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Encyclopedia > Orange Revolution
Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on 22 November, 2004. On some days, the number of protesters in the center of Kiev reached hundreds of thousands (one million by some estimates)
Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on 22 November, 2004. On some days, the number of protesters in the center of Kiev reached hundreds of thousands (one million by some estimates)

The Orange Revolution (Ukrainian: Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election which was compromised by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud. Kiev, the Ukrainian capital, was the focal point of the movement with thousands of protesters demonstrating daily. Nationwide, the democratic revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-ins, and general strikes organized by the opposition movement. Image File history File links Ukraine_elections_massprotest_20041122. ... Image File history File links Ukraine_elections_massprotest_20041122. ... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... In a general sense, a series is a related set of things that occur one after the other or are otherwise connected one after the other. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...


The protests were prompted by reports from several domestic and foreign election monitors as well as the widespread public perception that the results of the run-off vote of November 21, 2004 between leading candidates Viktor Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych were rigged by the authorities in favor of the latter.[1] The nationwide protests succeeded when the results of the original run-off were annulled, and a revote was ordered by Ukraine's Supreme Court for December 26, 2004. Under intense scrutiny by domestic and international observers, the second run-off was declared to be "fair and free". The final results showed a clear victory for Yushchenko, who received about 52 percent of the vote, compared to Yanukovych's 44 percent. Yushchenko was declared the official winner and with his inauguration on January 23, 2005 in Kiev, the Orange Revolution peacefully reached its successful conclusion. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Ukraine

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Ukraine
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Politics of Ukraine takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Ukraine is the head of government but shares a lot of these responsibilites with the President of Ukraine, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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Contents

Verkhovna Rada. ... The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the speaker of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraines national parliament. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... Alliance of National Unity is the name of the governing coalition of the Party of Regions, the Communist Party and the Socialist Party in Ukraine after the Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2006. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... The judicial system of Ukraine consists of four levels, as follows: Local courts of general jurisdiction (combining criminal and civil jurisdiction) consisting of: district, urban district and town courts; regional courts; city courts in Kiev and Sevastopol; administrative local courts. ... The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the only body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Prosecutor General of Ukraine (also Attorney General of Ukraine, Ukrainian: ) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known as the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine (Генеральна прокуратура України). The Office of the Prosecutor General is entrusted with: prosecution in court on behalf of the State; representation of the interests... Political parties in Ukraine lists political parties in Ukraine. ... Elections in Ukraine gives information on election and election results in Ukraine. ... Referendums in Ukraine, according to the Ukrainian Constitution, is one of the lawful form of expression of peoples will. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... The Ukrainian presidential election, 1999 was a presidential election held in 1999 in Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian presidential election, 1994 was a presidential election held in 1994 in Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian presidential election, 1991 was the first presidential election held in Ukraine. ... Early parliamentary elections in Ukraine are scheduled to take place on September 30, 2007. ... The Ukrainian parliamentary election took place on March 26, 2006. ... Ukrainian parliamentary election of 2002 took place on March 31. ... The second Ukrainian parliamentary election after the collapse of Soviet Union took place on 29 March 1998. ... The first parliamentary election in independent Ukraine took place in 1994. ... 2000 Ukrainian national referendum (Ukrainian: ) held on April 16, 2000 on the issue of reformation the governing system of Ukraine was formally initiated by President Kuchma and organized by the Central Election Commission on the mass public initiative represented by activist groups across the country. ... The Referendum took place in Ukraine on December 1, 1991. ... Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Ukrainian government | Elections in Ukraine ... // Western relations Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. ... This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

Prelude

Two main candidates in the 2004 presidential election in Ukraine: Viktor Yushchenko, the main opposition candidate pictured with the flag of Ukraine...
...and Viktor Yanukovych on the 2004 campaign poster that emphasized his credentials as a serving Prime Minister. The Ukrainian text reads: "Hope is good, confidence is better"

The 2004 presidential election in Ukraine featured two main candidates. One was sitting Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych, largely supported by Leonid Kuchma (the outgoing President of Ukraine who already served two terms in the office and was precluded from running himself due to the constitutional term limits). The opposition candidate was Viktor Yushchenko, leader of the Our Ukraine faction in the Ukrainian parliament, also a former Prime Minister (1999–2001). Download high resolution version (2067x3021, 2379 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (2067x3021, 2379 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... The Flag of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ; translit. ... Download high resolution version (683x1000, 151 KB)Viktor Yanukovitch, 2004 Election Poster. ... Download high resolution version (683x1000, 151 KB)Viktor Yanukovitch, 2004 Election Poster. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Ukrainian: Леонід Данилович Кучма; born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994, to January 23, 2005. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... This politics-related article is a stub. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Verkhovna Rada. ...


The election was held in a highly charged atmosphere, with the Yanukovych team and the outgoing president's administration using their control of the government and state apparatus for intimidation of Yushchenko and his supporters. In September 2004, Yushchenko suffered dioxin poisoning under mysterious circumstances. While he survived and returned to the campaign trail, the poisoning undermined his health and altered his appearance dramatically (his face remains disfigured by the consequences to this day). Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ...


The two main candidates were neck and neck in the first-round vote held on October 31, 2004, collecting 39.32% (Yanukovych) and 39.87% (Yushchenko) of the vote cast. The candidates that came third and fourth collected much less: Oleksandr Moroz of the Socialist Party of Ukraine and Petro Symonenko of the Communist Party of Ukraine received 5.82% and 4.97%, respectively. Since no candidate carried more than 50% of the cast ballots, a run-off vote between two leading candidates was mandated by Ukrainian law. Soon after the run-off was announced, Oleksandr Moroz threw his support behind Viktor Yushchenko. Another Ukrainian opposition leader, the charismatic populist Yulia Tymoshenko, chose not to run herself. Promised the position of Prime Minister if Yushchenko were to win the presidency,[2] Tymoshenko enthusiastically supported his presidential bid from the onset of the campaign. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oleksandr Moroz. ... The Socialist Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Sotsialistychna Partiya Ukrainy) is a left-wing political party in Ukraine, one of the oldest (registered in late 1990). ... Simonenko presidential election poster 2004 Petro Mykolayovich Symonenko (born August 1, 1952 in Donetsk) is the first secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine. ... Simonenko presidential election-2004 poster in Russian The Communist Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is a political party in Ukraine, currently led by Petro Symonenko. ... An example of runoff voting. ... Oleksandr Moroz. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko[1] (Ukrainian: ) (born 27 November 1960) is a Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister of Ukraine (from 24 January to 8 September 2005). ...


In the wake of the first round of the election many complaints regarding voting irregularities in favor of the government supported Yanukovych were raised. However, as it was clear that neither nominee was close enough to collecting an outright majority in the first round, challenging the initial result would not have affected the final outcome of the election. As such the complaints were not actively pursued and both candidates concentrated on the upcoming run-off scheduled for November 21.

An orange ribbon, a symbol of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution. Ribbons are common symbols of non-violent protest.
An orange ribbon, a symbol of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution. Ribbons are common symbols of non-violent protest.

Orange was originally adopted by the Yushchenko's camp as the signifying color of his election campaign. Later the color gave name to an entire series of political terms, such as the Oranges (Pomaranchevi in Ukrainian) for his political camp and supporters. At the time when the mass protests grew, and especially when they brought about political change in the country, the term Orange Revolution came to represent the entire series of events. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The orange ribbon is a symbol of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution of 2004. ... The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ...


In view of the success of using color as a symbol to mobilize supporters, the Yanukovych camp chose blue for themselves. For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ...


The protests

Protests began on the eve of the second round of voting, as the official count differed markedly from exit poll results which gave Yushchenko up to an 11% lead, while official results gave the election win to Yanukovych by 3%. While Yanukovych supporters have claimed that Yushchenko's connections to the Ukrainian media explain this disparity, the Yushchenko team publicized evidence of many incidents of electoral fraud in favor of the government-backed Yanukovych, witnessed by many local and foreign observers. These accusations were reinforced by similar allegations, though at a lesser scale, during the first presidential run of October 31. An exit poll is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the polling stations. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Protesters at Independence Square on the first day of the Orange Revolution.
Protesters at Independence Square on the first day of the Orange Revolution.
Blue-clad miners rally in support of Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych in Kiev.
Blue-clad miners rally in support of Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych in Kiev.

The Yushchenko campaign publicly called for protest on the dawn of election day, November 21, 2004, when allegations of fraud began to spread. Beginning on November 22, 2004, massive protests started in cities across Ukraine: the largest, in Kiev's Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), attracted an estimated 500,000 participants,[3] who on November 23, 2004, peacefully marched in front of the headquarters of the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian parliament, many wearing orange or carrying orange flags, the color of Yushchenko's campaign coalition. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,288 × 1,712 pixels, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image uploaded to en-wiki by user:Serhiy who tagged it as GFDL-self File historyClick on a date/time to view the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,288 × 1,712 pixels, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image uploaded to en-wiki by user:Serhiy who tagged it as GFDL-self File historyClick on a date/time to view the... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ...


The local councils in Kiev, Lviv, and several other cities passed, with the wide popular support of their constituency, a largely symbolic refusal to accept the legitimacy of the official election results, and Yushchenko took a symbolic presidential oath.[4] This "oath" taken by Yushchenko in half-empty parliament chambers, lacking the quorum as only the Yushchenko-leaning factions were present, could not have any legal effect. But it was an important symbolic gesture meant to demonstrate the resolve of the Yushchenko campaign not to accept the compromised election results. In response, Yushchenko's opponents denounced him for taking an illegitimate oath, and even some of his moderate supporters were ambivalent about this act, while a more radical side of the Yushchenko camp demanded him to act even more decisively. Some observers argued that this symbolic presidential oath might have been useful to the Yushchenko camp should events have taken a more confrontational route.[citation needed] In such a scenario, this "presidential oath" Yushchenko took could be used to lend legitimacy to the claim that he, rather than his rival who tried to gain the presidency through alleged fraud, was a true commander-in-chief authorized to give orders to the military and security agencies. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A political faction is presently an informal grouping of individuals, especially within a political organisation, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with some kind of political purpose (referred to in this article as the “broader organisation”). It may also be referred to as a power... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


At the same time, local officials in Eastern and Southern Ukraine, the stronghold of Viktor Yanukovych, started a series of actions alluding to the possibility of the breakup of Ukraine or an extra-constitutional federalization of the country, should their candidate's claimed victory not be recognized. Demonstrations of public support for Yanukovych were held throughout Eastern Ukraine and some of his supporters arrived in Kiev. However, in Kiev the pro-Yanukovych demonstrators were far outnumbered by Yushchenko supporters, whose ranks were continuously swelled by new arrivals from many regions of Ukraine. The scale of the demonstrations in Kiev was unprecedented. By many estimates, on some days they drew up to one million people to the streets, in freezing weather.[5] Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... Federalism is the idea of a group or body of members that are bound together (latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ...


Political developments

Although Yushchenko entered into negotiations with outgoing President Leonid Kuchma in an effort to peacefully resolve the situation, the negotiations broke up on November 24, 2004. Yanukovych was officially certified as the victor by the Central Election Commission, which itself was allegedly involved in falsification of electoral results by withholding the information it was receiving from local districts and running a parallel illegal computer server to manipulate the results. The next morning after the certification took place, Yushchenko spoke to supporters in Kiev, urging them to begin a series of mass protests, general strikes and sit-ins with the intent of crippling the government and forcing it to concede defeat. Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Ukrainian: Леонід Данилович Кучма; born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994, to January 23, 2005. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Ukrainian government | Elections in Ukraine ...


In view of the threat of illegitimate government acceding to power, Yushchenko's camp announced the creation of the Committee of National Salvation which declared a nationwide political strike.


On December 1, 2004, the Verkhovna Rada passed a resolution that strongly condemned pro-separatist and federalization actions, and passed a non-confidence vote in the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, a decision Prime Minister Yanukovych refused to recognize. By the Constitution of Ukraine, the non-confidence vote mandated the government's resignation, but the parliament had no means to enforce a resignation without the co-operation of Prime Minister Yanukovych and outgoing President Kuchma. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Federalism is the idea of a group or body of members that are bound together (latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Viktor Yanukovych Campaign Poster 2004 Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Russian: Виктор Федорович Янукович, Ukrainian: Віктор Федорович Янукович ) (born July 9, 1950) was Prime Minister of Ukraine from November 21, 2002 to December 31, 2004 and current leader of Ukrainian Party of Regions. ... The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine, on June 28, 1996. ... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Леонід Кучма) (born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994 to January 23, 2005. ...


On December 3, 2004, Ukraine's Supreme Court finally broke the political deadlock. The court decided that due to the scale of the electoral fraud it became impossible to establish the election results. Therefore, it invalidated the official results that would have given Yanukovych the presidency. As a resolution, the court ordered a revote of the run-off to be held on December 26, 2004.[6] This decision was seen as a victory for the Yushchenko camp while Yanukovych and his supporters favored a rerun of the entire election rather than just the run-off, as a second-best option if Yanukovych was not awarded the presidency. On December 8, 2004 the parliament amended laws to provide a legal framework for the new round of elections. The parliament also approved the changes to the Constitution, implementing a political reform backed by outgoing President Kuchma as a part of a political compromise between the acting authorities and opposition. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The December 26 revote was held under intense scrutiny of local and international observers. The preliminary results, announced by the Central Election Commission on December 28, gave Yushchenko and Yanukovych 51.99% and 44.20% of the total vote, respectively.[7] The Yanukovych team attempted to mount a fierce legal challenge to the election results using both the Ukrainian courts and the Election Commission complaint procedures. However, all their complaints were dismissed as without merit by both the Supreme Court of Ukraine and the Central Election Commission.[8] On January 10, 2005 the Election Commission officially declared Yushchenko as the winner of the presidential election[8] with the final results falling within 0.01% of the preliminary ones. This Election Commission announcement[9] cleared the way for Yushchenko's inauguration as the President of Ukraine. The official ceremony took place in the Verkhovna Rada building on January 23, 2005 and was followed by the "public inauguration" of the newly sworn President at Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in front of hundreds of thousands of his supporters.[10] This event brought the Ukrainian Orange Revolution to its peaceful conclusion. Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Ukrainian government | Elections in Ukraine ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Verkhovna Rada building The Verkhovna Rada building is located in the centre of Ukraines capital city Kiev. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ...


Role of Ukrainian intelligence and security agencies

According to one version of events recounted by The New York Times,[11] Ukrainian security agencies played an unusual role in the Orange Revolution, with a KGB successor agency in the former Soviet state providing qualified support to the political opposition. As per the paper report, on November 28, 2004 over 10,000 MVS (Internal Ministry) troops were mobilized to put down the protests in Independence Square in Kiev by the order of their commander, Lt. Gen. Sergei Popkov. The SBU (Security Service of Ukraine, a successor to the KGB in Ukraine) warned opposition leaders of the crackdown. Oleksander Galaka, head of GRU (military intelligence) made calls to "prevent bloodshed". Col. Gen. Ihor Smeshko (SBU chief) and Maj. Gen. Vitaly Romanchenko (military counter-intelligence chief) both claimed to have warned Popkov to pull back his troops, which he did, preventing bloodshed. The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ministerstvo Vnutrishnikh Sprav (MVS; Ministry of Internal Affairs) is the national police authority of Ukraine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In addition to the desire to avoid bloodshed, the New York Times article suggests that siloviki, as the security officers are often called in the countries of the former Soviet Union, were motivated by personal aversion to the possibility of having to serve president Yanukovych, who was in his youth convicted of robbery and assault and had alleged connection with corrupt businessmen, especially if he were to ascend to the presidency by fraud. The personal feelings of Gen. Smeshko towards Yanukovych may also have played a role. Additional evidence of Yushchenko's popularity and at least partial support among the SBU officers is shown by the fact that several embarrassing proofs of electoral fraud, including incriminating wiretap recordings of conversations among the Yanukovych campaign and government officials discussing how to rig the election, were provided to the Yushchenko camp.[12] These conversations were likely recorded and provided to the opposition by sympathizers in the Ukrainian Security Services. A Silovik (силови́к, plural: siloviks or siloviki, силовики́, from a Russian word for power) is a Russian politician from the old security or military services, often the KGB and military officers or other security services who came into power in the terms of Boris Yeltsin or Vladimir Putin. ... Viktor Yanukovych Campaign Poster 2004 Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Russian: Виктор Федорович Янукович, Ukrainian: Віктор Федорович Янукович ) (born July 9, 1950) was Prime Minister of Ukraine from November 21, 2002 to December 31, 2004 and current leader of Ukrainian Party of Regions. ... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ...


Involvement of outside forces

Many analysts believe the Orange Revolution was built on a pattern first developed in the ousting of Slobodan Milošević in Serbia, and continuing with the Rose Revolution in Georgia. Each of these victories, though apparently spontaneous, was the result of extensive grassroots campaigning and coalition-building among the opposition. Each included election victories followed up by public demonstrations, after attempts by the incumbent to hold onto power through electoral fraud. MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Each of these social movements included extensive work by student activists. The most famous of these was Otpor, the youth movement that helped bring in Vojislav Koštunica in Serbia. In Georgia the movement was called Kmara. In Ukraine the movement has worked under the succinct slogan Pora ("It's Time"). Chair of Georgian Parliamentary Committee on Defense and Security Givi Targamadze, former member of the Georgian Liberty Institute, as well as some members of Kmara, were consulted by Ukrainian opposition leaders on techniques of nonviolent struggle. Students occupying Sheffield town hall over the introduction of higher education fees Student activism is work done by students to effect political, environmental, economic, or social change. ... Otpor! (Cyrillic: ОТПОР!, in English: Resistance!) was a pro-democracy youth movement in Serbia which has been widely credited for leading the eventually successful struggle to overthrow Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević in 2000. ... Dr. Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница,  ) (pronounced , born March 24, 1944, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) is the current Prime Minister of Serbia and President of the Democratic Party of Serbia. ... Kmara flag Kmara (Georgian: კმარა) is a civic resistance movement in the republic of Georgia which undermined the government of Eduard Shevardnadze. ... The rising sun of Pora! symbolizes a new dawn Pora! (Ukrainian: ), meaning ITS TIME! in Ukrainian, is a civic youth organization in Ukraine espousing nonviolent resistance and advocating increased national democracy, in opposition to what they claimed was the authoritarian governing style of Ukraines president Leonid Kuchma. ... Givi Targamadze (b. ... Liberty Institute is Georgian non-profit, non-partisan, liberal public policy advocacy foundation. ...


Activists in each of these movements were funded and trained in tactics of political organization and nonviolent resistance by a coalition of Western pollsters and professional consultants funded by a range of Western government and non-government agencies. According to The Guardian, these include the U.S. State Department and USAID along with the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, the International Republican Institute, the NGO Freedom House and George Soros's Open Society Institute. The National Endowment for Democracy, a foundation supported by the U.S. government, has supported non-governmental democracy-building efforts in Ukraine since 1988.[13] Writings on nonviolent struggle by Gene Sharp formed the strategic basis of the student campaigns. Viktor Yushchenko received a much more preferential treatment in American and European state-controlled media, and was surrounded by American consultants. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Department of State redirects here. ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDIIA or NDI) is an organization created by the United States government by way of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) to channel grants for furthering democracy in developing nations. ... The International Republican Institute (IRI) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization. ... NGO redirects here. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... Soros redirects here. ... The Open Society Institute (OSI) is a coordinating body, started in early 1994, of the national Soros Foundations, especially in Eastern Europe, which spends money donated by billionaire philanthropist George Soros. ... The National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is a U.S. non-profit organization that was founded in 1983, to promote democracy by providing cash grants funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... Gene Sharp (born 21 January 1928) is a political scientist, author and founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organisation which studies and promotes the use of nonviolent action. ...


On the other hand, it is important to know that Yanukovych was helped by Russia this include some facts like multiple meetings between Russian president Vladimir Putin, Kuchma and Yanukovych before where upcoming elections where probably discussed. Putin repeatedly congratulated Yanukovych while the results were still contested, which was soon to embarrass both parties. Yanukovych received a much more preferential treatment in Russian state-controlled media, and was surrounded by Russian consultants known to be close to the Kremlin throughout the election cycle. It is possible that the Yanukovych campaign received financial contribution from Russian state-controlled businesses. Other allegations, still disputed and unproven, include Russian involvement in Yushchenko's poisoning several weeks before the election, as well as the alleged presence of Russian security forces[14] sent to help Yanukovych to ascend to the presidency. The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Леонід Кучма) (born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994 to January 23, 2005. ... Viktor Yanukovych Campaign Poster 2004 Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Russian: Виктор Федорович Янукович, Ukrainian: Віктор Федорович Янукович ) (born July 9, 1950) was Prime Minister of Ukraine from November 21, 2002 to December 31, 2004 and current leader of Ukrainian Party of Regions. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ...


See also

The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... Below is the timeline of events that followed the runoff presidential election held in Ukraine on November 21, 2004 that sparked off the Orange Revolution. Orange-clad supporters of Viktor Yushchenko gather in Independence Square in Kiev. ... Ukrayina bez Kuchmy! or UBK (Ukrainian: Україна без Кучми!—Ukraine without Kuchma!) was a mass protest campaign that took place in Ukraine in 2000–2001. ...

References

  1. ^ Paul Quinn-Judge, Yuri Zarakhovich, The Orange Revolution, Time, November 28, 2004
  2. ^ Мустафа Найем, "С Президентом на «вы»", Фокус, April 2, 2007, №13
  3. ^ Veronica Khokhlova, New Kids On the Bloc, The New York Times, November 26, 2004
  4. ^ Yushchenko takes reins in Ukraine. BBC NEWS. 23 January 2005. URL accessed: 17 November 2006
  5. ^ USAID Report Democracy Rising (PDF)
  6. ^ Supreme Court of Ukraine decision regarding the annulment of November 21st vote. Full text in Ukrainian and Summary in English
  7. ^ "Results of Voting in Ukraine Presidential Elections 2004", Central Election Commission of Ukraine. URL Accessed 12 September 2006
  8. ^ a b "Timeline: Battle for Ukraine". BBC NEWS, 23 January 2005. URL Accessed: 12 September 2006
  9. ^ Official CEC announcement of results as of 10 January 2005, Central Election Commission. URL Accessed: 12 September 2006 (Ukrainian)
  10. ^ Finn, Peter. "In a Final Triumph, Ukrainian Sworn In". Washington Post, 24 January 2005. URL Accessed: 12 September 2006
  11. ^ C. J. Chivers, BACK CHANNELS: A Crackdown Averted; How Top Spies in Ukraine Changed the Nation's Path, The New York Times, January 17, 2005>.
  12. ^ How Yanukovych Forged the Elections. Headquarters’ Telephone Talks Intercepted, Ukrainska Pravda, November 24, 2004.
  13. ^ Diuk, Nadia. "In Ukraine, Homegrown Freedom." Washington Post, 4 December 2004. URL Accessed: 12 September 2006
  14. ^ Spetsnaz Deploy in Ukraine
  • Andrew Wilson (March 2006). Ukraine's Orange Revolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11290-4.
  • Anders Åslund and Michael McFaul (January 2006). Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine's Democratic Breakthrough. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 0-87003-221-6.
  • Askold Krushelnycky and Harvill Secker (2006). An Orange Revolution: A Personal Journey Through Ukrainian History. ISBN 0-436-20623-4.
  • Pavol Demes and Joerg Forbrig (eds.). Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe. German Marshall Fund, 2007.
  • Andrei Kolesnikov (2005). Первый Украинский: записки с передовой (First Ukrainian [Front]: Notes from the Front Line). Moscow: Vagrius. ISBN 5-9697-0062-2. (Russian)
  • US campaign behind the turmoil in Kiev, The Guardian, November 2 6, 2004.
  • Six questions to the critics of Ukraine's orange revolution, The Guardian, December 2, 2004.
  • The Orange Revolution, TIME.com, Monday, December 6, 2004 (excerpt, requires subscription)
  • The price of People Power, The Guardian, December 7, 2004.
  • U.S. Money has Helped Opposition in Ukraine, Associated Press, December 11, 2004.

“TIME” redirects here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... A cartoon from Ukrayinska Pravda Ukrayinska Pravda (Ukrainian: Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000. ... Andrew Wilson (b. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Anders Åslund is a Swedish economist and expert on economic transition from centrally planned to market economies. ... The Endowments headquarters at 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private nonprofit organization promoting international cooperation and active international engagement by the United States of America. ... Askold Krushelnycky is a journalist. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Steven H. York (born July 1, 1943) is a documentary filmmaker who has worked in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America on subjects ranging from religious fundamentalism to American history to nonviolent conflict. ...

Books

(2007) The Orange Revolution in Ukraine - a Step to Freedom (8.5" x 11"), 2nd ed (in English), 48. 


  Results from FactBites:
 
The orange revolution - The Boston Globe (453 words)
Nevertheless, if the voters were repudiating Yushchenko for failing to clean up corruption and for permitting a schism in the ranks of the Orange Revolution, they were not renouncing the principles or achievements of that revolution.
Hence the vote was a validation of the Orange Revolution -- even if Yushchenko's party was punished for permitting the split last September with Tymoshenko and her departure from the government.
To the extent that Yushchenko's humiliating third-place finish on Sunday was also due to his failure to purge corrupt officeholders, this was a case of the leader of the Orange Revolution being chastised for failing to live up to the ideals of that revolution.
Orange (colour) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (658 words)
Orange is the national colour of The Netherlands, because its royal family originated from the French principality of Orange.
Orange was the rallying colour of the 2004–2005 Orange Revolution in Ukraine.
Orange is the primary colour of the Adanaspor SK of Turkey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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