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Encyclopedia > Optical disc
Optical disc authoring
Optical media types
Standards
The optical lens of a compact disc drive.
The optical lens of a compact disc drive.

In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is a flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc where data is stored in the form of pits (or bumps) within a flat surface, usually along a single spiral groove that covers the entire recorded surface of the disc. This data is generally accessed when a special material on the disc (often aluminium) is illuminated with a laser diode. The pits distort the reflected laser light. Most optical discs, with the exception of a few such as black CD-ROMs designed for the original Sony PlayStation, have a characteristic prismatic or iridescent appearance created by the grooves in the reflective layer. Free space is the most simple and elementary electromagnetic medium. ... In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... CD and DVD recorders for authoring optical discs such as CD-ROMs and DVDs have a history of various technologies. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... DVD-D is a self-destructing disposable DVD format. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JVC has announced they have gotten around to developing dual layered DVD-RW discs (DVD-RW DL). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... A blank rewritable Blu-ray disc (a BD-RE) A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holographic memory. ... Schematic representation of a cross-section through a 3D optical storage disc (yellow) along a data track (orange marks). ... Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was CD-ROM, introduced in 1982, adapted to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1896x1315, 559 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Compact Disc Optical disc Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1896x1315, 559 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Compact Disc Optical disc Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... RAM (Random Access Memory) Look up computing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ... A packaged laser diode with penny for scale. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... The original PlayStation was produced in a light grey colour; the more recent PSOne redesign sports a smaller more rounded case. ... In geology and petrology, prismatic, or sometimes just called prism, refers to a usually long, narrow, wedge-shaped sedimentary body with a width to thickness ratio greater than 5 to 1 but less than 50 to 1, and a length 1. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ...


David Paul Gregg developed an analog optical disc for recording video and patented it in 1961 and 1969 (U.S. Patent 3,430,966). Of special interest is U.S. Patent 4,893,297, first filed in 1968 and issued in 1990, so that it will be a source of royalty income for Pioneer’s DVA until 2007. It encompasses systems such as CD, DVD, and even Blu-ray Disc. Gregg's company, Gauss Electrophysics, was acquired, along with Gregg's patents, by MCA in the early 1960s. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Royalty income is the little percentage of the profit which is given to the original creator of a product or service, generally until a set date or the person (or the persons family line) dies out. ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ... Value averaging, also known as dollar value averaging (DVA), is a technique of adding to an investment portfolio to provide greater return than similar methods such as dollar cost averaging and random investment. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... A blank rewritable Blu-ray disc (a BD-RE) A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video. ... The Music Corporation of America was a United States based corporation in the music business. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


In a parallel manner, and probably inspired by the developments in the U.S., a small group of physicists started their first optical videodisc experiments at Philips Research in Eindhoven, The Netherlands in 1969. In 1975, Philips and MCA decided to join forces. In 1978, much too late, the long waited laserdisc was introduced in Atlanta. MCA delivered the discs and Philips the players. It turned out to be a total technical and commercial failure, and quite soon the Philips/MCA cooperation came to an end. In Japan and the U.S., Pioneer has been successful with the videodisc until the advent of DVD. Many famous physicists of the 20th and 21st century are found on the list of recipients of the Nobel Prize in physics. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province North Brabant Government  - Mayor Alexander Sakkers (VVD) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ...


Philips and Sony formed a consortium in 1979 to develop a digital audio disc, which resulted in the very successful introduction of the compact disc in 1983. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


The promotion of standardised optical storage is undertaken by the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA). The OSTAs website logo The Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) is an international trade association which promotes the use of recordable optical technologies and products. ...


While Optical Discs are significantly more durable than earlier audio/visual and data formats, they are susceptible to damage from daily usage and environmental factors. Libraries and archives should enact optical media preservation procedures to ensure continued usability. Optical discs are essential components in libraries, and store audio, video, and computer data. ...


The information on an optical disc is stored sequentially on a continuous spiral track from the innermost track to the outermost track.


An acronym for Optical Disc Drives is ODD.

Contents

First-generation optical discs

Optical discs were initially used for storing music and software. The Laserdisc format stored analog video, but it fought an uphill battle against VHS (mainly due to cost and non-recordability); other first-generation disc formats are designed to store solely digital data. Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


Most first-generation disc devices use an infrared laser as a read head. The minimum size of a laser spot is proportional to the wavelength of the laser, making wavelength one factor limiting the information density. Infrared is just beyond the long-wavelength end of the visible light spectrum, so it supports less density than any visible (to humans) color of light. One example of capacity achieved with an infrared laser is 700 MB of net user data for a 12 cm compact disc. (However, many factors affect density besides minimum spot size--for example, a multi-layered disc using infrared would hold more data than an otherwise identical disc with a single layer, and other issues--such as whether CAV, CLV, or zoned CAV is used, how data is encoded, and how much margin is left clear at the center and edge--also affect how close a disc can come to taking advantage of the minimum spot size over 100% of the disc surface.)

A Compact Disc
A Compact Disc

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... !!! Double article, please see also Magneto-optical drive !!! Magneto-Optical disc is an optical disc format that uses a combination of optical and magnetic technologies. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ...

Second-generation optical discs

Second-generation optical discs were created to store large amounts of data, including TV-quality digital video. Many, though not all, such discs use a visible light laser (usually red); the shorter wavelength allows a tighter beam, allowing the pits and lands of the disc to be smaller. In the case of the DVD format, this allows 4.7 GB of storage on a standard 12 cm, single-sided, single layer disc; alternately, smaller media such as the MiniDisc and DataPlay formats can have capacity approximately comparable to a much larger standard compact disc. See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... DataPlay is an optical disk system developed by DataPlay Inc. ...

The Sony MZ1 MiniDisc player, the first to hit the market in 1992. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... The DVD-Audio logo. ... DualDisc is a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5. ... DivX is a brand name of products created by DivX, Inc. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... The Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) is an optical medium-based digital audio/video format, developed to provide a means for playing HDTV content using existing optical media. ... GD-ROM is the proprietary optical disc format used by the Sega Dreamcast. ... Digital Multilayer Disk (DMD) is an optical disc format developed by D Data Inc. ... DataPlay is an optical disk system developed by DataPlay Inc. ... Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD), is an optical disc format developed by Constellation 3D that uses fluorescent, rather than reflective materials to store data. ... Phase-Change Dual (PD) is a rewritable optical disc format introduced by Panasonic in 1995. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ...

Third-generation optical discs

Major third-generation optical discs are currently in development. They are designed for holding high-definition video and support larger capacities, enabled by the use of short-wavelength visible light lasers (blue-violet for Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD, the most common formats so far). High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ...


In practice, effective capacity for multimedia presentations can be drastically improved by using enhanced video data compression algorithms such as MPEG-4 as well. “Source coding” redirects here. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ...

A blank rewritable Blu-ray disc (a BD-RE) A Blu-ray Disc (also called BD) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... PDD, ProDATA or Professional Disc for DATA is a recordable optical disc format which was introduced by Sony in 2003. ... FVD, or Forward Versatile Disc, is an offshoot of DVD developed in Taiwan jointly by the Advanced Optical Storage Research Alliance (AOSRA) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) as a more inexpensive alternative for high-definition content. ... Total Hi Def discs, also called a Total HD or THD discs, is an optical disc that will contain both rival high-definition optical disc formats, Sonys Bluray and Toshibas HD DVD. Officially announced at Warner Bros / Warner Home Videos press conference held at CES 2007 on... Versatile Multilayer Disc (VMD) is a high-capacity red laser optical disc technology designed by New Medium Enterprises, Inc. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... LS-R, or the Layer-Selection-Type Recordable Optical Disk, is the term coined by Hitachi in 2003[1] for a next-generation optical disc technology which allows much larger data storage densities than DVD, HD DVD or Blu-Ray, by allowing the use of a large number of data...

Next generation optical discs

The following formats are so advanced they can be considered to be ahead of current (third gen) discs. All of the following discs have the potential of over 1 terabyte of space. This article is about a measurement term for data storage capacity. ...

Info A computer disc about the size of a DVD that can hold 60 times more data will go on sale in 2006, according to its American developer InPhase Technologies, a Lucent spin off. ... Picture of an HVD by Optware. ... Protein-Coated Disc (PCD) is a theoretical optical disc technology currently being developed by Professor V. Renugopalakrishnan, formerly of Harvard Medical School and Florida International University. ... Schematic representation of a cross-section through a 3D optical storage disc (yellow) along a data track (orange marks). ...

Recordable and writable optical discs

See also: Optical disc recording technologies

CD and DVD recorders for authoring optical discs such as CD-ROMs and DVDs have a history of various technologies. ...

References

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society-Committees (909 words)
Optic disc drusen are abnormal deposits of protein-like material in the optic disc – the front part of the optic nerve.
Optic disc drusen are usually not visible at birth and are rarely found in infants and children.
The elevation of the optic disc with drusen may be mistaken for papilledema, which is swelling of the optic nerve from high pressure in the brain.
Handbook of Ocular Disease Management - OPTIC DISC EDEMA & PAPILLEDEMA (848 words)
In cases of optic neuropathy due to inflammation, infiltration, ischemia or demyelinization, visual acuity is often significantly diminished.
Optic disc edema results primarily because of axoplasmic stasis, or slowed cellular conduction along the nerve.
Malinserted discs, congenitally full discs (seen often in hypermetropes), or especially buried drusen may sometimes be mistaken for optic disc edema, even though all are non-pathological conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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