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Encyclopedia > Orangutan
Orangutans[1]

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Ponginae
Elliot, 1912
Genus: Pongo
Lacépède, 1799
Type species
Pongo pygmaeus
Linnaeus, 1760

Orangutan distribution
Species

Pongo pygmaeus
Pongo abelii The Sokolsky Opening (also called the Orangutan or Polish opening) is an uncommon chess opening in which white opens with 1. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Orangutan image, from a CD-ROM. All images are free for licensing according to the disc. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Daniel Giraud Elliot (March 7, 1835 - December 22, 1915) was an American zoologist. ... Lacépède Bernard Germain Étienne de la Ville, Comte de Lacépède (December 26, 1756 – October 6, 1825) was a French naturalist. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links Mapa_distribuicao_pongo. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ...

The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence, long arms and reddish-brown hair. Native to Indonesia and Malaysia, they are currently found only in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, though fossils have been found in Java, Vietnam and China. They are the only surviving species in the genus Pongo and the subfamily Ponginae (which also includes the extinct genera Gigantopithecus and Sivapithecus). Their name derives from the Malay and Indonesian phrase orang hutan, meaning "man of the forest".[2][3] The orangutan is an official state animal of Sabah in Malaysia. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Java island. ... Species Gigantopithecus blacki Gigantopithecus bilaspurensis Gigantopithecus giganteus Gigantopithecus was a genus of ape that existed from as long ago as five million years to as recently as 100 thousand years ago in what today are China, India, and Vietnam, placing Gigantopithecus in the same time frame and geographical location as... Species Sivapithecus indicus Sivapithecus ramapithecus Sivapithecus kenyapithecus Sivapithecus ouranopithecus Sivapithecus is the genus of extinct primates, any one of its species may have been the ancestor to the modern orangutans. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The word orangutan (also written orang-utan, orang utan and orangutang) is derived from the Malay and Indonesian words orang meaning "man" and hutan meaning "forest",[4] thus "person of the forest". Orang Hutan is the common term in these two national languages, although local peoples may also refer to them by local languages. Maias and mawas are also used in Malay, but it is unclear if those words refer only to orangutans, or to all apes in general. Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


The word was first attested in English in 1691 in the form orang-outang, and variants with -ng instead of -n as in the Malay original are found in many languages. This spelling (and pronunciation) has remained in use in English up to the present, but has come to be regarded as incorrect by some.[5] In linguistics, prescription can refer both to the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. ...


The name of the genus, Pongo, comes from a 16th century account by Andrew Battell, an English sailor held prisoner by the Portuguese in Angola, which describes two anthropoid "monsters" named Pongo and Engeco. It is now believed that he was describing gorillas, but in the late 18th century it was believed that all great apes were orangutans; hence Lacépède's use of Pongo for the genus.[6] For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ...


Ecology and appearance

Adult female orangutan

Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes, spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion nests, in which they sleep, from branches and foliage. They are more solitary than the other apes, with males and females generally coming together only to mate. Mothers stay with their babies until the offspring reach an age of six or seven years. There is significant sexual dimorphism between females and males: females can grow to around 4 ft 2 in or 127 centimetres and weigh around 100 lbs or 45 kg, while flanged adult males can reach 5 ft 9 in or 175 centimetres in height and weigh over 260 lbs or 118 kg.[7] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The kinkajou is an arboreal mammal. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


The arms of an orangutan are twice as long as their legs. Much of the arm's length has to do with the length of the radius and the ulna rather than the humerus. Their fingers and toes are curved, allowing them to better grip onto branches. Orangutans have less restriction in the movements of their legs unlike humans and other primates, due to the lack of a hip joint ligament which keeps the femur held into the pelvis. Unlike gorillas and chimpanzees, orangutans are not true knuckle-walkers, and walk on the ground by shuffling on their palms with their fingers curved inwards.[8] This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ... The ulna (Elbow Bone) [Figs. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ...

Flanged adult male

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Bimodal male development

Adult male orangutans exhibit two modes of physical development, flanged and unflanged. Flanged adult males have a variety of secondary sexual characteristics, including cheek pads (called "flanges"), throat pouch, and long fur, that are absent from both adult females and from unflanged males. Flanged males establish and protect territories that do not overlap with other flanged males' territories. Adult females, juveniles, and unflanged males do not have established territories. A flanged male's mating strategy involves establishing and protecting a territory, advertising his presence, and waiting for receptive females to find him. Unflanged males are also able to reproduce; their mating strategy involving finding females in estrus and forcing copulation. Males appear to remain in the unflanged state until they are able to establish and defend a territory, at which point they can make the transition from unflanged to flanged within a few months.[9] The two reproductive strategies, referred to as "call-and-wait" for flanged male and "sneak-and-rape" for the unflanged male, were found to be approximately equally effective in one study group in Sumatra,[10] though this observation did occur during a period of instability in flanged male rank and unflanged male mating success may be lower in Borneo.[11] Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...


Diet

Fruit makes up 65% of the orangutan diet. Fruits with sugary or fatty pulp are favored. The fruit of fig trees are also commonly eaten since it is easy to both harvest and digest. Other food items include: young leaves, shoots, seeds and bark. Insects and bird eggs are also included.[12] Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus nota Ficus obtusifolia Ficus palmata...


Orangutans are thought to be the sole fruit disperser for some plant species including the climber species Strychnos ignatii which contains the toxic alkaloid strychnine.[13] It does not appear to have any effect on orangutans except for excessive saliva production. Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ...


Behaviour and language

Orangutans at Singapore Zoo

Like the other great apes, orangutans are remarkably intelligent. Although tool use among chimpanzees was documented by Jane Goodall in the 1960s, it was not until the mid-1990s that one population of orangutans was found to use feeding tools regularly. A 2003 paper in the journal Science described the evidence for distinct orangutan cultures.[14] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Orang utans at the Singapore Zoo. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Orang utans at the Singapore Zoo. ... Entrance to the Singapore Zoo. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ...


According to recent research by the psychologist Robert Deaner and his colleagues, orangutans are the world's most intelligent animal other than humans, with higher learning and problem solving ability than chimpanzees, which were previously considered to have greater abilities. A study of orangutans by Carel van Schaik, a Dutch primatologist at Duke University, found them capable of tasks well beyond chimpanzees’ abilities — such as using leaves to make rain hats and leakproof roofs over their sleeping nests. He also found that, in some food-rich areas, the creatures had developed a complex culture in which adults would teach youngsters how to make tools and find food. Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. ...

A two-week old orangutan

A two year study of orangutan symbolic capability was conducted from 1973-1975 by Gary L. Shapiro with Aazk, a juvenile female orangutan at the Fresno City Zoo (now Chaffee Zoo) in Fresno, California. The study employed the techniques of David Premack who used plastic tokens to teach the chimpanzee, Sarah, linguistic skills. Shapiro continued to examine the linguistic and learning abilities of ex-captive orangutans in Tanjung Puting National Park, in Indonesian Borneo, between 1978 and 1980. During that time, Shapiro instructed ex-captive orangutans in the acquisition and use of signs following the techniques of R. Allen and Beatrix Gardner who taught the chimpanzee, Washoe, in the late-1960s. In the only signing study ever conducted in a great ape's natural environment, Shapiro home-reared Princess, a juvenile female who learned nearly 40 signs (according to the criteria of sign acquisition used by Francine Patterson with Koko, the gorilla) and trained Rinnie, a free-ranging adult female orangutan who learned nearly 30 signs over a two year period. For his dissertation study, Shapiro examined the factors influencing sign learning by four juvenile orangutans over a 15-month period.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 751 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1277 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Classis : Mammalia â€¢  Ordo : Primates â€¢  Familia : Hominidae â€¢  Genus : Pongo  â€¢  Species : Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean Orangutan) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 751 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1277 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Classis : Mammalia â€¢  Ordo : Primates â€¢  Familia : Hominidae â€¢  Genus : Pongo  â€¢  Species : Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean Orangutan) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... David Premack is currently emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Washoe (chimpanzee) Washoe County, Nevada Washoe Native American tribe Washoe language Note that in the second and third reference, the alternative spelling Washo appears to be equally valid. ... For other uses, see Princess (disambiguation). ... Koko can refer to: Koko (gorilla), an ape who is claimed to use Gorilla Sign Language Emperor Kōkō, the 58th emperor of Japan Koko language, name of several Khoisan languages Koko the Clown, a cartoon character KOKO (venue), formerly known as the Camden Palace, in London Koko (novel) (1988...


The first orangutan language study program, directed by Dr. Francine Neago, was listed by Encyclopedia Britannica in 1988. The Orangutan language project at the Smithsonian National Zoo in Washington, D.C., uses a computer system originally developed at UCLA by Neago in conjunction with IBM.[16] . Dr. Francine Neago is a primatologist and conservationist who lectured in primatology at UCLA between 1978 and 1989. ... The Smithsonian National Zoological Park, commonly known as the National Zoo or Washington Zoo, is a zoo located in Washington, D.C. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ...

Orangutan "laughing"

Zoo Atlanta has a touch screen computer where their two Sumatran Orangutans play games. Scientists hope that the data they collect from this will help researchers learn about socializing patterns, such as whether they mimic others or learn behavior from trial and error, and hope the data can point to new conservation strategies. [17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (771x1200, 842 KB) Latin: Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) da:Orangutang de:Orang-Utan en:Orangutan es:Orangutango fr:Orang-outan Location: Aalborg Zoo, Denmark Date: 21. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (771x1200, 842 KB) Latin: Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) da:Orangutang de:Orang-Utan en:Orangutan es:Orangutango fr:Orang-outan Location: Aalborg Zoo, Denmark Date: 21. ...


Although orangutans are generally passive, aggression toward other orangutans is very common; they are solitary animals and can be fiercely territorial. Immature males will try to mate with any female, and may succeed in forcibly copulating with her if she is also immature and not strong enough to fend him off. Mature females easily fend off their immature suitors, preferring to mate with a mature male.


Orangutans have even shown laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling.


Species

  • Genus Pongo [1]
    • Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
      • Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus - northwest populations
      • Pongo pygmaeus morio - east populations
      • Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii - southwest populations
    • Sumatran Orangutan (P. abelii)

The populations on the two isolated islands were classified as subspecies until recently, when they were elevated to full specific level, and the three distinct populations on Borneo were elevated to subspecies. Some suggest that the subspecies wurmbii is conspecific with the Sumatra population (P. abelii). In that case, the resulting species, which would be distributed in Sumatra and southwestern Borneo, would be known as Pongo wurmbii, as that is the older name.[citation needed] Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ...


In addition, a fossil species, P. hooijeri, is known from Vietnam, and multiple fossil subspecies have been described from several parts of southeastern Asia. It is unclear if these belong to P. pygmaeus or P. abeli or, in fact, represent distinct species.


Conservation status

Video of Orangutans at a rehabilitation centre in Borneo
Sumatran Orangutan at the orangutan rehabilitation center in Bukit Lawang

The Sumatran species is critically endangered[18] and the Bornean species of orangutans is endangered[19] according to the IUCN Red List of mammals, and both are listed on Appendix I of CITES. The total number of Bornean orangutans is estimated to be less than 14% of what it was in the recent past (from around 10,000 years ago until the middle of the twentieth century) and this sharp decline has occurred mostly over the past few decades due to human activities and development.[19] Species distribution is now highly patchy throughout Borneo: it is apparently absent or uncommon in the south-east of the island, as well as in the forests between the Rejang River in central Sarawak and the Padas River in western Sabah (including the Sultanate of Brunei).[19] A similar development have been observed for the Sumatran orangutans.[18] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x1284, 1561 KB) Summary dave 59 took it myself at the Orang rehabilitation centre, Buket Lawang ,Sumatra. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x1284, 1561 KB) Summary dave 59 took it myself at the Orang rehabilitation centre, Buket Lawang ,Sumatra. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... The tourist village of Bukit Lawang is the main access point for the rainforests of the Gunung Leuser National Park. ... . ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ... The Rajang River is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ...


The most recent estimate for the Sumatran Orangutan is around 7,300 individuals in the wild[18] while the Bornean Orangutan population is estimated at between 45,000 and 69,000.[19] These estimates were obtained between 2000 and 2003. Since recent trends are steeply down in most places due to logging and burning, it is forecasted that the current numbers are below these figures.[19]


Orangutan habitat destruction due to logging, mining and forest fires, as well as fragmentation by roads, has been increasing rapidly in the last decade.[20][19][18] A major factor in that period of time has been the conversion of vast areas of tropical forest to oil palm plantations in response to international demand (the palm oil is used for cooking, cosmetics, mechanics, and more recently as source of biodiesel).[21][19][18] Some UN scientists believe that these plantations could lead to the extinction of the species by the year 2012. [22][23] Some of this activity is illegal, occurring in national parks that are officially off limits to loggers, miners and plantation development.[19][18] There is also a major problem with hunting[19][18] and illegal pet trade.[19][18] In early 2004 about 100 individuals of Bornean origin were confiscated in Thailand and 50 of them were returned to Kalimantan in 2006. Several hundred Bornean orangutan orphans who were confiscated by local authorities have been entrusted to different orphanages in both Malaysia and Indonesia. They are in the process of being rehabilitated into the wild.[19] Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... For other uses, see Log. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Map of Kalimantan (white color) and its subdivisions. ...


Major conservation centres in Indonesia include those at Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan, Kutai in East Kalimantan, Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, and Bukit Lawang in the Gunung Leuser National Park on the border of Aceh and North Sumatra. In Malaysia, conservation areas include Semenggoh Wildlife Centre in Sarawak and Matang Wildlife Centre also in Sarawak, and the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary near Sandakan in Sabah. The Kumai District is an administrative region of Indonesia. ... Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. ... Gunung Palung National Park lies in the southern portion of the province of West Kalimantan, Indonesia, not far from the kabupaten city of Ketapang. ... West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. ... The tourist village of Bukit Lawang is the main access point for the rainforests of the Gunung Leuser National Park. ... Gunung Leuser National Park is a large national park covered 950,000 hectares in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, straddling the border of the provinces of North Sumatra and Aceh. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Sepilok Orang-utan Sanctuary is located about 25 kilometers north of Sandakan, in eastern Malaysia on the island of Sabah. ... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sandakan Establishment Government  - Council President Dr Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ...


See also

Mammals Portal
Indonesia Portal
Malaysia Portal

Download high resolution version (1707x1482, 613 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Ah Meng (born circa 18 June 1960) is a famous female Sumatran Orangutan and a tourism icon of Singapore. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Chantek Chantek (born December 17, 1977, at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia) is a male orangutan who has mastered the use of a number of intellectual skills, including sign language, taught by anthropologist Dr. Lyn Miles. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ... Jeffrey H. Schwartz, PhD, is a physical anthropologist and professor of biological anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... Orangutans in Popular Culture The Orangutan is a primate indigenous to the Indonesian region. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 183-184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Orangutan Foundation International: All About Orangutans. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  3. ^ "Tracking Orangutans from the Sky" (2004). PLoS Biol 3 (1): e22. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030022. 
  4. ^ The Nation's Coolest Creatures. MSN. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  5. ^ Orangutan. alphadictionary.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  6. ^ Groves, Colin (2002). "A history of gorilla taxonomy". Gorilla Biology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, Andrea B. Taylor & Michele L. Goldsmith (editors): pp. 15–34. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521792819. 
  7. ^ Sumatran Orangutan Society. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  8. ^ Schwartz, Jeffrey (1987). The Red Ape: Orangutans and Human Origins, pp.286. ISBN 0813340640. 
  9. ^ Orangutan. Primate Info Net. Retrieved on 2008-08-08.
  10. ^ Harrison, Mark E. (2007). "The orang-utan mating system and the unflanged male: A product of increased food stress during the late Miocene and Pliocene?". Journal of Human Evolution 52 (3): 275. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.09.005. 
  11. ^ Goossens, B. (2006). "Philopatry and reproductive success in Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus)". Molecular Ecology 15: 2577. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02952.x. 
  12. ^ Cawthon Lang KA (2005-06-13). Primate Factsheets: Orangutan (Pongo) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Retrieved on 2007-10-12.
  13. ^ Rijksen, H. D. (December 1978). "A Field Study on Sumatran Orang Utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii, Lesson 1827): Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation". The Quarterly Review of Biology 53 (4): 493. doi:10.1086/410942. 
  14. ^ Roads through rainforest threaten our cultured cousins (2003).
  15. ^ Dissertation
  16. ^ Orangutan Language Project. Think Tank Research Projects. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  17. ^ Turner, Dorie (2007-04-12). Orangutans play video games at GA. zoo. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Singleton, I.; Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. (2007), Pongo abelii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>, <http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/39780/all>. Retrieved on 2 April 2008 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ancrenaz, M.; Marshall, A.; Goossens, B.; van Schaik, C.; Sugardjito, J.; Gumal, M. & Wich, S. (2007), Pongo pygmaeus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>, <http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/17975/all>. Retrieved on 2 April 2008 
  20. ^ Rijksen, H.D. and Meijaard, E. (1999). Our Vanishing Relative: The Status of Wild Orang-utans at the Close of the Twentieth Century. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 
  21. ^ The oil for ape scandal
  22. ^ Five years to save the orang utan | World | The Observer
  23. ^ The Last Stand of the Orangutan. United Nations Environment Programme (February, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-03.

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For other uses, see MSN (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Smithsonian National Zoological Park, commonly known as the National Zoo or Washington Zoo, is a zoo located in Washington, D.C. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • Information from Grungy Ape on the difference between the two Orangutan species
  • Orangutan Language Project
  • World's first eye cataract operation on an great male orangutan named Aman
  • Orangutan Foundation International
  • Borneo Orangutan Survival International
Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932, San Francisco, California – December 26, 1985, Virunga Mountains, Rwanda) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Mythic humanoids are mythic creatures that are human-like, half-human, or fictional apes. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the book. ...

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Orangutan Foundation Internationsal (207 words)
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Scientists like to explain the orangutan’s unique approach to problem solving with this example: If a chimp is given an oddly shaped peg and several different holes to try to put it in, the chimp will immediately try shoving the peg in various holes until it finds the hole that the peg fits in.
Orangutans spend most of their lives in trees and travel by swinging from branch to branch with their long arms.
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