit refers to the distinctive garment(s) worn by members of religious orders, e. ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ...


Likewise, the Capuchin monkey gets its name because of the resemblance between the color of the fur of its species, the white-headed capuchin, and that of the Capuchin habit. Type Species Simia capucina Linnaeus, 1758 Species Cebus capucinus Cebus albifrons Cebus olivaceus Cebus kaapori Cebus apella Cebus libidinosus Cebus nigritus Cebus xanthosternos Cebus queirozi Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella) The capuchins are the group of New World monkeys classified as genus Cebus. ... Type has historically had the following uses: In biology, a type is the specimen or specimens upon which an original species description is based. ... Binomial name Cebus capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758) The White-headed Capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the White-faced Capuchin or White-throated Capuchin, is a small New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae. ...


References

  1. ^ Ackerman, Diane (1994). A Natural History of Love. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-76183-7.
  1. There does not appear to be any modern general history of the Capuchin order as a whole, though there are histories of various provinces and of the foreign missions. The references to this literature can be found in the article "Kapuzinerorden" in Wetzer und Welte, Kirchenlexicon (2nd ed.), a general sketch on the subject.
  2. Shorter sketches, with the needful references, are given in Max Heimbucher, Orden und Kongregationen (1896), i. § 4j~ and in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopedie (3rd ed.), art. "Kapuziner."
  3. Helyot's Hist. des ordres religieux (1792), vii. c. 24 and c. 27, gives an account of the Capuchins up to the end of the 17th century.

Pierre Helyot (1660-1716), Franciscan friar and historian, was born at Paris in January 1660, of supposed English ancestry. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
SSPXAsia.com: Capuchins: St. Francis Friary (775 words)
The Capuchins are the strictest observants of the Franciscan Rule, while the Conventuals are the most relaxed.  The Observants or the Franciscans are in between but perhaps closer to the Capuchins.
The lay brothers (lay friars) have a more contemplative life than the priests because their life is more hidden and withdrawn.  They do gardening, cooking, look after the sacristy, and the brother who answers the door is traditionally a lay brother.
The clerical friar begins as a postulant for two months; then he is a novice for a year and he wears the habit; he does manual work like helping in the kitchen, cleaning and gardening and he attends courses and reads books on Franciscan spirituality, the religious life and Christian doctrine.
Franciscan Order in modern times - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (716 words)
The Capuchins are the youngest branch of Franciscans, going back to 1525, when some Friars Minor in the Marches wanted to live a stricter life of prayer and poverty to be closer to the original intentions of St. Francis.
The name Capuchins refers to the peculiar shape of the long hood; originally a popular nickname, it has become a part of the official name of the Order (Order of Friars Minor Capuchin), which now exists in 99 countries all over the world, with around 11,000 brothers living in more than 1800 communities (fraternities, friaries).
The Secular Franciscan Order, known as the Third Order Secular of St. Francis prior to 1978, is an order founded by St. Francis in 1212 for brothers and sisters who do not live in a religious community.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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