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Encyclopedia > Order of Christ (Portugal)

Founded in 1318, the Military Order of Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo) was the heritage of the Knights Templar in Portugal, after the suppression of the Templars in 1312. Under heavy influence from Philip IV of France, Pope Clement V had the order annihilated throughout France and most of Europe on charges of heresy, but King Denis of Portugal re-instituted the Templars of Tomar as the Order of Christ, largely for their aid during the Reconquista and in the reconstruction of Portugal after the wars. King Denis negotiated with Pope Clement's successor John XXII for the new order's recognition and right to inherit the Templar assets and property. Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... The Seal of the Knights Templar This article is about the medieval military order. ... Events June 15 : Battle near Rozgoni Battle near Thebes Siege of Rostock begins Births November 13 - King Edward III of England Deaths June 19 - Piers Gaveston, favourite of Edward II of England September 7 - King Ferdinand IV of Castile Categories: 1312 ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven continents of the Earth. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Dinis of Portugal (in archaic Portuguese Diniz; in English Denis), the Farmer (Port. ... District or region Santarém Mayor   - Party António Paiva PSD Area 351. ... The Reconquista (English: Reconquest) was the process encompassing almost 8 centuries, by which the Christian kingdoms of northern Hispania (modern Portugal and Spain) reconquered the Iberian peninsula from the Muslim and Moorish states of Al-Ándalus. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ...

Contents

The precursors of the order – the foundation of Tomar

The "Convento de Cristo" in Tomar, central Portugal.
The "Convento de Cristo" in Tomar, central Portugal.

The Templars were founded around 1118 and soon formed commanderies around Europe to support their efforts in the Holy Land, settling in Portugal in 1128 Download high resolution version (768x1024, 216 KB)((templarplaces ) Photo by Cristian Chirita 2004 Contact Info: Cristian. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 216 KB)((templarplaces ) Photo by Cristian Chirita 2004 Contact Info: Cristian. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven continents of the Earth. ... Terra Sancta sive Palæstina with Israelite tribal allotments shown. ... Events Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ...

Floor Plan of the Church, Chapter House and Charola
Floor Plan of the Church, Chapter House and Charola
The Church in Tomar.
The Church in Tomar.

Dom Gualdim Pais, provincial Master of the Order of the Temple in Portugal, constructed the Convento de Cristo in 1160. According to folklore he chose the location after drawing lots and receiving a sign to build a new Templar fortress on a hill between the river Fria and St. Gregory's creek. The Convento de Cristo (360º vitual tour [1]) is a testament to the Templars' architectural abilities. Download high resolution version (944x492, 60 KB)Drawing of Tomar Church Floor plan Drawing By Cristian Chirita Submited By Cristian Chirita File links The following pages link to this file: Convento de Cristo Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (944x492, 60 KB)Drawing of Tomar Church Floor plan Drawing By Cristian Chirita Submited By Cristian Chirita File links The following pages link to this file: Convento de Cristo Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Tomar mother of all churches File links The following pages link to this file: Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Tomar mother of all churches File links The following pages link to this file: Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Dom Gualdim Pais, portuguese crusader, Templar Friar and Knight of Afonso I of Portugal (1118-1195) was the founder of the city of Tomar. ... Images of Medieval Templars HQ in Portugal Templars Round Church in Tomar One of the courtyards: An medieval Clock Cristian Chirita photo 2004 One detail The Kitchen Tomar Castle Cristian Chirita photos Tomar 2004 Links Templars Tomar Categories: Portugal | Crusades | Roman Catholic Orders and Societies | Orders of knighthood | Europe... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ...


The octagonal church was inspired by the Islamic Dome of the Rock shrine in Jerusalem, used by the Templars as their base of operations. The Dome of the Rock is located on the Temple Mount, where the Temple of Jerusalem stood prior to its destruction in 70 AD, and the Templars believed the Dome of the Rock was a remnant of the ancient Temple from which their name derives. The order incorporated features of the shrine into their imagery and architecture, including the seals of Grand-Masters [[Evrard Julie Weissman dances all day long. Eight walls give the edifice structural stability and also form the Templar Cross Patee within the limits of the octagon. The shape is also an eight-pointed star – the Star of Bethlehem. The number 8 is a mystical one, because it represents the infinite, as it has no beginning or end; eight is also the number of fate, destiny and justice. The octagonal shapes may represent the link between the spiritual and temporal worlds, with God or infinity signified by the circle and earth by the square; the octagon was also a symbol of the Church bringing light into the world [2]. The Convento is laid out perhaps to represent a constellation, with the Charola in the position of Orion. A regular octagon. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Noble Sanctuary The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: הַר הַבַּיִת, Har haBáyit). ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... Seals of the Knights Templars Officials of religious Orders had their own seals to validate documents approved by the Order. ... Adoration of the Magi, with the star of Bethlehem in the top left. ... 8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Orion (IPA: ), a constellation often referred to as The Hunter, is a prominent constellation, perhaps the best-known and most conspicuous in the sky. ...


Still, there are strong reasons which support another source of inspiration for the construction: the Rotonda and Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The sepulchre itself stands in an elaborate structure within the rotunda (rotunda – 35 m diameter), surrounded by a groups of three columns between four pairs of square piers columns supporting an ornamented, domed roof. It is possible that the 4th-century rotunda's columns were removed from their original location on the façade of the Roman temple. Renovation of the piers exposed evidence that the columns had originally been much higher and that the Crusaders cut them in half for use in the 12th-century rotunda. Rotonda is a census-designated place (CDP) in Charlotte County, Florida, United States. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


There is a legend about Grand-Master Dom Gualdim Pais hiding the Holy Grail in Tomar. On July 13, 1190, the King of Morocco laid siege to the Templars in Tomar. This test of strength confirmed the Templar's military power and established them as an indispensable presence in the defense of northern Portugal. Pais died in 1195 after ruling 50 years. Dom Gualdim Pais, portuguese crusader, Templar Friar and Knight of Afonso I of Portugal (1118-1195) was the founder of the city of Tomar. ... In Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... This is a partial list of Kings of Morocco. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ...


Suppression of the Templars – birth of the Order of Christ

The floor plan of the Dome of the Rock and some lines depicting some symbolic associations.
The floor plan of the Dome of the Rock and some lines depicting some symbolic associations.
The Seal of the Grand-Masters Evrard de Barres and Regnaud de Vichier depicts the Dome of the Rock.
The Seal of the Grand-Masters Evrard de Barres and Regnaud de Vichier depicts the Dome of the Rock.

After the Templar order's suppression by Pope Clement in 1312, King Denis set about creating a new order for the displaced knights in his realm. He instituted the "Christi Militia" under the patronage of Saint Benedict in 1317 (some sources say August 14, 1318), and Pope John XXII approved this order by a Papal bull on March 14, 1319 "AD EA EX QVIBVIS". Dome of the Rock Floor Plan and Some speculations The image was created by cristian chirita. ... Seal Barre updated File links The following pages link to this file: Knights Templar Dome of the Rock Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Seal Barre updated File links The following pages link to this file: Knights Templar Dome of the Rock Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Events 1 April: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English Emperor Go-Daigo ascends to the throne of Japan End of the reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan Pope John XXII declares the doctrines of the Franciscans advocating ecclesiastical poverty erroneous Qalaun Mosque, Cairo... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ...


After four years of negotiations, Pope John XXII passed another bull authorizing Denis to grant the Templar's property to the Order of the Christ in 1323. The knights of the order were committed to vows of poverty, chastity and obedience to the king. It is unclear how many Templars continued in the new order; some historians would claim the Order of Christ was essentially the Templars under a new name; while others see it as a mostly original formation. The first Grand Master, Dom Gil Martinez, had been a knight of Saint Benedict in the Order of Aviz, a branch of the Order of Calatrava. Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Orders emblem The Military Order of Aviz (Ordem Militar de Aviz, Portuguese pron. ... The order emblem, a greek cross in gules with fleur-de-lis at its ends. ...

Cross of The Order
Cross of The Order

The Order of Christ was first seated at Castro Marim, in the Algarve (in the Diocese of Faro). In 1357, the order was moved to the town of Tomar, near Santarem, former seat of the Order of the Knights Templars in Portugal. (Other sources give the movement date 1366 under the 6th Grand Master, Dom Nuno Rodrigues.) Image File history File links Order_of_Christ_Cross. ... Image File history File links Order_of_Christ_Cross. ... Castro Marim is a town in the Algarve region of Portugal. ... Algarve NUTS II region, and the district of Faro in Portugal Vilamouras marina Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Algarve The Algarve (pron. ... Faro is a district of Portugal. ... [[ == == ===Events= July 9 - Charles Bridge in Prague was founded == == ==]] Births Vincent Ferrer April 11 - King John I of Portugal Deaths May 28 - King Afonso IV of Portugal Categories: 1357 ... District or region Santarém Mayor   - Party António Paiva PSD Area 351. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ...


The Order of Christ under Henry the Navigator

Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator

After 1417, by King John I of Portugal's request to the Pope, Prince Henry the Navigator (14171465) became the order's Grand Master. Prince Henry the Navigator was born in 1394, the third son of King João of Portugal. During that time, Duarte I and Afonso V were kings of Portugal. In 1433, King Duarte I gave the Order "Sovereign" status not over these territories which already held, but over any future conquests. Pope Calixtus III in 1455 confirmed that Afonso V extended his temporal jurisdiction by conceding the royal prerogative over three episcopal nominations in areas ruled by the Order. In 1460, King Afonso V granted the Knights of Christ a 5% levy on all merchandise from the new African lands. Using Order of Christ money, Prince Henry organized the Navigator's school in Sagres, preparing the way for Portuguese supremacy; from this village the first great wave of expeditions of the Period of Discoveries were launched. Henry the Navigator Picture from http://genealogia. ... Henry the Navigator Picture from http://genealogia. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... João I (pron. ... Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu KG (Porto, March 4, 1394–Sagres, November 13, 1460); pron. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Afonso V of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Duarte of Portugal (Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal, was born in Viseu on October 31, 1391 and he died in Tomar on September 13, 1438. ... Callixtus III, né Alphonso de Borgia (December 31, 1378 - August 6, 1458) was born in Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain and was pope from April 8, 1455 to August 6, 1458. ... ... no changes . ... Afonso V of Portugal (Portuguese pron. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... The Sagres Point, in the Algarve of southern Portugal, which forms the southwesternmost tip of Europe, was already sacred ground in Neolithic times, as standing menhirs in the neighborhood still attest. ... For additional context, see History of Portugal. ...


After Henry, the grand mastership was held by the royal family. Henry colonised the Azores and Madeira Islands – his aim was to go south beyond Cape Bojador, south of the Canary Islands. During Prince Henry's rule, two Gothic cloisters were built in the Convent of Tomar. With prince Henry began a new and glamourous period for the Order of Christ. Henry was the duke of Viseu and also member of the Knights of the Garter. Henry's impact on history is great, having arguably sparked the European interest in colonial exploration that would so transform the world for the next four centuries. Location Motto of the autonomous region: Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos (Portuguese: To die free rather than to be subjugated in peace) Official language Portuguese Capitals Ponta Delgada (Presidency of the autonomous government), Angra do Heroísmo (Supreme Court), Horta (Legislative Assembly) Other towns Praia da Vitória... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... Cape Bojador is a headland on the northern coast of Moroccos Western Sahara province, just below latitude 27° North. ... Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Location  - Region  - Subregion  - District or A.R.   {{{Region}}} {{{Subregion}}} Viseu Mayor  - Party Fernando Ruas PSD Area 507. ... The Garter is the most recognizable insignia of the Order of the Garter. ...


The Order of Christ after Henry the Navigator's command

Prince Henry was succeeded in the governorship of the Order by Prince Ferdinand, son of King Edward I, who died in 1470. Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ...


In 1484, Emmanuel, Duke of Beja, became the XIth Governor of the Order. Due to the fact that the discipline of the order was declining, Pope Alexander VI commuted the vow of celibacy to that of conjugal chastity in 1492; in 1496 the brethren were dispensed from celibacy and in 1505 from poverty, but they still continued their responsions (one third of their revenues) to the Order's treasury. (the condition that they should apply the third part of their revenues to the building and support of the Tomar Cloister) and the priests of which he bound to the whole of the three vows. Also in 1501, Pope Julius II mitigated the vow of poverty into the payment of a tax - the meia-anata, for the Order of Christ the tax was &190; of the revenues. Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Julius II, born Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ...

 The Convento de Cristo's famous Manuel I Chapter window by Diogo de Arruda (around 1510)
The Convento de Cristo's famous Manuel I Chapter window by Diogo de Arruda (around 1510)

Manuel I of Portugal sought and obtained the title of Grand Master by Pope Leo X's Bull Constante fide (June 30, 1516). King Manuel, João's successor, sent Vasco da Gama (a member of the Order of Christ) to sail around the African cape to India. He set sail in 1497 and reached Calicut. By the end of king Manuel's reign, the order possessed 454 commanderies in Portugal, Africa and the Indies. Manuel also made extensive additions to the Order's headquarters in Tomar. Manuel ordered that the church of Tomar be expanded westwards, spreading beyond the castle limits and opening up the Charola to add on to it a magnificent nave which housed the choir and the sacristy, becoming known as the chapter house. The order also began its step-by-step transformation from monastic to secular during Manuel's reign. At the end of this process, the order had taken the form of a royal institution. Download high resolution version (768x1024, 206 KB)Tomar Convento de Cristo Chapter Window Photo by Cristian Chirita Submited By Cristian Chirita File links The following pages link to this file: Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 206 KB)Tomar Convento de Cristo Chapter Window Photo by Cristian Chirita Submited By Cristian Chirita File links The following pages link to this file: Order of Christ Categories: GFDL images ... Manuel I of Portugal (pron. ... Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (Florence, 11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521, Rome), Pope from 1513 to his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) first accused the Roman Catholic Church of... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Vasco da Gama (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, c. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ...


The son of Manuel did not automatically obtain the succession right for ruling the order, and got an approval by Bull of Pope Adrian VI: "EXIMIAE DEVOTIONIS" (April 14, 1523). After thirty years, John III obtained "Perpetual Administration" of all the Portuguese Military Orders including the Order of Christ, and of course the Grand Mastership of the Order passed to the Crown by Pope Julius III's Bull, issued in Rome in 1551. For the government of these orders in the king's name, John III instituted a special council named "Mesa das Ordens". The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Pope Julius III (September 10, 1487 – March 23, 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from February 7, 1550 to 1555. ... Events Russia, Reforming Synod of the metropolite Macaire, Orthodoxy: introduction of a calendar of the saints and an ecclesiastical law code ( Stoglav ) Major outbreak of the sweating sickness in England. ...


The Reform of John III and fra Antonius

There are some who say that in 1522 the Order was divided into two branches – one religious under the Pope, and one civil under the king, as they remain today – however, there is lack of evidence regarding this. In 1523, John III held a chapter of the order giving brother Antonius of Lisbon the authority and responsibility to reform the Order. The scope of the reform was to bring to the annihilation the religious life among the knights of the order. The new statutes were approved in 1529 by Friars. The Grand Prior was removed from office and all the priests and religious of the Order were required to resume Conventual life at Tomar, and to wear the habit and cross of the Order. Dom António obtained the position of Prior and persuaded pope Pius V to give him the control of all convents of the order in 1567. Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ...


The counterreform of Sebastian

King Sebastian tried to reverse the reform of brother Antonius of Lisbon in 1574. When Antonius persuaded the pope Pius V to give him the control of all convents of the order in 1567, King Sebastian protested and obtained confirmation of his post as Grand Master. As a result the religious members of the Order were separated into lay and military membership. Sebastian I the Desired (in Portuguese, Sebastião I o Desejado; born in Lisbon, January 20, 1554; died at Alcazarquivir, August 4, 1578) was the sixteenth king of Portugal. ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ...


Other reforms movements

Between 1580 and 1640 there was another attempt to reform the order. The new statutes were enacted by the general chapter at Tomar 1619 and were promulgated by Philip IV of Spain in 1627. The conditions for admission to the order were noble birth and either two years' service in Africa or three years with the fleet. Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


The secularization of the Order

Pope Pius VI (1789) and Queen Mary I made the last attempt to reform the order. This reform made the convent of Tomar once again the headquarters of the whole order. The sovereign still remained Grand Master, but instead of the conventual prior there was a grand prior of the Order. In 1789 the Portuguese Order lost its religious character, being secularised by Queen Mary. Since 1789, the members consisted (besides the Grand Master and Great Commander) of six Knights of the Grand Cross, four hundred and fifty Commanders, and an unlimited number of Knights. Foreigners were exempt from the rules, but, at the same time, were excluded from the participation in the revenues of the Order. Only Catholics of noble descent could be admitted to the Order. The Order of Christ also survived in Brazil until the end of the Monarchic period in 1889. Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mary I Frances or Maria I Francisca (pron. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1834 when the civil government of Portugal became anti-Catholic, after the defeat of King Miguel in the Civil War, under the constitutional monarchy the order lost its properties. The ancient Military Orders were transformed by the liberal constitution and subsequent legislation into mere Orders of Merit. The privileges which once had been an essential part of the membership of the old military orders were also ceased. 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Miguel of Portugal (English: Michael), the Traditionalist (Port. ...


In 1910, when Portuguese monarchy ended, the Republic of Portugal abolished all the Orders except the Order of the Tower and Sword. However, in 1917, at the end of the Great War, some of these Orders were re-established as mere Orders of Merit to reward outstanding services to the state, the office of Grand Master belonging to the Head of State - the President of the Republic. The Military Order of Christ, together with the other Portuguese Orders of Merit, had its Statutes revised in several occasions, during the First Republic (1910–1926), then in 1962, and again in 1986. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit is a Portuguese order of knighthood, and was created by King Afonso V in 1459. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Military Order of Christ, together with the Military Orders of Aviz and of St. James of the Sword form the group of the "Ancient Military Orders", governed by a Chancellor and a Council of eight members, appointed by the President of the Republic, to assist him as Grand Master in all matters concerning the administration of the Order. The Order, despite its name, can be conferred on civilians and on military, Portuguese and foreigners, for outstanding services to the Republic, in parliament, in the government, in the diplomatic service, in the Courts of Justice, on public authorities or on the Civil Service. Orders emblem The Military Order of Aviz (Ordem Militar de Aviz, Portuguese pron. ... The Military Order of St. ...


Grades

The Order of Christ, as awarded by the Portuguese government today, comes in five classes:

  • Grand Cross (GCC), which wears the badge of the Order on a sash on the right shoulder, and the star of the Order in gold on the left chest;
  • Grand Officer (GOC), which wears the badge of the Order on a necklet, and the star of the Order in gold on the left chest;
  • Commander (ComC), which wears the badge of the Order on a necklet, and the star of the Order in silver on the left chest;
  • Officer (OC), which wears the badge of the Order on a ribbon with rosette on the left chest;
  • Knight (CavC) or Dame (DamC), which wears the badge of the Order on a plain ribbon on the left chest.

Rosettes are small, circular devices that are presented with a medal. ...

Insignia

  • The badge of the Order is a gilt cross with enamel, similar to the Order's emblem illustrated here, but with a longer lower arm. During the monarchy there were separate badges for civil and military knights: civil knights wore a badge similar to the modern version, but with the Sacred Heart of Christ above it; military knights had a completely different insignia, this being a gilt, white enamelled Maltese Cross with enamelled oval shields (each bearing a design similar to the Coat of arms of Portugal minus the red border) between the arms of the cross, the whole surrounded by a wreath of palm; the central disc was in white enamel, with a miniature of the modern badge in it; the badge was topped by a gilt crown.
  • The star of the Order has 22 asymmetrical arms of rays, in gilt for Grand Cross and Grand Officer, and in silver for Commander. The central disc is in white enamel, with a miniature of the modern badge in it. During the monarchy the Sacred Heart of Christ was placed at the top of the star.
  • The ribbon of the Order is plain red.

A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ... A depiction of Christ and the Sacred Heart The Sacred Heart is a devotional name used by some Roman Catholics to refer to the physical heart of Jesus Christ as a symbol of Divine love. ... The Maltese Cross (✠) has been the symbol of the Christian warrior since the First Crusade. ... The Coat of Arms of Portugal was officially adopted in 30 June 1911, along with the Republican Flag of Portugal. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ...

People associated with the Order of Christ

Vasco da Gama (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, c. ... Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu KG (Porto, March 4, 1394–Sagres, November 13, 1460); pron. ...

Locations associated with the Order of Christ


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Military Orders (1581 words)
military orders had their origin in the crusades, from which they retain the common badge of every order of knighthood -- the cross worn on the breast.
in Portugal, and the Order of Montesa in Spain.
An order of St. George of Alfama, in Aragon, approved in 1363 by Urban V, was merged in the Order of Montesa in 1399.
The Templars In Portugal | The Knights Templar | www.templarhistory.com (2810 words)
Prince Henry of Portugal was born in 1394, the third son of King Joao I. At the age of twenty, Prince Henry, accepted by historians as a devoutly religious man, persuaded his father to embark on a Crusade against the Muslim port of Ceuta, on the northern coast of Africa.
Manuel sought the Mastery of all three orders; Christ, Santiago and Avis and refused to allow Dom Jorge, the illegitimate son of Joao II to rule the Order of Christ after Manuel had taken the throne for himself.
Despite this, in Portugal the Order of Christ continued to be strong and Manuel I did much to support it, aided by Pope Alexander VI, who issued a bull allowing knights of the order to marry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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