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Encyclopedia > Orchestra
The Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestra
The Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestra

An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string, brass, woodwind sections, and possibly a percussion section as well. The term orchestra derives from the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus. The orchestra grew by accretion throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but changed very little in composition during the course of the twentieth century. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x1632, 1339 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orchestra Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2448x1632, 1339 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orchestra Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who perform instrumental or vocal music. ... For other uses of Greek Theatre, see Greek theatre (disambiguation). ... The Greek chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama in tragic plays of the ancient Greek theatre. ...


A smaller orchestra (of about forty players or fewer) is called a chamber orchestra.


A full size orchestra (about 100 players) may sometimes be called a "symphony orchestra" or "philharmonic orchestra"; these prefixes do not necessarily indicate any strict difference in either the instrumental constitution or role of the orchestra, but can be useful to distinguish different ensembles based in the same city (for instance, the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra). A symphony orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. A leading chamber orchestra might employ as many as fifty musicians; some are much smaller than that. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ...

Contents

Instrumentation

Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra on stage in the National Concert Hall in Taipei, Taiwan
Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra on stage in the National Concert Hall in Taipei, Taiwan

The typical symphony orchestra consists of four proportionate groups of similar musical instruments, generally appearing in the musical score in the following order: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 577 pixel, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra (National Taiwan Normal University) on stage at the National Concert Hall. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 577 pixel, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra (National Taiwan Normal University) on stage at the National Concert Hall. ... Apo Hsu in rehearsal Apo Hsu (Apo Ching-Hsin Hsu) (Traditional Chinese: ) is a conductor born in Taiwan and resident of both Taiwan and the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alternative meaning: Taipei County City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ...

The Instruments marked in boldface are considered the "core" symphonic instruments, required in all but the rarest cases. Other instruments listed above are considered auxiliary instruments and are less frequently required, but still referred to as standard. Late 19th century symphonic works calling for all the auxiliary instruments, as well as an augmented number of strings, usually include the phrase "for large orchestra" in their full titles. A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... The term flute most commonly applies to the popular transverse side-blown musical instrument made of metal. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... The soprano clarinets are a sub-family of the clarinet family. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The contrabassoon, also contrafagotto or double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... French horn redirects here. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... There are many different types of trombones. ... There are many different types of trombones. ... Tubas is a city in the Israeli administered West Bank. ... Percussion redirects here. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... A tenor drum is a cylindrical drum, much higher pitched than a bass drum. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... Clash cymbals or hand cymbals are cymbals used in identical pairs and are played by holding one cymbal in each hand and striking the two together. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... Wood block Tubular wood block A wood block is essentially a small slit drum made from a single piece of wood and used as a percussion instrument. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... The marimba ( ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... A typical vibraphone. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... A gong is one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... The string section of an orchestra is the section containing bowed string instruments. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


Beethoven’s influence

The so-called "standard complement" of double winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is generally attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven. The exceptions to this are his Fourth Symphony and Violin Concerto, which each specify a single flute. “Beethoven” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ...


Expanded instrumentation

Apart from the core orchestral complement, various other instruments are called for occasionally. These include the saxophone, heckelphone, flugelhorn, cornet, harpsichord, and organ. Saxophones, for example, appear in a limited range of 19th and 20th century scores. While appearing only as featured solo instruments in some works, for example Ravel's orchestration of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances, the saxophone is included in other works, such as Ravel's Bolero and Walton's Belshazzar's Feast, as a member of the orchestral ensemble. The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th century works, usually playing parts marked "tenor tuba", including Holst's The Planets, and Richard Strauss's Ein Heldenleben. Cornets appear in Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake, Debussy's La Mer, and several orchestral works by Hector Berlioz. Unless these instruments are played by members doubling on another instrument (for example, a trombone player changing to euphonium for a certain passage), orchestras will use freelance musicians to augment their regular rosters. The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Heckelphone The heckelphone is a musical instrument invented by Wilhelm Heckel and his sons, introduced in 1904. ... A standard 3-valved Bb flugelhorn. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский) (March 21, 1839 – March 28, 1881; sometimes spelt Modeste Moussorgsky), was an innovative Russian composer famed for his colourful, exotic, and lush orchestral pieces dedicated to various subjects of medieval Russian history. ... Mussorgsky in 1874 This article refers to the original suite by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff, also Sergey Rachmaninov or Serge Rakhmaninov (Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов), (April 1, 1873 – March 28, 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. ... Sergei Rachmaninoffs Symphonic Dances , Op. ... The Boléro is one of Maurice Ravels (1875-1937) most famous pieces of music. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902–March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... Belshazzars Feast is the title of an oratorio by the English composer William Walton. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... This page is about the orchestral suite by Gustav Holst. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Valse des cygnes from Act II of the Ivanov/Petipa edition of Swan Lake. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... La Mer is an orchestral composition by the French composer Claude Debussy. ... Lithograph of Berlioz by August Prinzhofer, Vienna, 1845. ... Freelance 800F - The compact solution ABBs Freelance 800F control system combines easy engineering with an open, modern system architecture. ...


Organization

Lorin Maazel conducting
Lorin Maazel conducting

Among the instrument groups and within each group of instruments, there is a generally accepted hierarchy. Every instrumental group (or section) has a principal who is generally responsible for leading the group and playing orchestral solos. The violins are divided into two groups, first violin and second violin, each with its principal. The principal first violin is called the concertmaster (or "leader" in the UK) and is considered the leader of not only the string section, but of the entire orchestra, subordinate only to the conductor. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1331 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1331 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Lorin Varencove Maazel (born March 6, 1930) is a conductor, violinist and composer. ... Concert-master. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...


The principal trombone is considered the leader of the low brass section, while the principal trumpet is generally considered the leader of the entire brass section. Similarly, the principal oboe is considered the leader of the woodwind section, and is the player to whom all others tune. The horn, while technically a brass instrument, often acts in the role of both woodwind and brass. Most sections also have an assistant principal (or co-principal or associate principal), or in the case of the first violins, an assistant concertmaster, who often plays a tutti part in addition to replacing the principal in his or her absence. French horn redirects here. ... In music, a tutti section in a concerto is one in which the orchestra plays and the soloist does not. ...


A section string player plays unison with the rest of the section, except in the case of divided (divisi) parts, where upper and lower parts in the music are often assigned to "outside" (nearer the audience) and "inside" seated players. Where a solo part is called for in a string section, for example in the violins, the section leader invariably plays that part. Tutti wind and brass players generally play a unique but non-solo part. Section percussionists play parts assigned to them by the principal percussionist. For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ...


In modern times, the musicians are usually directed by a conductor, although early orchestras did not have one, using instead the concertmaster or the harpsichordist playing the continuo for this role. Some modern orchestras also do without conductors, particularly smaller orchestras and those specialising in historically accurate performances of baroque music and earlier. For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Concert-master. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ...


The most frequently performed repertoire for a symphony orchestra is Western classical music or opera. However, orchestras are sometimes used in popular music, and are used extensively in film music. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ...

The Budapest Symphony Orchestra
The Budapest Symphony Orchestra

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 564 pixelsFull resolution (804 × 567 pixel, file size: 213 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from my archives. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 564 pixelsFull resolution (804 × 567 pixel, file size: 213 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from my archives. ...

History of the orchestra

Early history

In the 15th and 16th centuries in Italy the households of nobles had musicians to provide music for dancing and the court, however with the emergence of the theatre, particularly opera, in the early 17th century, music was increasingly written for groups of players in combination: which is the origin of orchestral playing. Opera originated in Italy, and Germany eagerly followed. Dresden, Munich and Hamburg successively built opera houses. At the end of the 17th century opera flourished in England under Henry Purcell, and in France under Lully, who with the collaboration of Molière also greatly raised the status of the entertainments known as ballets, interspersed with instrumental and vocal music. A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ...


In the 17th century and early 18th century, instrumental groups were taken from all of the available talent. A composer such as Johann Sebastian Bach had control over almost all of the musical resources of a town, whereas Handel would hire the best musicians available. This placed a premium on being able to rewrite music for whichever singers or musicians were best suited for a performance—Handel produced different versions of the Messiah oratorio almost every year. “Bach” redirects here. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...


As nobility began to build retreats away from towns, they began to hire musicians to form permanent ensembles. Composers such as the young Joseph Haydn would then have a fixed body of instrumentalists to work with. At the same time, travelling virtuoso performers would write concerti that showed off their skills, and they would travel from town to town, arranging concerts along the way. The aristocratic orchestras worked together over long periods, making it possible for ensemble playing to improve with practice. Haydn redirects here. ...


Mannheim School

This change, from civic music making where the composer had some degree of time or control, to smaller court music making and one-off performance, placed a premium on music that was easy to learn, often with little or no rehearsal. The results were changes in musical style and emphasis on new techniques. Mannheim had one of the most famous orchestras of that time, where notated dynamics and phrasing, previously quite rare, became standard (see Mannheim school). It also attended a change in musical style from the complex counterpoint of the baroque period, to an emphasis on clear melody, homophonic textures, short phrases, and frequent cadences: a style that would later be defined as classical. Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers who wrote such music for the orchestra of Mannheim and others. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ...


Throughout the late 18th century composers would continue to have to assemble musicians for a performance, often called an "Academy", which would, naturally, feature their own compositions. In 1781, however, the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra was organized from the merchants concert society, and it began a trend towards the formation of civic orchestras that would accelerate into the 19th century. In 1815, Boston's Handel and Haydn Society was founded, in 1842 the New York Philharmonic and the Vienna Philharmonic were formed, and in 1858, the Hallé Orchestra was formed in Manchester. There had long been standing bodies of musicians around operas, but not for concert music: this situation changed in the early 19th century as part of the increasing emphasis in the composition of symphonies and other purely instrumental forms. This was encouraged by composer critics such as E.T.A. Hoffmann who declared that instrumental music was the "purest form" of music. The creation of standing orchestras also resulted in a professional framework where musicians could rehearse and perform the same works repeatedly, leading to the concept of a repertoire in instrumental music. The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra is a German orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany. ... The Handel and Haydn Society is a choral society in the city of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... The Hallé Orchestra is one of Britains longest established orchestras, and is based in Manchester. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Performance standards

In the 1830s, conductor François Antoine Habeneck, began rehearsing a selected group of musicians in order to perform the symphonies of Beethoven, which had not been heard of in their entirety in Paris. He developed techniques of rehearsing the strings separately, notating specifics of performance, and other techniques of cuing entrances that were spread across Europe. His rival and friend Hector Berlioz would adopt many of these innovations in his touring of Europe. François Antoine Habeneck (1781-1849) was a French violinist and conductor, born at Mézières. ... Lithograph of Berlioz by August Prinzhofer, Vienna, 1845. ...


Instrumental craftsmanship

The invention of the piston and rotary valve by Stolzel and Bluhmel, both Silesians, in 1815, was the first in a series of innovations, including the development of modern keywork for the flute by Theobald Boehm and the innovations of Adolphe Sax in the woodwinds. These advances would lead Hector Berlioz to write a landmark book on instrumentation, which was the first systematic treatise on the use of instrumental sound as an expressive element of music. Girl in Upper Silesian dress from Mysłowice, 2006 Woman in Silesian dress from Teschen, 1914 Silesians (Silesian: Ślônzoki; Polish: ; Czech: ; German: ) are the West Slavic inhabitants of Silesia (Czech: ) , Poland and Czech Republic. ... Theobald Boehm (April 9, 1794- November 25, 1881) was a Bavarian inventor and musician, who perfected the modern flute and its improved fingering system, which has not changed since his time. ... Life-size statue of Adolphe Sax outside his birthplace in Dinant, Belgium. ... Lithograph of Berlioz by August Prinzhofer, Vienna, 1845. ... Instrumentation is the study and practice of writing music for a musical instrument. ...


The effect of the invention of valves for the brass was felt almost immediately: instrument-makers throughout Europe strove together to foster the use of these newly refined instruments and continuing their perfection; and the orchestra was before long enriched by a new family of valved instruments, variously known as tubas, or euphoniums and bombardons, having a chromatic scale and a full sonorous tone of great beauty and immense volume, forming a magnificent bass. This also made possible a more uniform playing of notes or intonation, which would lead to a more and more "smooth" orchestral sound that would peak in the 1950s with Eugene Ormandy and The Philadelphia Orchestra and the conducting of Herbert von Karajan with The Berlin Philharmonic. For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... Intonation, in music, is a players realization of pitch accuracy. ... Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899, Budapest, Hungary – March 12, 1985, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an eminent American orchestral conductor. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The Berliner Philharmoniker (Berlin Philharmonic), is one of the worlds leading orchestras. ...


During this transition period, which gradually eased the performance of more demanding "natural" brass writing, many composers (notably Wagner and Berlioz) still notated brass parts for the older "natural" instruments. This practice made it possible for players still using natural horns, for instance, to perform from the same parts as those now playing valved instruments. However, over time, use of the valved instruments became standard, indeed universal, until the revival of older instruments in the contemporary movement towards authentic performance (sometimes known as "historically informed performance"). The authentic performance movement is an effort on the part of musicians and scholars to perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they were performed when they were originally written. ...


At the time of the invention of the valved brass, the pit orchestra of most operetta composers seems to have been modest. An example is Sullivan's use of two flutes, one oboe, two clarinets, one bassoon, two horns, two cornets (a piston), two trombones, drums and strings. A pit orchestra is a type of orchestra that accompanies performers in musicals, operas, and other shows involving music. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ...


During this time of invention, winds and brass were expanded, and had an increasingly easy time playing in tune with each other: particularly the ability for composers to score for large masses of wind and brass that previously had been impractical. Works such as the Requiem of Hector Berlioz would have been impossible to perform just a few decades earlier, with its demanding writing for twenty woodwinds, as well as four gigantic brass ensembles each including around four trumpets, four trombones, and two tubas. The Requiem (Op. ... Lithograph of Berlioz by August Prinzhofer, Vienna, 1845. ...


Wagner’s influence

The next major expansion of symphonic practice came from Wagner's Bayreuth orchestra, founded to accompany his musical dramas. Wagner’s works for the stage were scored with unprecedented scope and complexity: indeed, his score to Das Rheingold calls for no fewer than six harps. Thus, Wagner envisioned an ever-more-demanding role for the conductor of the theater orchestra, as he elaborated in his influential work "On Conducting". This brought about a revolution in orchestral composition, and set the style for orchestral performance for the next eighty years. Wagner's theories re-examined the importance of tempo, dynamics, bowing of string instruments and the role of principals in the orchestra. Conductors who studied his methods would go on to be influential themselves. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ...


20th century orchestra

As the early 20th century dawned, symphony orchestras were larger, better funded, and better trained than ever before; consequently, composers could compose larger and more ambitious works. With the recording era beginning, the standard of performance reached a pinnacle. In recordings, small errors in a performance could be "fixed," but many older conductors and composers could remember a time when simply "getting through" the music as best as possible was the standard. Combined with the wider audience made possible by recording, this led to a renewed focus on particular conductors and on a high standard of orchestral execution. As sound was added to silent film, the virtuoso orchestra became a key component of the establishment of motion pictures as mass-market entertainment.


Counter-revolution

In the 1920s and 1930s, economic as well as artistic considerations led to the formation of smaller concert societies, particularly those dedicated to the performance of music of the avant-garde, including Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg. This tendency to start festival orchestras or dedicated groups would also be pursued in the creation of summer musical festivals, and orchestras for the performance of smaller works. Among the most influential of these was the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields under the baton of Sir Neville Marriner. Igor Stravinsky. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... The Academy of St. ... Sir Neville Marriner (born April 15, 1924) is a conductor and violinist. ...


With the advent of the early music movement, orchestras where players worked on execution of works in styles derived from the study of older treatises on playing became common. These include the London Classical Players under the direction of Sir Roger Norrington and the Academy of Ancient Music under Christopher Hogwood, among others. London Classical Players - a British orchestra, founded and conducted by Sir Roger Norrington. ... Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor best known for performances of Baroque, Classical and Romantic music using period instruments and period style. ... Johann Christoph Pepusch Giovanni Battista Bononcini Francesco Geminiani Bernard Gates Maurice Greene The Academy of Ancient Music (AAM) is a period-instrument orchestra based in London, re-founded by harpsichordist Christopher Hogwood in 1973 and named after an original organisation of the 18th century. ... Christopher Jarvis Haley Hogwood CBE (born 10 September 1941) is an English conductor, harpsichordist, writer and scholar of music. ...


Recent trends

The late 20th century saw a crisis of funding and support for orchestras in Europe. The size and cost of a symphony orchestra, compared to the size of the base of supporters, became an issue that struck at the core of the institution. The drastic falling-off of revenues from recording, tied to no small extent to changes in the recording industry itself, began a period of change that has yet to reach its conclusion. Critics such as Norman Lebrecht were vocal in their diagnosis of the problem as the "jet set conductor" and the problems of orchestral repertory and management, while other music administrators such as Michael Tilson Thomas and Esa-Pekka Salonen argued that new music, new means of presenting it, and a renewed relationship with the community could revitalize the symphony orchestra. Norman Lebrecht (born 11 July 1948 in London) is a British commentator on music and cultural affairs and also a novelist. ... Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is an American conductor, pianist and composer. ... Esa-Pekka Salonen ( ) (born June 30, 1958 in Helsinki) is a prominent Finnish orchestral conductor and composer. ...


Conductorless orchestras

The post-revolutionary symphony orchestra Persimfans was formed in the USSR in 1922. The unusual aspect of the orchestra was that, believing that in the ideal Marxist state all people are equal, its members felt that there was no need to be led by the dictatorial baton of a conductor; instead they were led by a committee. Although it was a partial success, the principal difficulty with the concept was in changing tempo. The orchestra survived for ten years and had to be disbanded only when the individual talents began to rebel against the rigid control under which they were expected to play.[citation needed] State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... For other uses, see Committee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ...


Some ensembles, such as the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, based in New York City, have had more success, although decisions are likely to be deferred to some sense of leadership within the ensemble (for example, the principal wind and string players). The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra is a small classical music orchestra which has made many recordings. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Others have returned to the tradition of a principal player, usually a violinist, being the artistic director and running rehearsals (such as the Australian Chamber Orchestra and the New Century Chamber Orchestra). The Australian Chamber Orchestra is based in Sydney, but tours its programs to most major Australian cities. ...


Multiple conductors

The techniques of polystylism and polytempo music have recently led a few composers to write music where multiple orchestras perform simultaneously. These trends have brought about the phenomenon of polyconductor music, wherein separate sub-conductors conduct each group of musicians. Usually, one principal conductor conducts the sub-conductors, thereby shaping the overall performance. Some pieces are enormously complex in this regard, such as Evgeni Kostitsyn's Third Symphony, which calls for nine conductors. Polystylism is the use of multiple styles or techniques of music, and is seen as a postmodern characteristic. ... Evgeni Kostitsyn (b. ...


Charles Ives used two conductors, one to simulate a marching band coming through his piece. Realizations for Symphonic Band includes one example from Ives. This photo from around 1913 shows Ives in his day job. He was the director of a successful insurance agency. ...


Other meanings of orchestra

In ancient Greece the orchestra was the space between the auditorium and the proscenium (or stage), in which were stationed the chorus and the instrumentalists. The Greek word for orchestra literally means "a dancing place". An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... The interior of the Auditorium Building in Chicago built in 1887. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Greek chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama in tragic plays of the ancient Greek theatre. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ...


In some theaters, the orchestra is the area of seats directly in front of the stage (called primafila or platea); the term more properly applies to the place in a theatre, or concert hall reserved for the musicians. A Concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ...


See also

Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... // World Philharmonic Orchestra Johannesburg Philharmonic Orchestra Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra CBC Radio Orchestra Edmonton Symphony Orchestra, official site I Musici de Montréal Chamber Orchestra Kanata Symphony Orchestra, official site Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony,official site Orchestra London Canada, official site London Youth Symphony,(Ontario Canada), official site Manitoba Chamber Orchestra, official... This non-exhaustive list of symphony orchestras in Europe contains European orchestras with entries in the Wikipedia plus other particularly noted orchestras based there. ... This non-exhaustive list of symphony orchestras in the United States contains American orchestras with entries in the Wikipedia plus other particularly noted orchestras. ... Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra on stage in the National Concert Hall in Taipei, Taiwan A concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ... This is a non-exhaustive list of youth orchestras in the United States. ... The shorthand for the orchestration of a classical symphony orchestra is used to outline which and how many instruments, especially wind instruments, are called for in a given piece of music. ...

External links

  • The Orchestra: A User's Manual - A fairly concise overview, including detailed video interviews with players of each instrument and various resources

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