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Encyclopedia > Orange (fruit)
Orange
Orange blossoms and oranges on tree
Orange blossoms and oranges on tree
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. sinensis
Binomial name
Citrus sinensis
(L.) Osbeck[1]
Orange, raw, Florida
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 50 kcal   190 kJ
Carbohydrates     11.54 g
- Sugars  9.14 g
- Dietary fiber  2.4 g  
Fat 0.21 g
Protein 0.70 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.100 mg   8%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.040 mg   3%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.400 mg   3%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.250 mg  5%
Vitamin B6  0.051 mg 4%
Folate (Vit. B9)  17 μg  4%
Vitamin C  45 mg 75%
Calcium  43 mg 4%
Iron  0.09 mg 1%
Magnesium  10 mg 3% 
Phosphorus  12 mg 2%
Potassium  169 mg   4%
Zinc  0.08 mg 1%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. Citrus aurantium L. var. dulcis L., or Citrus aurantium Risso) and its fruit. The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata). It is a small flowering tree growing to about 10 m tall with evergreen leaves, which are arranged alternately, of ovate shape with crenulate margins and 4–10 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Orders See text The botanical Sub-class Rosidae is a large dicotyledonous flowering plant taxon, containing over 58,000 species grouped within 108 families. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Pehr Osbeck Pehr Osbeck (1723 – 23 December 1805) was a Swedish explorer and naturalist. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Antoine Joseph Risso (August 7, 1777 - August 25, 1845) was a French naturalist. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Merr. ... Binomial name Citrus reticulata Blanco For other uses, see Tangerine (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... This article is about plant types. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A hesperidium is a fleshy berrylike fruit with a tough rind, as a lemon or an orange. ... This article is about the fruit. ...


Oranges originated in Southeast Asia. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple" (e.g. Dutch Sinaasappel, "China's apple", or "Apfelsine" in German). The name is thought to ultimately derive from the Dravidian word for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Citrus aurantium L. The bitter orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus aurantium) and its fruit. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Fruit

All citrus trees are of the single genus Citrus, and remain largely interbreedable; that is, there is only one "superspecies" which includes grapefruits, lemons, limes and oranges. Nevertheless, names have been given to the various members of the citrus family, oranges often being referred to as Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium. Fruits of all members of the genus Citrus are considered berries because they have many seeds, are fleshy and soft, and derive from a single ovary. An orange seed is called a pip. The white thread-like material, attached to the inside of the peel are called clemos. These have not been found to have any particular nutritional value. Binomial name Macfad. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Citrus aurantium L. The bitter orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus aurantium) and its fruit. ... This article is about the fruit. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... Look up PIP in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Varieties

Persian orange

The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe after its introduction to Italy in the 11th century, was bitter. Sweet oranges brought to Europe in the 15th century from India by Portuguese traders, quickly displaced the bitter, and are now the most common variety of orange cultivated. The sweet orange will grow to different sizes and colours according to local conditions, most commonly with ten carpels, or segments, inside. Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ...


Portuguese, Spanish, Arab, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus brought the seeds of oranges, lemons and citrons to Haiti and the Caribbean. They were introduced in Florida (along with lemons) in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon, and were introduced to Hawaii in 1792. An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also Agueybana Hayuya Jumacao Discoverer of the Americas Categories: People stubs | 1460 births | 1521 deaths | History of Puerto Rico | Conquistadores ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Navel orange

A peeled sectioned navel orange. The underdeveloped twin is located on the bottom right.
A peeled sectioned navel orange. The underdeveloped twin is located on the bottom right.

A single mutation in 1820 in an orchard of sweet oranges planted at a monastery in Brazil yielded the navel orange, also known as the Washington, Riverside, or Bahie navel. The mutation causes navel oranges to develop a second orange at the base of the original fruit, opposite the stem. The second orange develops as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the larger orange. From the outside, the smaller, and undeveloped twin leaves a formation at the bottom of the fruit that looks similar to the human navel. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 93 KB)Sectioned navel orange taken Jan. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 93 KB)Sectioned navel orange taken Jan. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Monastery of St. ... A painting of Chang and Eng Bunker, circa 1836 Siamese twins redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Because the mutation left the fruit seedless and, therefore, sterile, the only means available to cultivate more of this new variety is to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus tree. Two such cuttings of the original tree were transplanted[2] to Riverside, California in 1870, which eventually led to worldwide popularity. Nickname: Location in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Riverside Government  - Mayor Ron Loveridge Area  - City  78. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Today, navel oranges continue to be produced via cutting and grafting. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so not only do the navel oranges of today have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original tree, but also, they all can be considered to be the fruit of that single, over a century-old tree. Plant cuttings are a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ...


On rare occasions, however, further mutations can lead to new varieties.[3]


Valencia orange

The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. It is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when the navel oranges are out of season. For this reason, the orange was chosen to be the official mascot of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Spain. The mascot was called "Naranjito" ("little orange"), and wore the colours of the Spanish soccer team uniform. The Valencia Orange was first created by the Californian agronomist William Wolfskill, on his farm in Santa Ana. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th staging of the World Cup, was held in Spain from June 13 to July 11. ... Naranjito is a municipality in Puerto Rico. ...


Blood orange

Orange output in 2005
Orange output in 2005

The blood orange has streaks of red in the fruit, and the juice is often a dark burgundy colour. The fruit has found a niche as an interesting ingredient variation on traditional Seville marmalade, with its striking red streaks and distinct flavour. The scarlet navel is a variety with the same diploid mutation as the navel orange. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of orange output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Brazil - 17,864,140 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of orange output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Brazil - 17,864,140 tonnes). ... The blood orange is a variety of orange (Citrus sinensis) with crimson, blood-colored flesh. ...


Production

Top Orange Producers — 2005
(million tonnes)
Flag of Brazil Brazil 17.8
Flag of the United States United States 8.4
Flag of Mexico Mexico 4.1
Flag of India India 3.1
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 2.4
Flag of Spain Spain 2.3
Flag of Italy Italy 2.2
Flag of Iran Iran 1.9
Flag of Egypt Egypt 1.8
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 1.6
World Total 61.7
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[4]
An orange grove photographed from the air.
An orange grove photographed from the air.

Oranges grown for commercial production are generally grown in groves and are produced throughout the world. The top three orange-producing countries are Brazil, the United States, and Mexico. Oranges are sensitive to frost, and a common treatment to prevent frost damage is to coat trees with water when the temperature is expected to drop below freezing.[5] Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... Image File history File links OrangeGrov. ... Image File history File links OrangeGrov. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...


Etymology

Main article: Orange (word)

The word orange is derived from Sanskrit nāraṅgaḥ "orange tree".[6] The Sanskrit word was borrowed into European languages through Persian nārang, Armenian nārinj, Arabic nāranj, (Spanish naranja and Portuguese laranja), Late Latin arangia, Italian arancia or arancio, and Old French orenge, in chronological order. The first appearance in English dates from the 14th century. The forms starting with n- are older; this initial n- may have been mistaken as part of the indefinite article, in languages with articles ending with an -n sound (e.g., in French une norenge may have been taken as une orenge). The name of the colour is derived from the fruit, first appearing in this sense in 1542. Look up orange in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Portuguese (português) is a Romance language predominantly spoken in Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, and East Timor. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... Italian is a Romance language spoken by about 70 million people, most of whom live in Italy. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Some languages have different words for the bitter and the sweet orange, such as Modern Greek nerantzi and portokali, respectively. Or in Persian, the words are narang and porteghal (Portugal), in the same order. The reason is that the sweet orange was brought from China or India to Europe during the 15th century by the Portuguese. For the same reason, some languages refer to it as Applesin (or variants), which means "Apple from China", while the bitter orange was introduced through Persia.


Juice and other products

Oranges and orange juice.
Oranges and orange juice.

Oranges are widely grown in warm climates worldwide, and the flavours of oranges vary from sweet to sour. The fruit is commonly peeled and eaten fresh, or squeezed for its juice. It has a thick bitter rind that is usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by removing water, using pressure and heat. It is also used in certain recipes as flavouring or a garnish. The outer-most layer of the rind can be grated or thinly veneered with a tool called a zester, to produce orange zest. Zest is popular in cooking because it contains the oil glands and has a strong flavour similar to the fleshy inner part of the orange. The white part of the rind, called the pericarp or albedo and including the pith, is a source of pectin and has nearly the same amount of vitamin C as the flesh. Download high resolution version (635x936, 120 KB) Fifty years ago, frozen orange juice was just a flavorless commercial flop. ... Download high resolution version (635x936, 120 KB) Fifty years ago, frozen orange juice was just a flavorless commercial flop. ... For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... Look up Sweet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Garnish is a substance used primarily as an embellishment or decoration to a prepared food or drink item. ... Zest is the outer, colored shell of citrus fruit and is often used for baking. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ...


Products made from oranges include:

  • Orange juice is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the USA. It is made by squeezing the fruit on a special instrument called a "juicer" or a "squeezer". The juice is collected in a small tray underneath. This is mainly done in the home, and in industry is done on a much larger scale.
  • Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice.[7]
  • Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used as a flavouring of food and drink and for its fragrance in perfume and aromatherapy. Sweet orange oil consists of about 90% d-Limonene, a solvent used in various household chemicals, such as to condition wooden furniture, and along with other citrus oils in grease removal and as a hand-cleansing agent. It is an efficient cleaning agent which is promoted as being environmentally friendly and preferable to petroleum distillates. However, d-Limonene causes cancer in rats and is classified as toxic or very toxic in several countries. Its smell is considered more pleasant by some than those of other cleaning agents.
  • The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is traditionally associated with good fortune, and was popular in bridal bouquets and head wreaths for weddings for some time. The petals of orange blossom can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater. Orange blossom water is a common part of Middle Eastern cuisine. The orange blossom gives its touristic nickname to the Costa del Azahar ("Orange-blossom coast"), the Castellon seaboard.
  • In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and then used to make tea.
  • Orange blossom honey, or actually citrus honey, is produced by putting beehives in the citrus groves during bloom, which also pollinates seeded citrus varieties. Orange blossom honey is highly prized, and tastes much like orange.
  • Marmalade, a conserve usually made with Seville oranges. All parts of the orange are used to make marmalade: the pith and pips are separated, and typically placed in a muslin bag where they are boiled in the juice (and sliced peel) to extract their pectin, aiding the setting process.
  • Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent.

For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... The New York Board of Trade (NYBOT) is a physical commodity futures exchange located in New York, New York. ... Orange oil is also know as d-limonene. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... Flavouring (CwE) or flavoring (AmE) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Blossom is a term given to the flowers of stone fruit trees (Genus Prunus) and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower profusely but for a short period of time. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Rosewater or rose syrup (Persian: Golâb Turkish: Gül suyu) is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ... Costa del Azahar (Spanish for Orange Blossom Coast) is the name for the coast of the provinces Castellón and Valencia and part of Alicante in Spain, from Alcanar to the Cabo de la Nao. ... Castell n (Spanish) or Castell (Catalan/Valencian) is a province in the northern part of the Valencian Country, Spain. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... This article is about hives for bees. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Marmalade (disambiguation). ... A popular bitter orange grown in the Mediterranean. ... This article is about land slugs. ...

Gallery

Footnotes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Citrus sinensis
  1. ^ Citrus sinensis information from NPGS/GRIN. www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  2. ^ Parent Navel Orange Tree in Riverside, CA
  3. ^ Citrus Variety Collection
  4. ^ FAO Statistics
  5. ^ How Cold Can Water Get?
  6. ^ Orange. Reference.com (2008). Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  7. ^ The Story of Florida Orange Juice: From the Grove to Your Glass

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reference. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • McPhee, John. Oranges (1966) - focuses on Florida groves.
  • Sackman, Douglas Cazaux. Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden (2005) comprehensive, multidimensional history of citrus industry in California
  • Train, John. Oranges (2006)

External links

  • Citrus sinensis List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Orange (fruit) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1258 words)
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The mutation causes a 'twin' fruit, with a smaller orange embedded in the outer fruit opposite the stem.
Orange (colour) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (742 words)
Orange was the rallying colour of the 2004–2005 Orange Revolution in Ukraine.
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