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Encyclopedia > Optical microscopy

A microscope (Greek: μικρόν micron = small and σκοπός scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy, and the term microscopic means minute or very small, not easily visible with the unaided eye. In other words, requiring a microscope to examine. gonfly]].]] In most vertebrates and some mollusks, the eye works by allowing light to enter it and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells known as the retina at the rear of the eye, where the light is detected and converted into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to... Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into microscope. ...


The most common type of microscope—and the first to be invented—is the optical microscope. This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of an object placed in the focal plane of the lens(es). There are, however, many other microscope designs. A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Optical redirects here. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ... A lens. ...

Contents


Microscope Types

Microscopes can largely be separated into two classes, optical theory microscopes and scanning probe microscopes. See also list of optical topics. ...


Optical theory microscopes are microscopes which function through the optical theory of lenses in order to magnify the image generated by the passage of a wave through the sample. The waves used are either electromagnetic in optical microscopes or electron beams in electron microscopes. See also list of optical topics. ... A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space, often transferring energy. ... Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ...


Optical microscopes

Main article: Optical microscope

Optical microscopes, through their use of visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and hence most widely used type of microscope. They serve uses in many fields of science, particularly biology and geology. A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ...


Optical microscopes use refractive lenses, typically of glass and occasionally of plastic, to focus light into the eye or another light detector. Typical magnification of a light microscope is up to 1500x with a resolution of around 2 micrometres. Specialised techniques (e.g., scanning confocal microscopy) may exceed this magnification but the resolution is an insurmountable diffraction limit. The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colours as shown in this ball from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ... Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer), symbol µm, is an SI unit of length. ... Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM or LSCM) is a valuable tool for obtaining high resolution images and 3-D reconstructions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Other microscopes which use electromagnetic wavelengths not visible to the human eye are often called optical microscopes. The most common of these, due to its high resolution yet no requirement for a vacuum like electron microscopes, is the x-ray microscope. Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects. ...


Because of their popular use, optical microscopes have many adaptions to facilitate usage and improve image quality.

Main articles: Optical microscope and microscopy

A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into microscope. ...

Electron microscopes

Main article: Electron Microscope
Electron microscope
Enlarge
Electron microscope

Electron microscopes, which use beams of electrons instead of light, are designed for very high magnification usage. Electrons, which have a much smaller wavelength than visible light, allow a much higher resolution. The main limitation of the electron beam is that it must pass through a vacuum as air molecules would otherwise scatter the beam. It has been suggested that Selected area diffraction be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1816x2729, 401 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Microscope Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1816x2729, 401 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Microscope Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Instead of relying on refraction, lenses for electron microscopes are specially designed electromagnets which generates magnetic fields that are approximately parallel to the direction that electrons travel. The electrons are typically detected by a phosphor screen, photographic film or a CCD. The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... It has been suggested that Selected area diffraction be merged into this article or section. ... A phosphor is a substance that can exhibit the phenomenon of fluorescence (glowing during absorption of radiation of another kind) or phosphorescence (sustained glowing without further stimulus). ... Undeveloped Arista black and white film, ISO 125. ... CCD can stand for: Charge-Coupled Device Confraternity of Christian Doctrine Carbonate Compensation Depth Council for a Community of Democracies MiniCD This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Two major variants of electron microscopes exist:

SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high resolution images of a sample surface. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Electron microscope. ...

Scanning probe microscope

In scanning probe microscopy (SPM), a physical probe is used either in close contact to the sample or nearly touching it. By rastering the probe across the sample, and by measuring the interactions between the sharp tip of the probe and the sample, a micrograph is generated. The exact nature of the interactions between the probe and the determines exactly what kind of SPM is being used. Because this kind of microscopy relies on the interactions between the tip and the sample, it generally only measures information about the surface of the sample. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... A micrograph is a photograph or similar image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. ...


Some kinds of SPMs are:

// AFM The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope. ... Image of substitutional Cr impurities (small bumps) in the Fe(001) surface. ... A magnetic force microscope (MFM) is a scanning probe microscope (SPM) that can map the spatial distribution of magnetism by measuring the magnetic interaction between a sample and a tip. ...

Contact-field optical microscopes

Other microscopes

Acoustic microscopes use sound waves to measure variations in acoustic impedance. Similar to SONAR in principle, they are used for such jobs as detecting defects in the subsurfaces of materials including those found in integrated circuits.


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into microscope. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... It has been suggested that Selected area diffraction be merged into this article or section. ... An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects. ... Dark-Field microscope- uses a method whereby the sample being viewed is actually in front of a dark background and light is being angled onto the specimen from the sides. ... Angular resolution describes the resolving power of a telescope. ... Microscope image processing is a broad term that covers the use of digital image processing techniques to process, analyze and present images obtained from a microscope. ... Microscope slides and cover slips. ... 50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory. ... Introduction This list is outdated. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ...

External links

  • Directory of Microscopy & Microanalysis Meetings/ShortCourses/Conferences 2006
  • A virtual polarization microscope (requires Java)
  • WWW Virtual Library: Microscopy
  • Micscape - a monthly magazine directed towards the amateur microscopist
  • Microscopy
  • the optics of the microscope
  • Optical microscopy primer
  • Royal Microscopical Society
  • The Microscope - quarterly journal
  • Antique German microscopes history of continental microscopes illustrated with 2000 photos (in German)
  • Early American made microscopes Antique American made microscopes and the makers.
  • Some Early Microscopes from the Optical Institute in Wetzlar Microscope history.
  • Microscope-Related United States Patents: 1853-1915
Laboratory equipment
Agar plate | Aspirator | Bunsen burner | Calorimeter | Colony counter | Colorimeter | Centrifuge | Fume hood | Magnetic stirrer | Microscope | Microtiter plate | Plate reader | Spectrophotometer | Stir bar | Thermometer | Vortex mixer | Static mixer
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Beaker | Boiling tube | Büchner funnel | Burette | Conical measure | Crucible | Cuvette | Laboratory flasks (Erlenmeyer flask, Round-bottom flask, Florence flask, Volumetric flask, Büchner flask, Retort) | Gas syringe | Graduated cylinder | Pipette | Petri dish | Separating funnel | Soxhlet extractor | Test tube | Thistle tube | Watch glass

 
 

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