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Encyclopedia > Oradea
Oradea
Nagyvárad
Piata Unirii Oradea

Flag

Coat of arms
Location of Oradea
Coordinates: 47°04′20″N 21°55′16″E / 47.07222, 21.92111
Country Flag of Romania Romania
County Bihor County
Status County capital
Government
 - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party)
Area
 - County capital 111.2 km² (42.9 sq mi)
Population (2002)[1]
 - County capital 206,614
 - Density 1,858/km² (4,812.2/sq mi)
 - Metro 240,000
 - July 1, 2004 206,235
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website: http://www.oradea.ro/


Oradea (pronunciation in Romanian: /o'ra.děa/, Hungarian: Nagyvárad, colloquially also Várad, German: Großwardein, former Turkish: Varat) is the capital city of Bihor County, in Crişana, Romania. The city proper has a population of 206,614 as of 2002 census; this does not include areas from the metropolitan area, outside the municipality; they bring the total urban area population to approximately 240,000. Oradea is one of the most prosperous cities of Romania. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 445 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 556 pixels, file size: 847 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{PD-user-w|ro|Wikipedia Romania|Vertigoro}} (All user names refer to ro. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Coa_oradea_ro. ... Image File history File links Oradeas location File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Administrative map of Romania. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Petru Filip (born 23 January 1955 in Slobozia) is the current mayor of the municipality of Oradea (1992-1996, 2000-present), the capital of Bihor county, Romania. ... The Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Democrat, PD) is a centre-right (formerly social democrat) party of Romania. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Bihor (IPA: ), in Hungarian: Bihar (IPA: ), is a county (judeÅ£) of Romania, in CriÅŸana, with capital city at Oradea. ... CriÅŸana is a region of west Romania, near the border with Hungary, named after the three CriÅŸ rivers that flow through it. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...

Contents

Geography

The city lies at the meeting point of the Crişana plain and the Crişul Repede's basin. It is situated 126 meters above sea-level, surrounded on the north-eastern part by the hills of Oradea belonging to the Ses hills. The main part of the settlement is situated on the floodplain and on the terraces situated down the river Crişul Repede. Oradea is famous for its thermal springs. The river Crişul Repede crosses the city right in the centre, providing it with a picturesque beauty. Its output depends on the season; the water containers (the dyke near Tileagd) have partly controlled it ever since they were built in the early 1980s. CriÅŸul Repede (Hungarian: Sebes-Körös) is a river in Bihor county, Transylvania, Romania. ...


History

Main article: History of Oradea
Varadinum (Oradea) in a 1617 engraving by Braun & Hogenberg
Varadinum (Oradea) in a 1617 engraving by Braun & Hogenberg

Oradea dates back to a small 10th century castle, while its bishopric was founded during the 11th century by King Ladislaus I of Hungary. The first documented mention of its name was in 1113 under the Latin name Varadinum. The city flourished during the 13th century. The Citadel of Oradea, the ruins of which remain today, was first mentioned in 1241 during the Mongol invasion. The 14th century one of the most prosperous period in the city's life. Statues of St. Stephen, Emeric and Ladislaus (before 1372) and the equestrian sculpture of St. Ladislaus (1390) erected in Oradea. St. Ladislaus' fabled statue was the first proto-renaissance public square equestrian in Europe. Bishop Andreas Báthori (1329-1345) rebuilt the cathedral in Gothic style. From that epoch dates also the Hermes, now preserved at Györ, which contains the skull of King Ladislaus, and which is a masterpiece of the Hungarian goldsmith's art. 10th century founded Várad (vár = castle, ad=diminutive suffix) 1082-1095 Várad Bishopric founded by King Ladislaus I of Hungary. ... Oradea in a 1617 print by Braun & Hogenberg. ... Oradea in a 1617 print by Braun & Hogenberg. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Stefan Nemanja, Serbian Grand Zupan Deaths... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... The equestrian Marcus Aurelius on Capitoline Hill displayed uninterruptedly for eighteen centuries was the prototype of Renaissance equestrian sculptures An equestrian sculpture (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue of a mounted rider. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Look up epoch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Georg von Peuerbach worked at the Observatory of Varadinum (also called Großwardein/Oradea/Nagyvarad), using it as the reference or prime meridian of Earth in his "Tabula Varadiensis", published posthumously in 1464. Georg Purbach (also Georg von Peuerbach, Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius, his real surname is unknown) (born May 30, 1423 in Purbach near Linz– April 8, 1461 in Vienna) was an Austrian astronomer and mathematician. ...


In 1474 the city was devastated by the Turks. It was not until the 16th century that Oradea started growing as an urban area. In the 18th century, the Viennese engineer Franz Anton Hillebrandt planned the city in Baroque style and, starting from 1752, many landmarks were constructed such as the Roman Catholic Cathedral and the Bishop's Palace, presently the Muzeul Ţării Crişurilor ("The Museum of the Crişland"). (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


After the Ottoman invasion of Hungary in the 16th century, the city was administered at various times by the Principality of Transylvania, the Ottoman Empire, and the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1598, the fortress was besiged and, on August 27, 1660, Oradea fell to the Turks and became an eyalet center as Varat. Varat Eyalet had Varat (Oradea), Salanta, Debreçin (formerly part of Budin and Eğri Eyalets), Halmaş, Sengevi and Yapışmaz sanjaks. The city was occupied by Austrians in September 1692. The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... County Bihor County Status Municipality Mayor László Török, from the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2000 Population (2002) 18,137 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Debrecen , (approximate pronunciation, Deb-ret-sen), (Romanian: , German: ; Croatian: Debr(e)cin) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. ...


In the second half of the 19th century literary nicknames for the town included "Hungarian Compostela", "Felix civitas", "Paris on the River Pece", "the City of Tomorrow", "Athens on the Körös", and "the City of Yesterday". These nicknames are not widely used today, although "Paris on the River Pece" is still utilised sometimes. The Körös River near Kunszentmárton Körös (-Hungarian, Romanian: CriÅŸ) is the name of a river in eastern Hungary. ...


At the end of World War I, Oradea and Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of Romania. The Second Vienna Award in 1940 returned northern parts of Transylvania, including Oradea, to Hungary; this arrangement only lasted until the end of World War II when the lands were again returned to Romania. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


After World War I, successive governments of Romania engaged in a policy of relocating Romanians to Transylvania, especially to Southern Transylvania, to the Szekelyland and near the Hungarian-Romanian border. Out of 82,687 people (Oradea's total population in 1930), 13,775 were born abroad and 5,000 were born in Bukovina, Moldavia, Dobrogea and Oltenia. Only 35% of the total population was native-born in 1930.


In 1925 the status of municipality was given to Oradea dissolving its former civic autonomy. According to this ordinance it was also renamed from Oradea-Mare ("Greater" Oradea) to Oradea. A municipality (municipiu in Romanian) is a level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ...


Ethnic tensions often ran high in the area. Romanian nationalists believe Oradea and the surrounding Bihor region have always been Romanian and were finally restored to rightful Romanian control at the end of World War I. Hungarian nationalists refer to the city's pre-war Magyar majority and previous inclusion in the Kingdom of Hungary. Nowadays, however, Oradea is an example of tolerance and multiculturalism, in an authentic European fashion. The different ethnic groups live in harmony, thriving on each other's contributions to modern culture. There are many mixed (Romanian-Hungarian) families in Oradea, with children assimilating into both of their parents' cultures and learning to speak both languages. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Jewish community

This section incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.

The chevra kadisha was founded in 1735, the first synagogue in 1803, and the first communal school in 1839. Not until the beginning of the 19th century were Jews permitted to do business in any other part of the city, and even then they were required to withdraw at nightfall to their own quarter. In 1835 permission to live at will in any part of the city was granted them. The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A chevra kaddisha (Hebrew: holy society, better translated as burial society) is a loosely structured but generally closed organization of Jewish men and women who see to it that the bodies of Jews are prepared for burial according to halacha (Jewish law) and are protected from desecration, willful or not... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The Jewish community of Oradea became divided into Orthodox and Reform congregations. While the members of the Reform congregation still retained their membership in the chevra kadisha, they started to use a cemetery of their own in 1899. In the early 20th century, the Jews of Oradea had won prominence in the public life of the city; there were Jewish manufacturers, merchants, lawyers, physicians, and farmers; the chief of police (1902) was a Jew; and in the municipal council, the Jewish element was proportionately represented. The community possessed, in addition to the hospital and chevra kadisha already mentioned, a Jewish women's association, a grammar school, an industrial school for boys and girls, a yeshiva, a soup kitchen, etc. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... A congregation is the group of members who make up a local Christian church, Jewish synagogue, Mosque or other religious assembly. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... Our Lady of Succour, Newtownforbes St. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... A soup kitchen is a place where food is offered to the poor for free or at a reasonably low price. ...


According to the Center for Jewish Art:

The Oradea Jewish community was once the most active both comercially and culturally in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1944, twenty-five thousand Oradean Jews were deported to concentration camps, thus decimating this vital community. Three hundred Jews reside in Oradea today. In the center of the city, towering over other buildings in the area, is the large Neolog Temple Synagogue built in 1878. The unusual cube-shaped synagogue with its large cupola is one of the largest in Romania. Inside there is a large organ and stucco decorations. In 1891, the Orthodox community also built a complex of buildings including two synagogues and a community center.[2]

Kings buried

For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... Stephen II (Hungarian: , Slovak: Štefan II) (1101 – March 1, 1131) was a King of Hungary of the Arpad dynasty from 1116 until his death. ... Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ... Andrew III (Endre) of the Arpad dynasty was king of Hungary 1290-1301 and the last male of Arpads to hold the throne. ... Charles I of Hungary Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291–Visegrád, Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ... Posada Battle Basarab I was an early ruler of the principality of Wallachia, known as Întemeietorul (The Founder) (c. ... Mary of Hungary (c. ... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s — the only contemporary portrait. ...

Politics

The Oradea Municipal Council, elected in the 2004 local government elections, is made up of 26 councillors, with the following party composition:

    Party Seats Current Council
  Democratic Party 10                    
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 7                    
  National Liberal Party 4                  
  Social Democratic Party 4                  
  Greater Romania Party 2                  

The Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Democrat, PD) is a centre-right (formerly social democrat) party of Romania. ... The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, (also Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania; Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség, RMDSZ; Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România, UDMR) is a Romanian political alliance, effectively (though not officially) a party, representing ethnic Hungarians in Romania. ... The Partidul Naţional Liberal (National Liberal Party) is a liberal party in Romania, and the second largest party in parliament, being edged out only by the Social Democratic Party. ... The Social Democratic Party of Romania (in Romanian, Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is a major political party of Romania. ... Great Romania Party campaign poster for the Romanian presidential election, 2004. ...

Ethnicity

Historical

Year Total Romanian Hungarian
1538 20,000 (est.) n.a. n.a.
1720 216 (Turks, Greeks, Serbs) n.a. n.a.
1787 9790 n.a. n.a.
1870 28,698 n.a. n.a.
1880 34,231 6.1% 85.5%
1890 42,042 6.07% 85.5%
1900 54,109 6.4% 89.5%
1910 64,169 5.6% 91.1%
1919 73,025 11.8% 62.1%
1930 82,687 25% 67%
1966 122,634 46% 52%
1977 170,531 53% 45%
1992 222,741 64% 34%
2002 206,614 70% 28%

Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Contemporary population

The State Theatre in Oradea, which has performances in both Romanian and Hungarian
The State Theatre in Oradea, which has performances in both Romanian and Hungarian

Ethnic breakdown from the 2002 census: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1884 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1884 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

The municipality of Oradea is officially bilingual, with the Romanian and Hungarian languages being recognised officially, and being used in the public administration, public signage, education and the justice system. The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


Quarters

Before 1848, Oradea was made up of 4 separate towns: Várad-Újváros (Villa Nova, former Vicus Zombathely), Várad-Olaszi (Villa Latinorum Varadiensium), Várad-Velence (Vicus Venetia), Várad-Váralja (Civitas Waradiensis). The names Vicus Venetia, Villa Latinorum, Vicus Bolognia, Vicus Padua and others refer to the French, Walloon, and Italian inhabitants who settled in the 13th century. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... The term Walloon may refer to either the Walloon language, or to the ethnic people of the same name. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Today the city is made up of the following districts called quarters (cartiere in Romanian):

  • Centru Oradea (city centre); * Nufărul; * Rogerius; * Velenţa; * Ioşia; * Ioşia Nord; * Oncea; * Salca; * Seleuş; * Vie; * Iorga; * Olosig; * Episcopia Bihor

The quarter named Vie is also known as Podgoria. "Vie" and "podgorie" mean the same thing in Romanian, i.e. wine-growing estate. Nufărul is a large satellite quarter (cartier in Romanian) on the eastern outskirts of Oradea, Bihor, Romania. ... Rogerius (italian dean, later bishop of Várad) was born in Terre Maggiore, Apulia around 1205. ... Velenţa (IPA /vel-en-tsa/) is a quarter, or district, in eastern Oradea, Romania. ... Ioşia (pronounced Io-SHI-a) is an outlying quarter in Oradea, Romania. ... Vie (roughly pronounced as Vee-eh), which means vine in Romanian, is a district, or quarter, of Oradea, a city in Bihor, Romania. ...



Districts of Oradea

Oradea | Vie | Nufărul | Rogerius | Velenţa | Cantemir | Ioşia
Vie (roughly pronounced as Vee-eh), which means vine in Romanian, is a district, or quarter, of Oradea, a city in Bihor, Romania. ... Nufărul is a large satellite quarter (cartier in Romanian) on the eastern outskirts of Oradea, Bihor, Romania. ... Rogerius is a district or quarter (cartier in Romanian of Oradea, the largest city of Bihor county, Romania. ... Velenţa (IPA /vel-en-tsa/) is a quarter, or district, in eastern Oradea, Romania. ... Cantemir is a district of the Romanian province of Oradea. ... Ioşia (pronounced Io-SHI-a) is an outlying quarter in Oradea, Romania. ...

See also: Bihor | Romania Bihor (IPA: ), in Hungarian: Bihar (IPA: ), is a county (judeţ) of Romania, in Crişana, with capital city at Oradea. ...

Economy

Oradea has long been one of the more prosperous cities in Romania, due mainly to its location on the Hungarian border, making it a gateway towards Western Europe. The GDP per capita of Oradea is approximately 150% of the Romanian average.[3] After 1989, due to its important base of consumers, Oradea enjoyed an economic renewal, not so much in industry but rather in the services sector. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Despite this, a survey by Capital Magazine named Oradea as the least dynamic city in Romania with a population over 150,000, falling behind Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Timişoara. In particular, the city was criticised for high taxes, poor infrastructure and a lack of a clear development strategy.[4] Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... County Arad County Status County capital Mayor Gheorghe Falcă, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 46. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ...



Oradea has an unemployment rate of 6.0%, slightly lower than the Romanian average but much higher than Bihor County's average of around 2%. Oradea currently produces around 63% of the industrial production of Bihor County while accounting for around 34.5% of the population of the county. Its main industries are furniture, textiles and clothing, footwear and food. Bihor (IPA: ), in Hungarian: Bihar (IPA: ), is a county (judeţ) of Romania, in Crişana, with capital city at Oradea. ...


In September 2002, Metro opened the first "cash & carry" store in Oradea. For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


In 2003, the Lotus Market commercial centre opened in Oradea; it was the first large shopping centre to open in the city. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Exterior of Lotus Market shopping centre Lotus Market is a company headquartered in Oradea, Romania, that owns the first, and largest, shopping centre in Oradea. ...


In the spring of 2005, Selgros opened another "cash & carry" store in Oradea. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Selgros logo Selgros activities Selgros Cash & Carry is a German wholesale hypermarket chain operating across Europe. ...


In the summer of 2006, Real opened the third "cash and carry" store in Oradea. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up real in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Oradea

The public transport network is run by OTL, a municipal agency. It is made up of 3 tram lines (1R, 1N, 2, 3R, 3N) and some bus lines. The city has three train stations: Central, West and East. The West Station is located in the quarter of Ioşia, the Central station (called simply Oradea) is located in the city centre, near the quarter of Vie, while the East station is located in Velenţa. Public transport in Oradea (a city in Bihor, Romania) is run by Regiunea Autonomă Oradea Transport Local, commonly known as OTL, which is owned by the Municipality of Oradea. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ...


Oradea is served by Oradea International Airport, which has flights from major Romanian cities and well as some cities in northern Italy. Oradea International Airport (IATA code: OMR) is an airport located in the southwest of the city of Oradea, western Romania. ...


Education

Oradea is one of the main education centres of Romania. The city is home to the University of Oradea, one of the largest and most modern universities in the country. There also exist several private universities, one being Agora University, a modern academic institution founded in 2000. Emanuel University, a Baptist school, also exists in the city since 2002.[5]. One of the oldest private universities in Romania is also situated in Oradea. The Sulyok István Reform College was founded in the spring of 1990 by the Királyhágómelléki Reform Church. In 1999 the school became entirely independent from the Protestant Theology College of Cluj-Napoca and changed its name to Partium Christian University. It presently operates with 12 faculties and a student body of 1400; the language of instruction is Hungarian. The University of Oradea (Universitatea din Oradea in Romanian) is a university located in Oradea, Romania. ... The Agora University is a private high education and research institution in Romania, developed inside the Agora Foundation. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ...


Architecture

Oradea's architecture is a mix between Communist-era buildings, mainly in the outer quarters, and beautiful historical buildings, mainly in the Baroque style, remnants from the era when the city was part of Austria-Hungary. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


During the Communist period and in the first years of Romania's post-Communist transition, many of the historical buildings became derelict or were deteriorating. After 2002, when Romania entered into an economic boom, many historical buildings in the city were restored to their previous state and currently, the city is endowed with a very historic and well-maintained feel. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Attractions

The beautiful city centre is worth visiting, as are the Băile Felix health spas, accessible by train or bus and located outside the city. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A destination spa is a business establishment which people visit for personal health, life enhancement, fitness, personal care treatments such as massages, facials, in a resort setting. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ...


Other sites worth visiting are:

  • Baroque Palace of Oradea – today Muzeul Ṭarii Criṣurilor, a wonderful Baroque museum with 365 famous windows. It was the Roman Catholic bishop's palace until 1945, when the Communist regime took the building into public ownership. It was returned to the Roman Catholic church in 2003. Its collection includes many fossils of dinosaurs and birds from the bauxite mines at Cornet-Brusturi.
  • Catedrala barocă – the biggest Baroque cathedral in Romania,
  • Cetatea Oradea - Oradea's Fortress, with a pentagonal fort,
  • Biserica cu Lună – a church unique in Europe, with a type of astronomical clock depicting the phases of the moon,
  • Pasajul Vulturul Negru – the "Black Eagle" Passage,
  • "Ady Endre" Museum- a museum dedicated to one of the greatest Hungarian poets,
  • Teatrul de Stat – the State Theatre, plans for which were designed by two Austrian architects who had built around 100 theatres and opera houses in Europe by the end of the 19th century,
  • Str. Republicii – one of the most beautiful streets of Transylvania, displaying an incredible number of Sezession buildings (under restoration in 2006),
  • There are around 100 religious sites of different denominations in Oradea, including three synagogues (however, only one is said to be still in use) and the biggest Baptist church in Eastern Europe.

Front view of the Baroque Palace of Oradea The Baroque Palace of Oradea, also know as Palatul Baroc Oradea (Rom. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ore. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Sezession was the name given to several artistic movements, primarily in Germany and Austria, which seceded from traditional art movements and embraced progressive styles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...

Metropolitan area

Main article: Oradea metropolitan area

Oradea metropolitan area includes since 2002 the municipality of Oradea and 8 nearby communes: Biharia, Borş, Cetariu, Nojorid, Oşorhei, Paleu, Sânmartin şi Sântandrei. ...

Gallery

Famous people

Endre Ady Endre Ady (November 22, 1877 – January 27, 1919) was a Hungarian poet, one of the most important poets not only in the 20th century but in Hungarian literature in general. ... Iuliu Baratky Iuliu Baratky was a Romanian football player. ... Ödön Beöthy, (1796-1854), Hungarian deputy and orator, was born in Oradea, his father being a retired officer and deputy lord-lieutenant of the county of Bihar. ... Eliezer Berkovits (1908, Nagyvarad - 20 August 1992), was a rabbi, theologian, and educator. ... Lajos Biró (born Lajos Blau) (August 22, 1880 - September 9, 1948) was a Hungarian novelist, playwright, and screenwriter who wrote many films from the early 1920s through the late 1940s. ... August Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf (November 2, 1739 – October 24, 1799) was an Austrian composer and violinist. ... // Bernhard Friedmann, or Friedmann Bernát (October 10, 1843, Grosswardein/Nagyvárad - October 14, 1925, Budapest) was a Hungarian Jewish jurist and criminal lawyer. ... Emanoil Gojdu, painting by Miklós Barabás Emanoil Gojdu (Gozsdu Manó in Hungarian; February 9, 1802, Oradea—February 3, 1870, Budapest) was a Romanian lawyer in the Austrian Empire. ... Georg Purbach (also Georg von Peuerbach, Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius, his real surname is unknown) (born May 30, 1423 in Purbach near Linz– April 8, 1461 in Vienna) was an Austrian astronomer and mathematician. ... Michael Haydn Johann Michael Haydn (September 14, 1737 – August 10, 1806) was an Austrian composer, the younger brother of (Franz) Joseph Haydn. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... Georges Politzer (1903-1942) was a French philosopher and Marxist theoretician of Hungarian origin, affectionally referred to as the philosophe roux, or red-headed philosopher. He was a native of Nagyvárad (Oradea), Hungary. ... Ede Szigligeti (8 March 1814 – 1878) was a Hungarian dramatist. ... Júlia Várady is a soprano of Hungarian nationality born in 1941 in Nagyvárad, Hungary (today Oradea, Romania). ...

See also

The Bishopric of Oradea is a Roman Catholic ecclestiastical territory in Romania, with the episcopal see in the city of Oradea. ...

Sources and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Notes

  1. ^ National Institute of Statistics, Population of counties, municipalities and towns, July 1, 2004
  2. ^ Uncovering and Documenting Jewish Art and Architecture in Western Romania. Center for Jewish Art. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Summer 1998). Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  3. ^ Zona metropolitană Oradea - Prezentare multimedia
  4. ^ De ce pierde viteza Oradea? (Why is Oradea losing speed?), Evenimentul Zilei
  5. ^ Home page of Emanuel University

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