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Encyclopedia > Optics
Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia
Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia

'Optics" (ὀπτική appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. Optics explains optical phenomena. Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1789x2899, 1511 KB) This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1789x2899, 1511 KB) This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An optical phenomenon is any observable event which results from the interaction of light and matter. ...


The field of optics usually describes the behavior of visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light; however because light is an electromagnetic wave, analogous phenomena occur in X-rays, microwaves, radio waves, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Optics can thus be regarded as a sub-field of electromagnetism. Some optical phenomena depend on the quantum nature of light relating some areas of optics to quantum mechanics. In practice, the vast majority of optical phenomena can be accounted for using the electromagnetic description of light, as described by Maxwell's Equations. The visible spectrum is the portion of the optical spectrum (light or electromagnetic spectrum) that is visible to the human eye. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... “UV” redirects here. ... Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than those of terahertz (THz) frequencies, but relatively short for radio waves. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with light. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... Fig. ... In electromagnetism, Maxwells equations are a set of equations first presented as a distinct group in the later half of the nineteenth century by James Clerk Maxwell. ...


Optics, as a field, is often considered largely separate from the physics community. It has its own identity, societies, and conferences. The pure science aspects of the field are often called optical science or optical physics. Applied optical sciences are often called optical engineering. Applications of optical engineering related specifically to illumination systems are called illumination engineering. Each of these disciplines tends to be quite different in its applications, technical skills, focus, and professional affiliations. More recent innovations in optical engineering are often categorized as photonics or optoelectronics. The boundaries between these fields and "optics" are often unclear, and the terms are used differently in different parts of the world and in different areas of industry. Optical physics is subfield of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Lighting refers to either artificial light sources such as lamps or to natural illumination of interiors from daylight. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light, and thus is usually considered a sub-field of photonics. ...


Because of the wide application of the science of "light" to real-world applications, the areas of optical science and optical engineering tend to be very cross-disciplinary. Optical science is a part of many related disciplines including electrical engineering, physics, psychology, medicine (particularly ophthalmology and optometry), and others. Additionally, the most complete description of optical behavior, as known to physics, is unnecessarily complicated for most problems, so particular simplified models are used. These limited models adequately describe subsets of optical phenomena while ignoring behavior irrelevant and/or undetectable to the system of interest. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is one of the health care profession concerned with examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the eyes and related structures and with determination and correction of vision problems using lenses and other optical aids [1]. An optical refractor (also called...

Contents

Classical optics

Before quantum optics became important, optics consisted mainly of the application of classical electromagnetism and its high frequency approximations to light. Classical optics divides into two main branches: geometric optics and physical optics. Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing with the application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter. ... A high frequency approximation (or high energy approximation) for scattering or other wave propagation problems, in physics or engineering, is an approximation whose accuracy increases with the size of features on the scatterer or medium relative to the wavelength of the scattered particles. ... See also list of optical topics. ... Physical Optics is the name of a high frequency approximation (short wavelength approximation) used in the electromagnetism of optics and radio. ...


Geometric optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of "rays". Rays are bent at the interface between two dissimilar media, and may be curved in a medium in which the refractive index is a function of position. The "ray" in geometric optics is an abstract object which is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual optical waves. Geometric optics provides rules for propagating these rays through an optical system, which indicates how the actual wavefront will propagate. Note that this is a significant simplification of optics, and fails to account for many important optical effects such as diffraction and polarization. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wave propagation refers to the ways waves travel through a medium (waveguide). ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... Free space is the most simple and elementary electromagnetic medium. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... In optics, a wavefront is the locus (a line or surface in an electromagnetic wave) of points having the same phase. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ...


Geometric optics is often simplified even further by making the paraxial approximation, or "small angle approximation." The mathematical behavior then becomes linear, allowing optical components and systems to be described by simple matrices. This leads to the techniques of Gaussian optics and paraxial raytracing, which are used to find first-order properties of optical systems, such as approximate image and object positions and magnifications. Gaussian beam propagation is an expansion of paraxial optics that provides a more accurate model of coherent radiation like laser beams. While still using the paraxial approximation, this technique partially accounts for diffraction, allowing accurate calculations of the rate at which a laser beam expands with distance, and the minimum size to which the beam can be focused. Gaussian beam propagation thus bridges the gap between geometric and physical optics. In geometric optics, the paraxial approximation is an approximation used in ray tracing of light through an optical system (such as a lens). ... In geometric optics, the paraxial approximation is an approximation used in ray tracing of light through an optical system (such as a lens). ... In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are described by Gaussian functions. ... Experiment with a laser (likely an argon type) (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ...


Physical optics or wave optics builds on Huygen's principle and models the propagation of complex wavefronts through optical systems, including both the amplitude and the phase of the wave. This technique, which is usually applied numerically on a computer, can account for diffraction, interference, and polarization effects, as well as aberrations and other complex effects. Approximations are still generally used, however, so this is not a full electromagnetic wave theory model of the propagation of light. Such a full model would (at present) be too computationally demanding to be useful for most problems, although some small-scale problems can be analyzed using complete wave models. Physical Optics is the name of a high frequency approximation (short wavelength approximation) used in the electromagnetism of optics and radio. ... In physics, physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics which studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid. ... Wave Refraction in the manner of Huygens. ... Amplitude is a nonnegative scalar measure of a waves magnitude of oscillation, that is, magnitude of the maximum disturbance in the medium during one wave cycle. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Topics related to classical optics

Conceptual animation of dispersion of light in a prism.

Image File history File links Light_dispersion_conceptual. ... Image File history File links Light_dispersion_conceptual. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Coherence is the property of wave-like states that enables them to exhibit interference. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. ... The subject of optical fabrication and testing spans an enormous range of manufacturing procedures and optical test configurations. ... Fermats principle assures that the angles given by Snells law always reflect lights quickest path between P and Q. Fermats principle in optics states: This principle was first stated by Pierre de Fermat. ... To explain the basic principle of Fourier optics, it might be useful to consider the analogue with acoustics: If an arbitrary sound is analyzed through a spectrum analyzer, you will get all the different frequencies and their individual amplitudes that, together, form the sound. ... Gradient index optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material. ... Optical lens design is the science/art of calculating the various lens construction parameters (variables) that will meet or at least approach desired performance requirements while staying within required constraint values. ... Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... A ray traced scene. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... In particle physics, scattering is a class of phenomena by which particles are deflected by collisions with other particles. ... This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... A lens. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ...

Modern optics

Modern optics encompasses the areas of optical science and engineering that became popular in the 20th century. These areas of optical science typically relate to the electromagnetic or quantum properties of light but do include other topics.


Topics related to modern optics

A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... Circular dichroism (CD), is the differential absorption of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light. ... Crystal optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating. ... Diffraction is the apparent bending and spreading of waves when they meet an obstruction. ... Look up waveguide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Holography (from the Greek, Όλος-holos whole + γραφή-graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms; it is an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Photonic integrated circuit. ... In optics one can describe polarization using the Jones calculus, invented by R. C. Jones in 1941. ... Experiment with a laser (likely an argon type) (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ... Non-imaging optics is the branch of optics concerned with the optimal transfer of light between a source and a target. ... Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. ... An optical computer is a computer that performs its computation with photons or polaritons as opposed to the more traditional electron-based computation. ... Photopic (black) and scotopic [1] (green) luminosity functions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing with the application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter. ... In telecommunication and physics, radiometry is the science of radiation measurement. ... Thin-film optics is the branch of optics which deals with very thin structured layers of different materials. ... X-ray optics is the branch of optics which manipulates x-rays instead of visible light. ...

Other optical fields

For alternative meanings, see color (disambiguation). ... UPIICSA IPN - Binary image Image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but can be for instance a set of features of the image. ... A bundle of optical fiber. ... Machine vision (MV) is the application of computer vision to industry and manufacturing. ... Optical communication is any form of telecommunication that uses light as the transmission medium. ... An optical computer is a computer that uses light instead of electricity (i. ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... Optical feedback Credit: Profero Graphics Two Screenshots of optical feedback Credit: Profero Graphics Optical feedback is the optical equivalent of acoustic feedback. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... This page provides information on the science used in all aspects of photography: the camera, its lenses, physical operation of the camera, electronic camera internals, and the process of developing film. ... Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. ... In radiative heat transfer, heat is transferred between bodies by electromagnetic radiation. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ...

Everyday optics

Optics is part of everyday life. Rainbows and mirages are examples of optical phenomena. Many people benefit from eyeglasses or contact lenses, and optics are used in many consumer goods including cameras. Superimposition of periodic structures, for example transparent tissues with a grid structure, produces shapes known as moiré patterns. Superimposition of periodic transparent patterns comprising parallel opaque lines or curves produces line moiré patterns. Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... This article is about mirage, an optical phenomenon. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... A camera is a device used to take images (usually photographs), either singly or in sequence, with or without sound, such as with video cameras. ... It has been suggested that Line moiré be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Moiré pattern. ...


See also

Physics Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... // The Beginnings of Geometrical Optics The Greek term τα όπτικά referred specifically to matters of vision[1], and hence early optics was concerned with the problem of how we see. ... Probably some Wikipedia articles on topics in optics are not yet listed on this page. ... This is a list of important publications in physics, organized by field. ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... An optical illusion is always characterized by visually perceived images that, at least in common sense terms, are deceptive or misleading. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... An optician is an individual who makes and adjusts optical aids. ...

Societies

The Optical Society of America (OSA) is a research and education organization in the field of optics. ... SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering is a not-for-profit society that has become the largest[citation needed] international force for the exchange, collection and dissemination of knowledge in optics, photonics, and imaging engineering. ... The European Optical Society is a pan-European society that aims to contribute to the progress in optics. ...

Wikibooks modules

  • Optics (Physics Study Guide)
  • Optics

References

  • Hecht, Eugene (2001). Optics (4th ed.). Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-8566-5. 
  • Serway, Raymond A.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 
  • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Optics

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Textbooks and tutorials

  • Optics — an open-source Optics textbook
  • Optics2001 — Optics library and community

Societies

  • OSA — Optical Society of America
  • SPIE
  • EOS — European Optical Society
  • Northwest Photonics Association — UK

  Results from FactBites:
 
Optics - MSN Encarta (1231 words)
Optics, branch of physical science dealing with the propagation and behavior of light.
In a general sense, light is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from X rays to microwaves and includes the radiant energy that produces the sensation of vision (see Electromagnetic Radiation; Energy; Spectrum; X Ray).
In geometrical optics the wave theory of light is ignored and rays are traced through an optical system by applying the laws of reflection and refraction.
Optics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (809 words)
Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter.
The field of optics usually describes the behavior of visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light; however because light is an electromagnetic wave, analogous phenomena occur in X-rays, microwaves, radio waves, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
The "ray" in geometric optics is an abstract object which is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual optical waves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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