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Encyclopedia > Optometry

Optometry is a doctoral-degree health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... Look up vision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ...


Like most health professions, optometry education, certification, and practice is regulated in most countries. Optometrists and optometry-related organizations interact with governmental agencies, other health care professionals, and the community to deliver eye and vision care. Optometry is one of two doctoral-degree professional eye care professions, the other being ophthalmology. Certification, the process of certifying, or a certificate may refer to: Professional certification Product certification and certification marks Management System certification Cyber security certification Digital signatures in Public-key cryptography RIAA certification, RIAA Single certification in music, such as Gold or Platinum Film certification, also known as Motion picture rating... Look up practice, practise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ...

An optical refractor (also called a phoropter) in use.
An optical refractor (also called a phoropter) in use.

Contents

Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 302 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 302 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A refractor in use The name and shape of the PHOROPTOR® is a registered trademark of Reichert, Inc. ...

Scope of practice

Optometrists, also known as doctors of optometry, are primary health care providers for the eye and visual system. They examine, diagnose, and medically treat eye diseases, non-surgical injuries, and disorders of the eyes and visual system, including refractive problems such as near- or far-sightedness, and identify related systemic medical conditions affecting the eyes and ocular adnexa. In some locations, optometrists may perform laser surgery. Primary health care was a new approach to health care that came into existence following an international conference in Alma Ata in 1978 organised by the World Health Organisation and the UNICEF. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as follows: Primary health care is essential health care based... In medicine, Adnexa refers to the appendages of an organ. ... Lasers were used in the 2005 Classical Spectacular concert Soon after the invention of the laser in 1960, it was described as a solution in search of a problem. However, since that time, the laser has found a place as a useful tool in many scientific, military, medical and industrial...


The practice is defined by the World Council of Optometry (a member of the World Health Organisation) as follows: For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...

Optometry is a healthcare profession that is autonomous, educated, and regulated (licensed/registered), and optometrists are the primary healthcare practitioners of the eye and visual system who provide comprehensive eye and vision care, which includes refraction and dispensing, detection/diagnosis and management of disease in the eye, and the rehabilitation of conditions of the visual system.

Optometrists may serve the general public; specialize in work with the elderly, children, or partially-sighted persons who need specialized visual devices; develop and implement ways to protect workers eyes from on-the-job strain or injury; or specialize in contact lenses, sports vision, or vision therapy. For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ...


Eye and vision examination

The typical optometric examination has three components: history-taking of both eye-related health and optical and visual functioning-related aspects of the patient, the evaluation of the health status for the detection of eye disease, and evaluating the optical and vision characteristics of the eye and observations during testings. Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ...


Examination of ocular health may include:

  • inspection of the external structures of the eye such as Cornea, Anterior Chamber, Physiological Lens as well as internal ocular structures such as Retina and Optic Nerve. This is done with various specialty equipment
  • observation of various eye movements and alignment
  • observation of pupillary reaction to light as a neurological test
  • observation of overall health status of adnexal ocular structures such as eyelids and eyelashes, as well as the lacrimal system among others
  • measurement of eye pressure also know as intraocular pressure
  • evaluation of functional aspects of the eye such as visual fields

Examination of vision and visual function may include: Human eye cross-sectional view. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... In anatomy, adnexa refers to the appendages of an organ. ... Tears are a liquid produced by the bodys process of lacrimation to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ...

Examination of visual skills: Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... For magnifying glasses etc. ... Stereopsis (from stereo meaning solidity, and opsis meaning vision or sight) is the process in visual perception leading to perception of stereoscopic depth. ... Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect or emit. ... Visual skills can be divided to into two main categories: visual perceptual motor skills and ocular motor skills. ...

  • applying a battery of structured visual tasks for patient to complete to evaluate the functional characteristics of the visual system such as tracking and focusing aspects as well as muscle coordination.

Pre-optometric education

Prerequisites for admission to optometry schools are similar to those to most medical, osteopathic, and dental programs.[citation needed]


Examples of equipment used for eye and vision health testing

Many types of equipment are used during an eye examination. Vision charts and machines are used to measure vision and visual fields. Trial (spectacle and contact) lenses or a phoropter and retinoscope may be used during refraction. Prism bars, small objects, and occluders may be used to assess eye movements and eye alignment. Test booklets, sheets, instructions, and pencils may be used for visual information processing examination. Traditional Snellen chart. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... A refractor in use The name and shape of the PHOROPTOR® is a registered trademark of Reichert, Inc. ... Retinoscopy is a technique to obtain an objective measurement of the refractive condition of a patients eye. ... Visual skills can be divided to into two main categories: visual perceptual motor skills and ocular motor skills. ...


Penlights and transilluminators can be used when assessing pupil light response, a neurological screening test. Specialty magnifiers, such as ophthalmoscopes and slit-lamp bio-microscopes, help with detailed inspection of external and internal anatomical ocular structures. Diagnostic eye drops may also be used to assess the various anatomical structures of the eyes. The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... The ophthalmoscope, invented by Hermann von Helmholtz, is an instrument used to examine the eye. ... Slit lamp examination of the eyes in an ophthalmology clinic Cataract in Human Eye- Magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine as a slit. ...


Many optometrists use computerized equipment specifically designed to help diagnose and/or monitor certain ocular diseases. For example, many optometrists' offices have various visual field analyzers and tonometers that are helpful in diagnosing disease entity in early stages. Optometrists use digital imaging equipment, such as digital cameras to document appearance of the anterior and posterior parts of the eye. Corneal topographers are used to gather information on anterior aspects of the anatomy of the eye and cornea. Other sophisticated equipment such as Optical coherence tomography, GDX,[1] or HRT II can be used for various disease testing and treatment. The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... Tonometry is the measurement of tension or pressure[1]. A tonometer is an instrument for measuring tension or pressure[2]. In ophthalmology, tonometry is the procedure eye care professionals perform use to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP), the pressure found inside the eye. ... Optical coherence tomography tomogram of a fingertip. ... GDx-VCC is a diagnostic machine for examining the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer by means of laser opthalmoscopy. ...


Diagnoses

Diagnoses made by optometry depends on integrating eye examination information.


Some ocular diseases can be associated with systemic, neural, or other disease complications. Some ocular disorders may be treated by an optometrist. In many cases, referral to an ophthalmologist may be required for surgical treatment. This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders. ... This is a list of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Visual dysfunctions assessed by optometrists may include:

Common examples of ocular pathologies diagnosed and treated by optometrists include: Refraction error, also known as refractive error, is an error in the focusing of light by the eye and a frequent reason for reduced visual acuity. ... Accommodative convergence is that portion of the range of inward rotation of both eyes (i. ...

Common examples of diseases of systemic origin with eye complications that can be recognized and managed by evaluation of the ocular structures include: Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Image of a human eye clearly showing the blood vessels of the conjuntiva. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Vitreous refers to a material in an amorphous, glassy state (in contrast to a crystalline state). ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ...

This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... Plaquenil (Hydroxychloroquine) (Pronounced Plak-kwen-il) Hydroxychloroquine is classified as an antimalarial medication, and is a one of a number of drugs which have been used for many years in the treatment of malaria. ...

Patient management

Optometric patient management may include:

  • Counsel on status regarding comprehensive or detailed evaluations of the human eye.
  • Diagnosis and treatment or management of eye disease, ocular findings or visual disturbance.
  • Prescribing medications such as antibiotics, antiinflammatory and other for the treatment of eye conditions and diseases.
  • Prescribing optical aids such as glasses, contact lenses, magnifiers.
  • Prescribing low vision rehabilitation.
  • Prescribing vision therapy.

They advice and follow-up care regarding use of optical aids (especially contact lenses), provide referral to other health professionals including internist and other primary care physicians and particularly sub specialists like ophthalmologists for surgical consultation, and interact with opticians and the optical industry, which manufacture the optical aids such as glasses in accordance to optical prescriptions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. ... Low vision is alternatively a general term used to describe lowered visual acuity, and a specific legal term in Canada and the United States used to designate someone with vision of 20/70 or less in the better eye with correction. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual training, vision training, or visual therapy, is a method attempting to correct or improve presumed ocular, visual processing, and perceptual disorders. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... An optician is an eye care professional who provides corrective lenses based on a refraction prescription supplied by a ophthalmologist or optometrist. ...


History

Optometric history is tied to the development of

The term optometrist was coined by Landolt in 1886, referring to the "fitter of glasses". Prior to this, there was a distinction between "dispensing" and "refracting" opticians in the 19th century. The latter were later called optometrists. [2] A science dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of visual perception and the visual system. ... // The Beginnings of Geometrical Optics The Greek term τα όπτικά referred specifically to matters of vision[1], and hence early optics was concerned with the problem of how we see. ... ... An eye care professional is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision. ... An optician is to an ophthalmologist and optometrist as a pharmacist is to a physician. ...


The first schools of optometry were established in 1850-1900 (in USA), and contact lenses were first used in 1940s [3]


Licensing

Most countries have regulations concerning optometry education and practice. Optometrists like many other health care professionals are required to participate in ongoing continuing education courses to stay current on the latest standards of care.


Optometry is officially recognized:

See also: List of optometry schools.

Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Optometry Schools sorted alphabetically by country. ...

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, optometrists have to complete a 3 or 4 year undergraduate honours degree followed by a minimum of a one-year "pre-registration period" where they complete supervised practice under the supervision of an experienced qualified practitioner. During this year the pre-registration candidate is given a number of quarterly assessments and on successfully passing all of these assessments, a final one-day set of examinations. Following successful completion of these assessments and having completed one year's supervised practice, the candidate qualifies for membership of The College of Optometrists and is eligible to register as an optometrist with the General Optical Council (GOC). The College of Optometrists is the professional, scientific and examining body for optometry in the United Kingdom, working for the public benefit. ...


There are 6 universities which offer Optometry in England, they are: Anglia Ruskin University, Aston University, Bradford University, Cardiff University, London City, and Manchester University


Registration with the GOC is mandatory to practice in the UK. Members of the College of Optometrists may use the suffix MCOptom. Optometrists in the United Kingdom, as in most countries except the United States and Canada, receive a Bachelor of Optometry or Masters degree. They are not called "doctor" in the United Kingdom.


United States

US optometrists complete a 4-year program that leads to a Doctorate in Optometry (O.D.) degree. Many optometrists complete a one- or two-year residency to specialize. A sample curriculum is available from the Inter American University School of Optometry. As primary eye care providers, doctors of optometry are an integral part of the health care team. Prior to admittance into optometry school, optometrists typically complete four years of undergraduate study, culminating in a bachelor’s degree. Required undergraduate coursework for pre-optometry students covers a variety of health, science and mathematics courses. Optometry school consists of four years of study focusing on the eye, vision, and some systemic diseases. In addition to profession-specific courses, optometrists are required to take health courses that focus on a patient’s overall medical condition as it relates to the eyes.


Upon completion of optometry school, candidates graduate from their accredited college of optometry and hold the optometry (OD) degree. Optometrists must pass a rigorous national examination administered by the National Board of Examiners in Optometry (NBEO)http://www.optometry.org/passfail.cfm. The three-part exam includes basic science, clinical science and patient care. (The structure and format of the NBEO exams are subject to change beginning in 2008.) Some optometrists go on to complete residencies with training in a specific sub-specialty. These specialties include pediatric care, children’s vision, geriatric care, specialty contact lens (for keratoconus patients or other corneal dystrophy) and many others. All optometrists are required to participate in ongoing continuing education courses to stay current on the latest standards of care. Keratoconus (from Greek: kerato- horn, cornea; and konos cone), is a degenerative non-inflammatory disorder of the eye in which structural changes within the cornea cause it to thin and change to a more conical shape than its normal gradual curve. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Argentina

In Argentina optometrists are required to register with the local Ministry of Public Information, but licensing is not required. Anyone holding a Bachelor's degree may register as an optometrist after completing a written exam. Fees for the exam are set by the provincial government and vary from province to province.


Colombia

In Colombia optometry education has been accredited by the Ministry of Health. The last official revision to the laws regarding health care standards for the country was issued in 1992 through the Law 30.[4] Currently there are eight official Universities that are entitled by ICFES to grant the Optometrist certification. The first optometrist arrived to the country from North America and Europe circa 1914. These professionals were specialized in optics and refraction. In 1933 under Decree 449 and 1291 the Colombian Government officially set the rules for the formation of professionals in the area of optometry. In 1966 La Salle University opens its first Faculty in Optometry after a recommendation of a group of professionals. At the present time optometrists are encouraged to keep up with new technologies through congresses and scholarships granted by the government or private companies (such as Bausch & Lomb). For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... Bausch & Lomb is an American company based in Rochester, New York, specializing in eye health products such as contact lenses, lens care products and eye surgery devices and instruments. ...


Europe

Currently, optometry education and licencing varies through out Europe. For example, in Germany, the tasks of an optometrist are split between ophthalmologists and professionally trained and certified opticians. In France, there is no regulatory framework and optometrists are sometimes trained by completing an apprenticeship at an ophthalmologists' private office. [5] Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... An optician is an eye care professional who provides corrective lenses based on a refraction prescription supplied by a ophthalmologist or optometrist. ...


Since the formation of the European Union, "there exists a strong movement, headed by the Association of European Schools and Colleges of Optometry (AESCO), to unify the profession by creating a European-wide examination for optometry" and presumably also standardised practice and education guidelines within EU countries.[6] ew


Ireland

The profession of Optometry has been represented for over a century by the Association of Optometrists, Ireland [AOI]. In Ireland an optometrist must first complete a four year degree in Optometry at D.I.T. Kevin Street. Following successful completion of the a degree, an optometrist must then complete Professional Qualifying Examinations in order to be entered into the register of the Opticians Board [Bord na Radharcmhaistoiri]. It is illegal to practice as an optometrist in the Republic of Ireland, unless registered with the Board.


The A.O.I. runs a comprehensive continuing education and professional development program on behalf of Irish optometrists. The legislation governing Optometry was drafted in 1956. The legislation restricts optometrists from using their full range of skills, training and equipment for the benefit of the Irish public. The amendment to the Act in 2003 addressed one of the most significant restrictions - the use of cycloplegic drugs to examine children.


Distinction from ophthalmology

Ophthalmologists after obtaining a 4 year bachelors degree, attend medical school for 4 years of medical training to obtain an Allopathic (MD) or an Osteopathic (DO) degree. Ophthalmologists train for an additional three to four years of residency training. Residency training in ophthalmology encompasses all aspects of diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the eye, orbit, and neurological system of the brain. This includes surgical treatment. Many ophthalmologists pursue additional fellowship training in various subspecialties. Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ...


(Most of the following information pertains to Optometry in the United States): Optometrists also acquire a 3-4 year bachelor degree followed by 4 years of Optometry school to earn an OD or Doctor of Optometry degree. While in school, optometry students undergo internship training and after completion of the degree, have options of 1 to 2 year residency programs for further specialization.


Optometrists having completed a residency can further specialize in a particular area such as Pediatric Optometry, Geriatric Optometry, Behavioral Optometry or Neuro-optometry.


Optometry school is more specialized in scope, with courses that include vision sciences, health sciences, pharmacology, and clinical education. Examples include courses in visual psychophysics, optics, as well as training in aspects of functional vision such as vision therapy, binocular vision, and low vision. Optometrists are also trained extensively in anatomy, histology, neurology, vision perception. They have a broad understanding of disease etiology, management, and treatment. In general, optometrists can do the same things ophthalmologists do with the exceptions of internal surgery and particular diseases (e.g. wet macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma surgery, cataracts) that require extensive surgical expertise. Depending on state law, however, many optometrists are licensed to perform minor surgery as well as laser surgery. Some states limit the prescribing of oral medications by optometrists depending on licensure and regulatory requirements.


The two fields often have a mutually beneficial relationship:


Ophthalmologists may refer patients to optometrists for contact lenses or for optical aids or low vision rehabilitation whilst continuing to treat the underlying disease/condition that may have reduced vision. Similarly, complicated and emergency eye conditions are referred from Optometry to Ophthalmology.


Both optometrists and ophthalmologists perform screening for common ocular problems affecting children (i.e., amblyopia and strabismus) and the adult population (cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy). Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ...


Optometrists generally manage treatment of strabismus and amblyopia with vision therapy while Ophthalmologists manage these disorders with refractive, orthoptic, medical and surgical therapy.


See also Ophthalmology#Distinction from Optometry This article is about the branch of medicine. ...


Sub-specialties

There are currently nine sub-specialty residencies offered by various schools of optometry in the United States [1] [2]:

  1. Cornea and contact lenses
  2. Family practice optometry
  3. Geriatric optometry
  4. Glaucoma
  5. Low vision rehabilitation
  6. orthoptic practice
  7. Ocular disease
  8. Pediatric optometry
  9. Primary care optometry
  10. Vision therapy and rehabilitation

Many of these sub-specialties are also recognised in other countries. The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... Low vision is alternatively a general term used to describe lowered visual acuity, and a specific legal term in Canada and the United States used to designate someone with vision of 20/70 or less in the better eye with correction. ... This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual training, vision training, or visual therapy, is a method attempting to correct or improve presumed ocular, visual processing, and perceptual disorders. ...


Please note, refractive surgery and ocular surgery fellowships involve learning how to co-manage patients before and after eye surgery. Similarly, ocular disease residencies involve co-management practice with other health professionals. Also the College of Optometrists in Vision Development provides certification for eye doctors in vision therapy, behavioral and developmental vision care, and "visual rehabilitation". Training in binocular vision and orthoptics sub-specialties are often integrated into either pediatric or vision therapy programs. The College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) is a non-profit, international membership association of eye care professionals including optometrists, optometry students, and vision therapists. ... Behavioral optometry is an approach to improving impaired vision using behavior training, in contrast to prescribing corrective lenses. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Orthoptics (from the Greek words ortho meaning straight, and optikas meaning vision [1]) is the discipline dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of defective eye coordination, binocular vision, and functional amblyopia by non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical methods, e. ...


Etymology

The term "optometry" comes from the Greek word optos, meaning eye or vision, and metria, meaning measurement.


See also

Behavioral optometry is an approach to improving impaired vision using behavior training, in contrast to prescribing corrective lenses. ... An eye care professional is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... Using a phoropter to determine a prescription for eyeglasses An eyeglass prescription is a written order by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist to an optician for eyeglasses. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Optometry is a health care profession that provides comprehensive eye and vision care, which includes the diagnosis and management of eye diseases. ... Orthoptics (from the Greek words ortho meaning straight, and optikas meaning vision [1]) is the discipline dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of defective eye coordination, binocular vision, and functional amblyopia by non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical methods, e. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual training, vision training, or visual therapy, is a method attempting to correct or improve presumed ocular, visual processing, and perceptual disorders. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ... Visual skills can be divided to into two main categories: visual perceptual motor skills and ocular motor skills. ...

External links

Organizations

Other

Some optometry-related publications

References

  1. ^ Handbook of Ocular Disease Management - Understanding Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis
  2. ^ History of Optometry, Lecture Handout at Indiana University School of Optometry by David A. Goss.
  3. ^ History
  4. ^ Consejo Nacional de Acreditación
  5. ^ Welcome to Eurotimes
  6. ^ The unification of European optometry: how the profession will change after 1992 by Hamakiotes DS, Thal LS in J Am Optom Assoc. 1992 Jun;63(6):388-9.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Optometrists (1508 words)
The Doctor of Optometry degree requires the completion of a 4-year program at an accredited optometry school, preceded by at least 3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited college or university.
A few applicants are accepted to optometry school after 3 years of college and complete their bachelor’s degree while attending optometry school.
Optometry programs include classroom and laboratory study of health and visual sciences, as well as clinical training in the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders.
Optometry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (845 words)
Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is the health care profession concerned with examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the eyes and related structures and with determination and correction of vision problems using lenses and other optical aids [1].
There is however an optometry degree offered at the University of Ulster at Coleraine in Northern Ireland (which is part of the United Kingdom) which many students from the Republic attend.
Doctor of Optometry degree is an entry education requirement for licensing optometry in Thailand.
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