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Encyclopedia > Optical illusion
An optical illusion. Square A is exactly the same shade of grey as square B. See Same color illusion
An optical illusion. Square A is exactly the same shade of grey as square B. See Same color illusion
This article is about visual perception. See Optical Illusion (Album) for information about the Time Requiem album.

An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is characterized by visually perceived images that are deceptive or misleading. The information gathered by the eye is processed by the brain to give a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. There are three main types of illusion - literal optical illusions that create images that are different from the objects that make them, physiological illusions that are the effects on the eyes and brain of excessive stimulation of a specific type - brightness, tilt, color, movement, and cognitive illusions where the eye and brain make unconscious inferences. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 772 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1087 × 844 pixel, file size: 214 KB, MIME type: image/png) Prepared for Wikipedia by Adrian Pingstone in January 2004, based on the original created by Edward H. Adelson. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 772 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1087 × 844 pixel, file size: 214 KB, MIME type: image/png) Prepared for Wikipedia by Adrian Pingstone in January 2004, based on the original created by Edward H. Adelson. ... Squares A and B are the same color. ... This article is about the Time Requiem album. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ...

Contents

Physiological illusions

A scintillating grid illusion. Shape position and colour contrast converge to produce the illusion of grey dots at the intersections.
A scintillating grid illusion. Shape position and colour contrast converge to produce the illusion of grey dots at the intersections.

Physiological illusions, such as the afterimages following bright lights or adapting stimuli of excessively longer alternating patterns (contingent perceptual aftereffect), are presumed to be the effects on the eyes or brain of excessive stimulation of a specific type - brightness, tilt, color, movement, etc. The theory is that stimuli have individual dedicated neural paths in the early stages of visual processing, and that repetitive stimulation of only one or a few channels causes a physiological imbalance that alters perception. Image File history File links Grid_illusion. ... Image File history File links Grid_illusion. ... The Scintillating grid illusion A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a persons vision. ... Left side of the image has low contrast, the right has higher contrast. ... For other uses, see Afterimage (disambiguation). ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


The Hermann grid illusion and Mach bands are two illusions that are best explained using a biological approach. Lateral inhibition, where in the receptive field of the retina light and dark receptors compete with one another to become active, has been used to explain why we see bands of increased brightness at the edge of a color difference when viewing Mach bands. Once a receptor is active it inhibits adjacent receptors. This inhibition creates contrast, highlighting edges. In the Hermann grid illusion the grey spots appear at the intersection because of the inhibitory response which occurs as a result of the increased dark surround.[1] Lateral inhibition has also been used to explain the Hermann grid illusion, but this has been disproved. The Scintillating grid illusion A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a persons vision. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... simply; your nose receives messages from the environment sending them to the olfactory centre which is present in the cerebrum the largest part of brain: then you either smell a good smell or a bad smell stink with parts of seconds. ... The receptive field of a sensory neuron is a region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron. ... simply; your nose receives messages from the environment sending them to the olfactory centre which is present in the cerebrum the largest part of brain: then you either smell a good smell or a bad smell stink with parts of seconds. ... The Scintillating grid illusion A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a persons vision. ... The Scintillating grid illusion A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a persons vision. ...


Cognitive illusions

Cognitive illusions are assumed to arise by interaction with assumptions about the world, leading to "unconscious inferences", an idea first suggested in the 19th century by Hermann Helmholtz. Cognitive illusions are commonly divided into ambiguous illusions, distorting illusions, paradox illusions, or fiction illusions. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ...

  1. Ambiguous illusions are pictures or objects that elicit a perceptual 'switch' between the alternative interpretations. The Necker cube is a well known example; another instance is the Rubin vase.
  2. Distorting illusions are characterized by distortions of size, length, or curvature. A striking example is the Café wall illusion. Another example is the famous Müller-Lyer illusion.
  3. Paradox illusions are generated by objects that are paradoxical or impossible, such as the Penrose triangle or impossible staircases seen, for example, in M. C. Escher's Ascending and Descending and Waterfall. The triangle is an illusion dependent on a cognitive misunderstanding that adjacent edges must join.
  4. Fictional illusions are defined as the perception of objects that are genuinely not there to all but a single observer, such as those induced by schizophrenia or a hallucinogen. These are more properly called hallucinations.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Impossible cube. ... Rubins vase (sometimes known as the Rubin face or the Figure-ground vase) is a famous set of cognitive optical illusions developed around 1915 by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin. ... The café wall illusion The café wall illusion is an optical illusion, first described by Doctor Richard Gregory. ... the Müller-Lyer optical illusion with arrows. ... The Penrose triangle Impossible Triangle sculpture, East Perth, Australia The Penrose triangle, also known as the tribar, is an impossible object. ... The Penrose stairs is an impossible object devised by Lionel Penrose and his son Roger Penrose and can be seen as a variation on his Penrose triangle. ... Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 – March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. ... Ascending and Descending, an M. C. Escher lithograph print Ascending and Descending is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1960. ... Waterfall is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in October, 1961. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Hallucinogenic drug - drugs that can alter sensory perceptions. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ...

Explanation of cognitive illusions

Perceptual organization

Reversible figure and ground
Reversible figure and ground
Duck-Rabbit illusion
Duck-Rabbit illusion
My Wife and My Mother-In-Law
My Wife and My Mother-In-Law

To make sense of the world it is necessary to organize incoming sensations into information which is meaningful. Gestalt psychologists believe one way this is done is by perceiving individual sensory stimuli as a meaningful whole.[2] Gestalt means "whole" in German. However, another explanation of the Kanizsa Triangle is based in evolutionary psychology and the fact that in order to survive it was important to see form and edges. The use of perceptual organization to create meaning out of stimuli is the principle behind other well-known illusions including impossible objects. Our brain makes sense of shapes and symbols putting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, formulating that which isn't there to that which is believable. Image File history File links Facevase. ... Image File history File links Facevase. ... Image File history File links The famous duck-rabbit optical illusion. ... Image File history File links The famous duck-rabbit optical illusion. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Two famous undecidable figures, the Penrose triangle and devils pitchfork An impossible object is an object that cannot exist according to the known laws of nature, but has a description or representation suggesting, at first sight, that it can. ...


Depth and motion perception

Illusions can be based on an individual's ability to see in three dimensions even though the image hitting the retina is only two dimensional. The Ponzo illusion is an example of an illusion which uses monocular cues of depth perception to fool the eye. An example of the Ponzo Illusion. ...

Ponzo Illusion

In the Ponzo illusion the converging parallel lines tell the brain that the image higher in the visual field is further away therefore the brain perceives the image to be larger, although the two images hitting the retina are the same size. The Optical illusion seen in a diorama/false perspective also exploits assumptions based on monocular cues of depth perception. The M. C. Escher painting Waterfall exploits rules of depth and proximity and our understand of the physical world to create an illusion. Image File history File links Ponzo_illusion. ... Image File history File links Ponzo_illusion. ... Parallel is a term in geometry and in everyday life that refers to a property in Euclidean space of two or more lines or planes, or a combination of these. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... A diorama is any of the two display devices mentioned below. ... A diorama is a partially three dimensional model of a landscape typically showing historical events, nature scenes, cityscapes, etc. ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ... Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 – March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. ... Waterfall is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in October, 1961. ...


Like depth perception, motion perception is responsible for a number of sensory illusions. Film animation is based on the illusion that the brain perceives a series of slightly varied images produced in rapid succession as a moving picture. Likewise, when we are moving, as we would be while riding in a vehicle, stable surrounding objects may appear to move. We may also perceive a large object, like an airplane, to move more slowly, than smaller objects, like a car, although the larger object is actually moving faster. The Phi phenomenon is yet another example of how the brain perceives motion, which is most often created by blinking lights in close succession. Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ... Motion perception is the process of inferring the speed and direction of objects that move in a visual scene given some visual input. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... The phi phenomenon is a perceptual illusion described by Max Wertheimer in his 1912 Experimental Studies on the Seeing of Motion, in which a disembodied perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images. ...


Color and brightness constancies

Simultaneous Contrast Illusion. The horizontal grey bar is the same shade throughout
Simultaneous Contrast Illusion. The horizontal grey bar is the same shade throughout
In this illusion, the second card from the left seems to be a stronger shade of pink in the top picture. In fact they are the same colour, but the brain changes its assumption about colour due to the colour cast of the surrounding photo.
In this illusion, the second card from the left seems to be a stronger shade of pink in the top picture. In fact they are the same colour, but the brain changes its assumption about colour due to the colour cast of the surrounding photo.

Perceptual constancies are sources of illusions. Color constancy and brightness constancy are responsible for the fact that a familiar object will appear the same color regardless of the amount of or colour of light reflecting from it. An illusion of color or contrast difference can be created when the luminosity or colour of the area surrounding an unfamiliar object is changed. The contrast of the object will appear darker against a black field which reflects less light compared to a white field even though the object itself did not change in color. Similarly, the eye will compensate for colour contrast depending on the colour cast of the surrounding area. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 354 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1551 × 2622 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 354 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1551 × 2622 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color-perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions. ...


Object consistencies

Like color, the brain has the ability to understand familiar objects as having a consistent shape or size. For example a door is perceived as rectangle regardless as to how the image may change on the retina as the door is opened and closed. Unfamiliar objects, however, do not always follow the rules of shape constancy and may change when the perspective is changed. The Shepard illusion of the changing table is an example of an illusion based on distortions in shape constancy.


Illusions

An optical illusion. The two circles seem to move when the viewer's head is moving forwards and backwards while looking at the black dot.
An optical illusion. The two circles seem to move when the viewer's head is moving forwards and backwards while looking at the black dot.
Floor tiles at the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome. The pattern creates an illusion of three-dimensional boxes.
Floor tiles at the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome. The pattern creates an illusion of three-dimensional boxes.
The Spinning Dancer appears to move both clockwise and counter-clockwise

Artists have worked with optical illusions, including M. C. Escher, Bridget Riley, Salvador Dalí, Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Marcel Duchamp, Oscar Reutersvärd, and Charles Allan Gilbert. Also some contemporary artists are experimenting with illusions, including: Octavio Ocampo, Dick Termes, Shigeo Fukuda, Patrick Hughes (artist), István Orosz, Rob Gonsalves and Akiyoshi Kitaoka. Optical illusion is also used in film by the technique of forced perspective. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1952, 243 KB) Summary This is a picture of floor tiles in Basilica of St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1952, 243 KB) Summary This is a picture of floor tiles in Basilica of St. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... An Ames room is a distorted room that is used to create an optical illusion. ... The Ames Trapezoidal Window is a window which, when observed frontally, appears to be a rectangular window. ... A random dot autostereogram encodes a 3D scene which can be seen with proper viewing technique. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Benhams top, also called Benhams disk, is named after the English toymaker Charles Benham, who, in 1895, sold a top painted with the pattern shown. ... The Bezold Effect is an optical illusion, named after a German professor of meteorology, Wilhelm von Bezold (1837-1907), who discovered that a colour may appear different depending on its relation to adjacent colours. ... This blivet is reminiscent of an M.C. Escher print—it portrays two impossible perspectives at once, creating a lost layer between the top two rods, and an impossible extra, vanishing rod in between the bottom two. ... This blivet is reminiscent of an M.C. Escher painting--it portrays two impossible perspectives at once, creating a lost layer between the top two rods, and an impossible extra, vanishing rod in between the bottom two. ... The café wall illusion The café wall illusion is an optical illusion, first described by Doctor Richard Gregory. ... The brightness of any luminant stimulus varies, often quite markedly, as a function of the context in which it is presented. ... The Craik-OBrien-Cornsweet illusion, also known as the Craik-Cornsweet illusion and the Cornsweet illusion, was discovered by Tom Cornsweet in the late sixties. ... The Ebbinghaus illusion is an optical illusion of relative size perception. ... Categories: Optical illusions ... The flash lag illusion or flash-lag effect is a visual illusion wherein a flash and a moving object that appear in the same location are perceived to be displaced from one another (MacKay, 1958; Nijhawan, 1994). ... Categories: Optical illusions ... The Scintillating grid illusion A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a persons vision. ... Categories: Optical illusions ... This face of Björn Borg appears convex, (pushed out) but is actually concave (pushed in). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Categories: Optical illusions ... Categories: Optical illusions ... Lilac chaser is a visual illusion, also known as Very cool illusion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Magnetic Hill is an optical illusion created by rising and descending terrain, located at the northern edge of the city of Moncton in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... The McCollough Effect in Psychophysics is a form-contingent, color aftereffect. ... The missing square puzzle is an optical illusion used in mathematics classes, to help students reason about geometrical figures. ... The Moon illusion is an optical illusion in which the Moon appears larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Illusory motion. ... the Müller-Lyer optical illusion with arrows. ... The Necker Cube is an optical illusion first published in 1832 by Swiss crystallographer Louis Albert Necker. ... Categories: Optical illusions ... The Penrose triangle Impossible Triangle sculpture, East Perth, Australia The Penrose triangle, also known as the tribar, is an impossible object. ... The peripheral drift illusion (PDI) refers to a motion illusion generated by the presentation of a sawtooth luminance grating in the visual periphery. ... The phi phenomenon is a perceptual illusion described by Max Wertheimer in his 1912 Experimental Studies on the Seeing of Motion, in which a disembodied perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images. ... The Poggendorff Illusion is an optical illusion that involves the brains perception of the interaction between diagonal lines and horizontal and vertical edges. ... An example of the Ponzo Illusion. ... The Pulfrich effect is a consequence of the fact that at low light levels the eye-brain visual response is slower. ... Rubins vase (sometimes known as the Rubin face or the Figure-ground vase) is a famous set of cognitive optical illusions developed around 1915 by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin. ... Squares A and B are the same color Same color illusion, also known as Adelson’s Checker shadow illusion or Checker shadow illusion or just Checker shadow, is a visual illusion. ... Categories: Optical illusions ... Size-weight illusion is also known as Charpentier illusion (or Charpentier-Koseleff illusion). ... The wagon-wheel effect, (alternatively, waggon-wheel effect, stagecoach-wheel effect, stroboscopic effect) is an optical illusion in which a spoked wheel appears to rotate differently from its true rotation. ... Whites illusion is an optical illusion illustrating the fact that the same target luminance can elicit different perceptions of brightness in different contexts. ... Wundt illusion The Wundt illusion is an optical illusion that was first described by the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt in the 19th century. ... Zollner illusion The Zöllner illusion is a classic optical illusion named after its discoverer, German astrophysicist Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner. ... Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 – March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. ... Bridget Louise Riley CH CBE (born April 24, 1931 in London) is an English painter who is one of the foremost proponents of op art, art that exploits the fallibility of the human eye. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Vertumnus, a portrait of Rudolf II. The Librarian, 1566, oil on canvas, Skoklosters Slott, Sweden Giuseppe Arcimboldo (also spelled Arcimboldi; 1527 - July 11, 1593) was an Italian painter best known for creating imaginative portrait heads made entirely of such objects as fruits, vegetables, flowers, fish, and books -- that is, he... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... The Stockholm-born artist Oscar Reutersvärd (1915–2002), the father of the impossible figure, pioneered the art of impossible objects. ... Charles Allan Gilbert (1873-1929) was an American artist and illustrator. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Biographies. ... Shigeo Fukuda (福田 繁雄, born 1932) is a sculptor who creates optical illusions. ... István Orosz (b. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: If you are familiar with the subject matter, please expand the article to establish its notability, citing reliable sources, so as to avoid it being considered... Forced perspective is a technique that employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. ...


Cognitive processes hypothesis

The hypothesis claims that visual illusions are due to the fact that the neural circuitry in our visual system evolves, by neural learning, to a system that makes very efficient interpretations of usual 3D scenes based in the emergence of simplified models in our brain that speed up the interpretation process but give rise to optical illusions in unusual situations. In this sense, the cognitive processes hypothesis can be considered a framework for an understanding of optical illusions as the signature of the empirical statistical way vision has evolved to solve the inverse problem [1].


Research indicates that 3D vision capabilities emerge and are learned jointly with the planning of movements. After a long process of learning, an internal representation of the world emerges that is well adjusted to the perceived data coming from closer objects. The representation of distant objects near the horizon is less "adequate". In fact, it is not only the Moon that seems larger when we perceive it near the horizon. In a photo of a distant scene, all distant objects are perceived as smaller than when we observe them directly using our vision.


The retinal image is the main source driving vision but what we see is a "virtual" 3D representation of the scene in front of us. We don't see a physical image of the world. We see objects; and the physical world is not itself separated into objects. We see it according to the way our brain organizes it. The names, colors, usual shapes and other information about the things we see pop up instantaneously from our neural circuitry and influence the representation of the scene. We "see" the most relevant information about the elements of the best 3D image that our neural networks can produce. The illusions arise when the "judgments" implied in the unconscious analysis of the scene are in conflict with reasoned considerations about bite.


Gallery

References

  1. ^ Pinel, J. (2005) Biopsychology (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-42651-4
  2. ^ Myers, D. (2003). Psychology in Modules, (7th ed.) New York: Worth. ISBN 0-7167-5850-4 </refGestalt organization can be used to explain many illusions including the Duck-Rabbit illusion where the image as a whole switches back and forth from being a duck then being a rabbit and why in the figure-ground illusion the figure and ground are reversible.
    Kanizsa triangle
    Kanizsa triangle
    In addition, Gestalt theory can be used to explain the illusory contours in the Kanizsa Triangle. A floating white triangle, which does not exist, is seen. The brain has a need to see familiar simple objects and has a tendency to create a "whole" image from individual elements.<ref>Myers, D. (2003). Psychology in Modules, (7th ed.) New York: Worth. ISBN 0-7167-5850-4 </li></ol></ref>
  • Eagleman, D.M. (2001) Visual Illusions and Neurobiology. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2(12): 920-6. (pdf)
  • Gregory Richard (1997) Knowledge in perception and illusion. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352:1121-1128. (pdf)
  • Purves D, Lotto B (2002) Why We See What We Do: An Empirical Theory of Vision. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  • Purves D, Lotto RB, Nundy S (2002) Why We See What We Do. American Scientist 90 (3): 236-242.
  • Purves D, Williams MS, Nundy S, Lotto RB (2004) Perceiving the intensity of light. Psychological Rev. Vol. 111: 142-158.
  • Renier, L., Laloyaux, C., Collignon, O., Tranduy, D., Vanlierde, A., Bruyer, R., De Volder, A.G. (2005). The Ponzo illusion using auditory substitution of vision in sighted and early blind subjects. Perception, 34, 857–867.
  • Renier, L., Bruyer, R., & De Volder, A. G. (2006). Vertical-horizontal illusion present for sighted but not early blind humans using auditory substitution of vision. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 535–542.
  • Yang Z, Purves D (2003) A statistical explanation of visual space. Nature Neurosci 6: 632-640.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Illusory contours are basically contours that our mind perceives as actually being present in an object we view, when in reality, it isnt really there. ... Categories: Optical illusions ... David Eagleman is the director of the Laboratory for Perception and Action at Baylor College of Medicine. ...

See also

In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of darkness and light. ... Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), or micropsia, is a disorienting neurological condition which affects human visual perception. ... An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the sound equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds which are not present in the stimulus, or impossible sounds. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... Contingent aftereffects are best exemplified by the McCollough effect. ... Contour rivalry is a artistic technique used to create multiple possible visual interpretations of an image. ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ... This animation of the Moons libration shows the luminarys spherical shape, an example of the kinetic depth effect. ... Emmerts Law states that objects yielding retinal images of the same size will look different in size if they appear to be located at different distances. ... Entoptic phenomena are visual effects whose source is within the eye itself. ... This article is about the optical phenomenon. ... Forced perspective is a technique that employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. ... Gestalt psychology (also Gestalt theory of the Berlin School) is a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies; or, that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. ... Magnetic Hill in Ladakh, India A gravity hill, also known as a magnetic hill (and sometimes a mystery hill or a gravity road), is a place where the layout of the surrounding land produces the optical illusion that a very slight downhill slope appears to be an uphill slope. ... Examples of visually ambiguous patterns. ... Op art is a term used to described certain paintings made primarily in the 1960s which exploit the fallibilty of the eye through the use of optical illusions. ... [[: Le Image:Mural de Narbonne. ...

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