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Encyclopedia > Opposition to the Vietnam War
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Agents of opposition

Anti-war organizations • Conscientious objectors • Draft dodgers • Peace movement • Peace churches • Peace camp In order to facilitate organized opposition to war, anti-war activists have often founded anti-war organizations. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... First peace camps Peace camps are known from the 1920s. ...

Related ideologies

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Media

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Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom by May of 1965 [1]. By the end of 1968, as U.S. troop casualties mounted and the war ground on with no end in sight, public opinion polls showed a majority of Americans were opposed to the war and wanted it to end.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

Contents

Reasons for the opposition

Opposition to the war arose during a time of unprecedented student activism reinforced in numbers by the demographically significant baby boomers, but grew to include a wide and varied cross-section of Americans from all walks of life. The growing opposition to the Vietnam War was also partly attributed to greater access to uncensored information compared with previous wars and extensive television media coverage of what, ultimately, became America's longest combat war. Students occupying Sheffield town hall over the introduction of higher education fees Student activism is work done by students to effect political, environmental, economic, or social change. ... A baby boom is defined as a period of increased birth rates relative to surrounding generations. ...


Likewise, a system of conscription that provided exemptions and deferments more easily claimed by middle and upper class registrants - and thus inducted disproportionate numbers of poor, working-class, and minority registrants - drove much of the protest.


Polarization

The U.S. became polarized over the war. Many supporters of U.S. involvement argued for what was known as the domino theory, which held in many places such as that if the South fell to communist guerillas, other nations, primarily in Southeast Asia, would fall in short succession, much like falling dominoes, and much like the nations of eastern Europe had fallen under Soviet control between 1945 and 1948. Military critics of the war pointed out that the conflict was political and that the military mission lacked any clear idea of how to achieve its objectives. Civilian critics of the war argued that the government of South Vietnam lacked political legitimacy, or that support for the war was immoral. President Johnson's undersecretary of state, George Ball, was one of the lone voices in his administration advising against war in Vietnam. The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... George Wildman Ball (1909 - 1994) was born in Des Moines, Iowa. ...


Growing protests

Gruesome images of two anti-war activists who set themselves on fire in November 1965 provided iconic images of how strongly some people felt that the war was immoral. On November 2, 32-year-old Quaker Norman Morrison set himself on fire in front of The Pentagon. On November 9, 22-year old Catholic Worker Movement member Roger Allen LaPorte did the same in front of United Nations Headquarters in New York City. Both protests were conscious imitations of earlier (and ongoing) Buddhist protests in South Vietnam. Thích Quảng Đức pictured during his self-immolation. ... Quaker redirects here. ... A Vietnamese tribute to Morrisons suicide Norman Morrison (December 29, 1933 - November 2, 1965), born in Erie, Pennsylvania, was a Baltimore Quaker best known for committing suicide at age 31 in an act of self-immolation to protest the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The Catholic Worker Movement is a Catholic organization founded by the Servant of God Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in 1933. ... Roger Allen LaPorte (1943 – November 9, 1965) is best known as a protester of the Vietnam War who set himself on fire in front of the United Nations building in New York City on November 9, 1965, to protest the United States involvement in the war. ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Anti-Vietnam war demonstration.
Anti-Vietnam war demonstration.

Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s. The protests were part of a movement in opposition to the Vietnam War and took place mainly in the U.S. (See also Students for a Democratic Society, Free Speech Movement, Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, Youth International Party, Chicago Seven.) Anti-Vietnam demonstrator offers a flower to a military policeman. ... Anti-Vietnam demonstrator offers a flower to a military policeman. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Free Speech Movement was a student protest which began in 1964 - 1965 on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of student Mario Savio and others. ... Jerry Rubin (July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Yippie flag, ca. ... For the similarly named Chicago album, see Chicago VII. The Chicago Seven The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight, when they were known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot and other charges related to violent protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion...


The growing anti-war movement alarmed many in the U.S. government. On August 16, 1966 the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) began investigations of Americans who were suspected of aiding the NLF, with the intent to introduce legislation making these activities illegal. Anti-war demonstrators disrupted the meeting and 50 were arrested. is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Viet Cong (NLF) flag The Viet Cong, also known as the National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tộc Giải Phóng Miền Nam), VC, or the National Liberation Front (NLF), was an insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic...


In February 1967, The New York Review of Books published "The Responsibility of Intellectuals," an essay by Noam Chomsky, one of the leading intellectual opponents of the war. In the essay Chomsky argued that much responsibility for the war lay with liberal intellectuals and technical experts who were providing what he saw as pseudoscientific justification for the policies of the U.S. government. This article is about the literary magazine. ... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...


On February 1, 1968, a suspected NLF officer was summarily executed by General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, a South Vietnamese National Police Chief. Loan shot the suspect in the head on a public street in front of journalists. According to predictably exculpatory and grandiose South Vietnamese reports after the fact, the suspect was captured near the site of a ditch holding as many as thirty-four bound and shot bodies of police and their relatives, some of whom were the families of General Loan's deputy and close friend. The execution was filmed and photographed and provided another iconic image that helped sway public opinion in the United States against the war. Summary execution of NVA spy during the Vietnam War. ... General Nguyen Ngoc Loan General Nguyen Ngoc Loan (December 11 1930 [1] â€“ July 14, 1998) was the Republic of Vietnams Chief of National Police. ...


On October 15, 1969, hundreds of thousands of people took part in National Moratorium anti-war demonstrations across the United States; the demonstrations prompted many workers to call in sick from their jobs and adolescents nationwide engaged in truancy from school. However, the proportion of individuals doing either who actually participated in the demonstrations is uncertain. A second round of "Moratorium" demonstrations was held on November 15, but was less well-attended. The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a large demonstration against United States involvement in the Vietnam War that took place across the United States on October 15, 1969. ... “Truant” redirects here. ...

The My Lai massacre was used as an example of outrageous conduct during the Vietnam War.
The My Lai massacre was used as an example of outrageous conduct during the Vietnam War.

The U.S. realized that the South Vietnamese government needed a solid base of popular support if it were to survive the insurgency. In order to pursue this goal of winning the "Hearts and Minds" of the Vietnamese people, units of the United States Army, referred to as "Civil Affairs" units, were extensively utilized for the first time for this purpose since World War II. Image File history File links My_Lai_massacre. ... Image File history File links My_Lai_massacre. ... The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: ) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), mostly civilians and majority of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968. ... Hearts and Minds was a euphemism for a campaign by the United States military during the Vietnam War, intended to win the popular support of the Vietnamese people. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Civil Affairs (CA) is the official name for military units that conduct civil-military operations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Civil Affairs units, while remaining armed and under direct military control, engaged in what came to be known as "nation-building": constructing (or reconstructing) schools, public buildings, roads and other infrastructure; conducting medical programs for civilians who had no access to medical facilities; facilitating cooperation among local civilian leaders; conducting hygiene and other training for civilians; and similar activities. This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ...


This policy of attempting to win the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people, however, often was at odds with other aspects of the war which served to antagonize many Vietnamese civilians. These policies included the emphasis on "body count" as a way of measuring military success on the battlefield, the bombing of villages (symbolized by journalist Peter Arnett's famous quote, "it was necessary to destroy the village in order to save it"), and the killing of civilians in such incidents as the My Lai massacre. In 1974 the documentary Hearts and Minds sought to portray the devastation the war was causing to the South Vietnamese people, and won an Academy Award for best documentary amid considerable controversy. The South Vietnamese government also antagonized many of its citizens with its suppression of political opposition, through such measures as holding large numbers of political prisoners, torturing political opponents, and holding a one-man election for President in 1971. This article is about the musical group. ... Peter Arnett (born November 13, 1934 in Riverton, New Zealand) is a New Zealand-American journalist. ... The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: ) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), mostly civilians and majority of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


Despite the increasingly depressing news on the war, many Americans continued to support President Johnson's endeavors. Aside from the domino theory mentioned above, there was a feeling that the goal of preventing a communist takeover of a pro-Western government in South Vietnam was a noble objective. Many Americans were also concerned about saving face in the event of disengaging from the war or, as President Richard M. Nixon later put it, "achieving Peace with Honor". In addition, instances of Viet Cong atrocities were widely reported, most notably in an article that appeared in Reader's Digest in 1968 entitled The Blood-Red Hands of Ho Chi Minh. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


However, anti-war feelings also began to rise. Many Americans opposed the war on moral grounds, horrified by the devastation it was wreaking on ordinary Vietnamese civilians. Many viewed the conflict as a war against Vietnamese independence, or as intervention in a foreign civil war; others opposed it because they felt it lacked clear objectives and appeared to be unwinnable. Many anti-war activists were themselves Vietnam veterans, as evidenced by the organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War. In April 1971, thousands of these veterans converged on the White House in Washington D.C., and hundreds of them threw their medals and decorations on the steps of the United States Capitol. By this time, it had also become commonplace for the most radical anti-war demonstrators to prominently display the flag of the Viet Cong "enemy", an act which alienated many who were otherwise morally opposed to the conflict. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... This article is about veterans of the Vietnam War. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Political factors

In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson began his re-election campaign. A member of his own party, Eugene McCarthy, ran against him for the nomination on an anti-war platform. McCarthy did not win the first primary election in New Hampshire, but he did surprisingly well against an incumbent. The resulting blow to the Johnson campaign, taken together with other factors, led the President to make a surprise announcement in a March 31 televised speech that he was pulling out of the race. He also announced the initiation of the Paris Peace Negotiations with Vietnam in that speech. Then, on August 4, 1969, U.S. representative Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese representative Xuan Thuy began secret peace negotiations at the apartment of French intermediary Jean Sainteny in Paris. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... During the Vietnam War, Xuan Thuy was a representative of the North Vietnamese government to the peace talks with the United States in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


After breaking with Johnson's pro-war stance, Robert F. Kennedy entered the race on March 16 and ran for the nomination on an anti-war platform. Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey, also ran for the nomination, promising to continue to support the South Vietnamese government. Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ...


The draft

See also: Kent State shootings
Students demonstrate in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements.
Students demonstrate in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements.

"The draft" initiated protests when on May 5, 1965, student activists at the University of California, Berkeley marched on the Berkeley Draft board and forty students staged the first public burning of a draft card in the United States. Another 19 cards were burnt May 22 at a demonstration following the Berkeley teach-in [1]. The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent State massacre,[2][3][4] occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by members of the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The United States has employed conscription (mandatory military service, also called the draft) several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Colloquial name for a registration document completed by a citizen of a country which enforces conscription. ... Teach-In were a group who won the Eurovision Song Contest 1975, representing the Netherlands. ...


At that time, only a fraction of all men of draft age were actually conscripted, but the Selective Service System office ("Draft Board") in each locality had broad discretion on whom to draft and whom to exempt where there was no clear guideline for exemption. In late July 1965, Johnson doubled the number of young men to be drafted per month from 17,000 to 35,000, and on August 31, signed a law making it a crime to burn a draft card. The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ...


On October 15, 1965 the student-run National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam in New York staged the first draft card burning to result in an arrest under the new law. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam was a group that became an umbrella anti-Vietnam war group. ...


In 1967, the continued operation of a seemingly unfair draft system then calling as many as 40,000 men for induction each month fueled a burgeoning draft resistance movement. On October 16, 1967, draft card turn-ins were held across the country, yielding more than 1,000 draft cards, later returned to the Justice Department as an act of civil disobedience. Resisters expected to be prosecuted immediately, but Attorney General Ramsey Clark instead prosecuted a group of ringleaders including Dr. Benjamin Spock and Yale chaplain William Sloane Coffin, Jr. in Boston in 1968. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Spock with his grand-daughter Susannah in 1967 Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 - March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ... Rev. ...


The charges of unfairness led to the institution of a draft lottery for the year 1970 in which a young man's birthday determined his relative risk of being drafted (September 14 was the birthday at the top of the draft list for 1970; the following year July 9 held this distinction).


The first draft lottery since World War II in the United States was held on 1 December 1969 and was met with large protests and a great deal of controversy; statistical analysis indicated that the methodology of the lotteries unintentionally disadvantaged men with late year birthdays.[3] This issue was treated at length in a 4 January 1970 New York Times article titled "Statisticians Charge Draft Lottery Was Not Random". The December 1, 1969 draft lottery was held to determine the order of induction into the US Army during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Thousands of young American men chose exile in Canada or Sweden rather than risk conscription. The Japanese anti-war group Beheiren helped some American soldiers to desert and hide from the military in Japan.[4] In order to gain an exemption or deferment many men obtained student deferments by attending college, though they had to remain in college until their 26th birthday to be certain of avoiding the draft. Some got married, which remained an exemption throughout the war. Some men found sympathetic doctors who supplied a medical reason for applying for a 4F (medically unfit) exemption, such as Dick Cheney, though Army doctors could and did make their own judgments. Still others joined the National Guard or entered the Peace Corps as a way of avoiding Vietnam. All of these issues raised concerns about the fairness of who got selected for involuntary service, since it was often the poor or those without connections who were drafted. Ironically, in light of modern political issues, a certain exemption was a convincing claim of homosexuality, but very few men attempted this because of the stigma involved. Also, conviction for certain crimes earned an exclusion, the topic of the anti-war song 'Alice's Restaurant' by Arlo Guthrie. Beheiren (Betonamu ni Heiwa o Shimin Rengo — Citizens League for Peace in Vietnam) was a Japanese activist group active from 1965 to 1974. ... The term 4F or 4-F, was commonly used in the United States to refer to someone with a Selective Service classification of 4F, meaning that they are ineligible for conscription (forced induction into military service or the draft) due to a disability or physical incapacity to serve in the... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... It has been suggested that Crisis corps be merged into this article or section. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... The former church where the story begins; the restaurant itself is roughly six miles north in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. ... Arlo Davy Guthrie (born July 10, 1947) is an American folk singer. ...


Even many of those who never received a deferment or exemption never served, simply because the pool of eligible men was so huge compared to the number required for service, that the draft boards never got around to drafting them when a new crop of men became available (until 1969) or because they had high lottery numbers (1970 and later).


Of those soldiers who served during the war, there was increasing opposition to the conflict amongst GIs,[5] which resulted in fragging and many other activities which hampered the US's ability to wage war effectively. Frag is a term from the Vietnam War, used primarily by U.S. military personnel, most commonly meaning to assassinate an unpopular officer of ones own fighting unit, often by means of a fragmentation grenade (hence the term). ...


Most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or drink in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to drink alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states.


Student opposition groups on many college and university campuses seized campus administration offices, and in several instances forced the expulsion of ROTC programs from the campus. The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) is a training program of the United States armed forces present on college campuses to recruit and educate commissioned officers. ...


Some Americans who were not subject to the draft protested the conscription of their tax dollars for the war effort. War tax resistance, once mostly isolated to solitary anarchists like Henry David Thoreau and religious pacifists like the Quakers, became a more mainstream protest tactic. As of 1972, an estimated 200,000–500,000 people were refusing to pay the excise taxes on their telephone bills, and another 20,000 were resisting part or all of their income tax bills. Among the tax resisters were Joan Baez and Noam Chomsky.[6] A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... Thoreau redirects here. ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ...


Congressional hearings

Dellums war crimes hearings

Congressional opposition to
U.S. wars and interventions
1812 North America
House Federalists’ Address
1917 World War I
Filibuster of the Armed Ship Bill
1935-1939 (General)
Neutrality Acts
1935-40 (General)
Ludlow Amendment
1970 Vietnam
McGovern-Hatfield Amendment
1970 Southeast Asia
Cooper-Church Amendment
1971 Vietnam
Repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution
1973 Southeast Asia
Case-Church Amendment
1973 (General)
War Powers Resolution
1974 Covert Ops (General)
Hughes-Ryan Amendment
1976 Angola
Clark Amendment
1982 Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
2007 Iraq
House Concurrent Resolution 63
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In January, 1971, just weeks into his first term, Congressman Ron Dellums set up a Vietnam war crimes exhibit in an annex to his Congressional office. The exhibit featured four large posters depicting atrocities committed by American soldiers embellished with red paint. This was followed shortly thereafter by a series of hearings on "war crimes" in Vietnam, which began April 25. Dellums had called for formal investigations into the allegations, but Congress chose not to endorse these proceedings. As such, the hearings were ad hoc and only informational in nature. As a condition of room use, press and camera presence were not permitted, but the proceedings were transcribed. A small number of other anti-Vietnam War congressional representatives also took part in the hearings. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Opposition to the War of 1812 was widespread in the United States, especially in New England. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil going on in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following... Louis Ludlow was a Washington correspondent for a large number of newspapers, and then served as a Democrat in the U.S. House of Representatives for the Indianapolis, Indiana district for twenty years. ... The McGovern-Hatfield amendment (alternately, Hatfield-McGovern amendment) was a proposed amendment in 1970 during the Vietnam War that, if passed, would have required the end of United States military operations in the Republic of Vietnam by December 31, 1970 and a complete withdrawal of American forces halfway through the... The Cooper-Church amendment was introduced in the United States Senate during the Vietnam War and is known as the first amendment to limit presidential powers during war time. ... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ... The Case-Church Amendment was a piece of legislation that sought to rein in President Richard Nixons conduct of the Vietnam War. ... Jean valcine has a huge wang. ... The Hughes-Ryan Act was an amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that forces the President of the United States to report all covert Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operations to a Congressional committee within a set time limit. ... The Clark amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Idaho). ... The Boland Amendment was the name given to three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting US government assistance to the rebel Contras in Nicaragua. ... “The New Way Forward” redirects here. ... Ronald Vernie (Ron) Dellums (born November 24, 1935), U.S. Democratic Party politician, is the mayor of the City of Oakland, California. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The transcripts describe alleged details of U.S. military's conduct in Vietnam. Some tactics were described as “gruesome”, such as the severing of ears from corpses to verify body count. Others involved the indiscriminate killing of civilians. Soldiers claimed to have ordered artillery strikes on villages which did not appear to have any military presence. Soldiers were claimed to use racist terms such as "gooks", "dinks" and "slant eyes" when referring to the Vietnamese. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Witnesses described that legal, by-the-book instruction was augmented by more questionable training by non-commissioned officers as to how soldiers should conduct themselves. One witness testified about "free-fire zones", areas as large as 80 square miles in which soldiers were free to shoot any Vietnamese they encountered after curfew without first making sure they were hostile. Allegations of exaggeration of body count, torture, murder and general abuse of civilians and the psychology and motivations of soldiers and officers were discussed at length. A battle area or combat zone in which anyone unidentified is considered an enemy combatant. ...


Fulbright Hearings of 1971

Main article: Fulbright Hearing

In April and May 1971, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, chaired by Senator J. William Fulbright, held a series of 22 hearings (referred to as the Fulbright Hearings) on proposals relating to ending the war. On the third day of the hearings, April 22, 1971, future Senator and 2004 presidential candidate John Kerry became the first Vietnam veteran to testify before Congress in opposition to the war. Speaking on behalf of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, he argued for the immediate, unilateral withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. During nearly two hours of discussions with committee members, Kerry related in some detail the findings of the Winter Soldier Investigation, in which veterans had described personally committing or witnessing atrocities and war crimes. The Fulbright Hearings were U.S. Senate hearings in 1971 relating to the Vietnam War. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a member of the United States Senate representing Arkansas. ... The Fulbright Hearings were U.S. Senate hearings in 1971 relating to the Vietnam War. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Election Day, Tuesday, November 2, 2004. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article is about veterans of the Vietnam War. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... The Winter Soldier Investigation was a media event intended to publicize war crimes and atrocities by the United States Armed Forces and their allies in the Vietnam War, while showing their direct relationship to military leadership and the foreign and anti-Communist policies of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Presidential... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Protests timeline

The first protests against U.S. involvement in Vietnam were in 1945, when United States Merchant Marine sailors condemned the U.S. government for the use of U.S. merchant ships to transport French troops to "subjugate the native population" of Vietnam; these protesters opposed the "recolonization" of Vietnam. [2] Source: This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ...


1963

In August 1963, the first organized Vietnam War protests took place in New York and Philadelphia held by American pacifists during the annual commemorations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings


1964

is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Times Square (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Chart showing the U.S. Navys interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ...

1965

  • On March 24, the anti-war Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) attended the first teach-in, organized by some teachers, against the war at the University of Michigan, attended by 2,500 participants. This was to be repeated at 35 campuses across the country.
  • On April 17, the SDS and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), a civil rights activist group, led the first of several anti-war marches in Washington DC, with about 25,000 protesters.
  • The first draft card burnings took place at University of California, Berkeley at student demonstrations in May organized by a new anti-war group, the Vietnam Day Committee, where a coffin was marched to the local Draft board office, a teach-in was attended by 30,000, and president Lyndon Johnson was burned in effigy.
  • Gallup poll in May showed 48% of US respondents felt the Government was handling the conflict effectively; 28% felt the situation was being handled badly; the rest, no opinion.
  • First anti Vietnam war demonstration in London outside the U.S. embassy. May 1965.[7]
  • Protests were held in June on the steps of the Pentagon, and in August, attempts were made by activists at Berkeley to stop trains carrying troops from moving.
  • Polls in late August show that 24% of Americans view sending troops to Vietnam as a mistake versus 60% who do not. [3]
  • In mid-October, the anti-war movement had significantly expanded to become a national and even global phenomenon, as anti-war protests drawing 100,000 were held simultaneously in as many as 80 major cities around the US, London, Paris and Rome.
  • On November 2, Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old pacifist, poured kerosene on himself and set himself on fire in below the third-floor window of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara at the Pentagon, emulating the actions of Thích Quảng Đức.
  • On November 27, some 40,000 protesters led by several student activist groups surrounded the White House, calling for an end to the war, then marched to the Washington Monument. On that same day, President Johnson announced a significant escalation of US involvement in Indochina, from 120,000 to 400,000 troops.2.5 million people died

is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Teach-In were a group who won the Eurovision Song Contest 1975, representing the Netherlands. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The March Against the Vietnam War was held April 17, 1965. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Vietnam Day Committee (VDC) was a coalition of left-wing political groups, student groups, labour organizations, and pacifist religions in the United States of America that opposed the Vietnam War. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...   (born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 – June 11, 1963) was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon intersection on June 11, 1963. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ...

1966

  • In February, a group of about 100 veterans attempted to return their decorations to the White House in protest of the war, but were turned back.
  • Anti-war demonstrations were again held around the country and the world March 26 with 20,000 taking part in New York City.
  • On May 15, another large demonstration, with 10,000 picketers calling for an end to the war, took place outside the White House and the Washington Monument.
  • June - The Gallup poll respondents supporting the US handling of the war slipped to 41%; 37% expressed disapproval; the rest, no opinion.
  • A crowd of 4,000 demonstrated against the US war in London on July 3 and scuffled with police outside the US Embassy; 33 protesters were arrested.
  • Protests, strikes and sit-ins continued at Berkeley and across other campuses throughout the year, and also, three army privates known as the 'Fort Hood Three" refused to deploy in Vietnam, calling the war "illegal and immoral", and were sentenced to prison terms.
  • Heavyweight boxing champion Muhammad Ali — formerly known as Cassius Clay — declared himself a conscientious objector and refused to go to war. According to a writer for Sports Illustrated, the governor of Illinois called Ali "disgusting" and the governor of Maine said that Ali "should be held in utter contempt by every patriotic American."[4] In 1967 Ali was sentenced to 5 years in prison for draft evasion, but his conviction was later overturned on appeal. In addition, he was stripped of his title and banned from professional boxing for more than three years.

March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Muhammad Ali, see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation). ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ...

1967

  • January 14 - 20,000-30,000 people staged a "Human Be-In" anti-war event in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, near the Haight Ashbury neighborhood that had become the center of hippie activity.
  • February 8 - Christian groups opposed to the war staged a nationwide "Fast for Peace".
  • February 23 - The New York Review of Books published The Responsibility of Intellectuals by Noam Chomsky as a special supplement.
  • March 12 - A three page anti-war ad appeared in The New York Times bearing the signatures of 6,766 teachers and professors. The advertisement spanned two and a quarter pages in Section 4, The Week in Review. The advertisement itself cost around $16,500 and was sponsored by the Inter-University Committee for Debate on Foreign Policy.
  • March 17 - a group of antiwar citizens marched to the Pentagon to protest American involvement in Vietnam
  • March 25 - Civil rights leader Martin Luther King led a march of 5,000 against the war in Chicago, Illinois.
  • On April 15, 400,000 people marched from Central Park to the UN building in New York City to protest the war, where they were addressed by critics of the war such as Benjamin Spock, Martin Luther King, and Jan Barry Crumb, a veteran of the conflict. On the same date 100,000 marched in San Francisco.
  • On April 24, Abbie Hoffman led a small group of protesters against both the war and capitalism who interrupted the New York Stock Exchange, causing chaos by throwing fistfuls of both real and fake dollars down from the gallery.
  • May 2 - British philosopher Bertrand Russell presided over the "Russell Tribunal" in Stockholm, a mock war crimes tribunal, which ruled that the US and its allies had committed war crimes in Vietnam. The proceedings were criticized as being a "show trial".
  • On May 30 Crumb and ten like-minded men attended a peace demonstration in Washington, D.C., and on June 1 Vietnam Veterans Against the War was born.
  • In the summer of 1967, Neil Armstrong and various other NASA officials began a tour of South America to raise awareness for space travel. According to First Man, a biography of Armstrong's life, during the tour, several college students protested the astronaut, and shouted such phrases as "Murderers get out of Vietnam!" and other anti-Vietnam War messages.
  • July 30: Gallup poll reported 52% of Americans disapproved of Johnson's handling of the war; 41% thought the US made a mistake in sending troops; over 56% thought US was losing the war or at an impasse.
  • On August 28, 1967, US representative Tim Lee Carter R-KY stated before congress: "Let us now, while we are yet strong, bring our men home, every man jack of them. The Vietcong fight fiercely and tenaciously because it is their land and we are foreigners intervening in their civil war. If we must fight, let us fight in defense of our homeland and our own hemisphere."
  • In October 1967, Stop the Draft Week resulted in major clashes at the Oakland, California induction center, and saw more than a thousand registrants return their draft cards in events across the country. The cards were delivered to the Justice Department on October 20.
  • The next day, October 21, 1967, a large demonstration took place at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. As many as 100,000 demonstrators attended the event, and at least 30,000 later marched to the Pentagon for another rally and an all night vigil. Some, including Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, attempted to "exorcise" and "levitate" the building, while others engaged in civil disobedience on the steps of the Pentagon, interrupted by clashes with soldiers and police. In all, 647 arrests were made. When a plot to airdrop 10,000 flowers on the Pentagon was foiled by undercover agents, these flowers ended up being placed in the barrels of MP's rifles, as seen in some famous photographs.[8] Norman Mailer documented the events surrounding the march on the Pentagon in his novel, Armies of the Night.

is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Human Be-In was a happening in San Franciscos Golden Gate Park, the afternoon and evening of January 14, 1967. ... Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park. ... The corner of Haight and Ashbury in 2001 The Haight-Ashbury is a district of San Francisco, California, named after the intersection of Haight Street and Ashbury Street, commonly known as The Haight or, in recent years, The Upper Haight. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ... The Responsibility of Intellectuals [1] is an essay by the US academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by the The New York Review of Books on the 23rd of February 1967. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Dr. Spock with his grand-daughter Susannah in 1967 Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 - March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... The Russell Tribunal was a public international body organized by British philosopher and pacifist Bertrand Russell, along with Ken Coates and several others. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tim Lee Carter (September 2, 1910 - March 27, 1987) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives. ... Oakland redirects here. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Jerry Rubin (July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Armies of the Night book cover Armies of the Night is a Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award-winning non-fiction novel written by Norman Mailer and sub-titled History as a Novel/The Novel as History The book deals ostensibly with the October 1967 anti-Vietnam War March on...

1968

  • February: Gallup poll showed 35% approved of Johnson's handling of the war; 50% disapproved; the rest, no opinion. [NYT, 2/14/68] In another poll that month, 23% of Americans defined themselves as "doves" and 61% "hawks".[5]
  • March 12: anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy received more votes than expected in the New Hampshire Primary, leading to more expressions of opposition against the war. McCarthy urged his supporters to exchange the 'unkempt look' that was rapidly becoming fashionable among war opponents, for a more clean-cut style, in order to petition middle-class and 'soccer mom' votes; these were known as "Clean Genes".
  • March 17 - Major rally outside the US Embassy in London's Grovesnor Square turned to a riot with 86 people injured and over 200 arrested. Over 10,000 had rallied peacefully in Trafalgar Square but met a police barricade outside the embassy. A UK Foreign Office report claimed that the rioting had been organised by 100 members if the German SDS who were "acknowledged experts in methods of riot against the police".
  • In March, Gallup poll reported that 49% of respondents felt involvement in the war was an error.
  • During the 1968 Democratic National Convention, held August 26August 29 in Chicago, anti-war protesters marched and demonstrated throughout the city. Tensions between police and protesters quickly escalated, resulting in a "police riot". Eight leading anti-war activists were indicted by the U.S. Attorney and prosecuted for conspiracy to riot; their convictions were subsequently overturned on appeal. (See Chicago Seven).
  • August: Gallup poll shows 53% said it was a mistake to send troops to Vietnam.[2]

is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Police riot is a pejorative term that became increasingly more common through the late 20th century, implying the wrongful, disproportionate, unlawful and illegitimate use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians. ... United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. ... For the similarly named Chicago album, see Chicago VII. The Chicago Seven The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight, when they were known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot and other charges related to violent protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion...

1969

  • March polls indicate that 19% of Americans want the war to end as soon as possible, 26% want South Vietnam to take over responsibility for the war from the U.S., 19% favor the current policy and 33% want all-out military victory. [6]
  • July 1969: A Gallup poll indicates that 53% of the respondents approve of Nixon's handling of the war; 30% disapprove; the balance have no opinion. [New York Times, 7/31/69]
  • The Moratorium demonstrations took place on October 15, 1969. Millions of Americans took the day off from work and school to participate in local demonstrations against the war. These were the first major demonstrations against the Nixon administration's handling of the war. On November 15, 1969 crowds estimated up to half a million people participated in an anti-war demonstration in Washington, D.C. with a similar demonstration being held in San Francisco, these protests being organized by the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (New Mobe) and the Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (SMC).
  • In October, 58% of Gallup respondents said US entry into the war was a mistake.
  • In November, Sam Melville, Jane Alpert and several accomplices bombed several corporate offices and military installations (including the Whitehall Army Induction Center) in and around New York City in opposition to the war in Vietnam.

is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Samuel Joseph Melville (born Samuel Joseph Grossman, 1934 – September 13, 1971), was the principal conspirator and bomb setter in the 1969 bombings of eight government and commercial office buildings in New York City. ...

1970

  • Kent State/Cambodia Incursion Protest, Washington, D.C. A week after the Kent State Shootings, on 4 May, 100,000 anti-war demonstrators converged on Washington, D.C. to protest the shooting of the students in Ohio and the Nixon administration's incursion into Cambodia. Even though the demonstration was quickly put together, protesters were still able to bring out thousands to march in the Capital. It was an almost spontaneous response to the events of the previous week. Police ringed the White House with buses to block the demonstrators from getting too close to the executive mansion. Early in the morning before the march, Nixon met with protesters briefly at the Lincoln Memorial but nothing was resolved and the protest went on as planned.
  • National Student Strike more than 450 university, college and high school campuses across the country were shut by student strikes and both violent and non-violent protests that involved more than 4 million students in the only nationwide student strike in U.S. history.

On June 13, President Nixon established the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. The commission, was directed to study the dissent, disorder, and violence breaking out on college and university campuses.[9] The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent State massacre,[2][3][4] occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by members of the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • On August 24, 1970, near 3:40 a.m., a van filled with ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixture was detonated on the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Sterling Hall bombing.

is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sterling Hall Bombing was a crime on the University of Wisconsin–Madison campus on August 24, 1970 committed as a protest against the Universitys research connections with US military during the Vietnam War. ... The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano anti-war activists that built a broad-based but fragile coalition of Mexican-American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mexican Americans are citizens of the United States of Mexican ancestry. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Ruben Salazar Ruben Salazar (March 3, 1928 - August 29, 1970) was a Mexican-American news reporter killed by the police during the National Chicano Moratorium March against the Vietnam War on August 29, 1970 in Los Angeles, California. ... KMEX (Channel 34) is a Univision television station affiliate in the Los Angeles area. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...

1971 and after

Famous war protesters: John Kerry with ex-Beatle John Lennon during a protest rally at New York City's Bryant Park in 1972.

Avoiding service in the Vietnam War later became an issue in American politics. Politicians criticized for avoiding service included Vice-President Dan Quayle, President Bill Clinton, and Vice-President Dick Cheney, President George W. Bush. Image File history File links Kerry_Lennon. ... Image File history File links Kerry_Lennon. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Bryant Park, August 2003 Bryant Park is a 9. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Opposition to the Vietnam War in Australia followed along similar lines to the United States, particularly with opposition to conscription. While Australian disengagement began in August 1971 under Prime Minister John Gorton, it was not until the election of Gough Whitlam in 1972 that conscription ended. Sir John Grey Gorton GCMG AC CH (9 September 1911 – 19 May 2002), Australian politician, was the 19th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In August, 1971, The Camden 28 conducted a raid on the Camden, New Jersey draft board offices. The 28 included five or more members of the clergy, as well as a number of local blue-collar workers. The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ...


The bombing of Hanoi on December 24, 1972 resulted in harsh reactions from the prime-minister of Sweden Olof Palme. During his famous speech that same day to the media (Nowadays referred to as "The Christmas speech"), he expressed harsh criticism for the war, comparing it with several of Nazi Germany's worst deeds. This froze the diplomatic climate between the United States and Sweden, which lasted until March 1974. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Common slogans and chants

  • "Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids have you killed today?"
  • The chant "One, two, three, four! We don't want your fucking war!" was chanted repeatedly at demonstrations throughout the U.S. in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
  • "Draft Beer, not boys", "Hell no, we won't go", "Make love, not war", "Eighteen today, dead tomorrow", and "LBJ – pull out like your old man should have!" were a few of the anti-war slogans.
  • "Fight the VD, Not the VC!" displayed sentiments to concentrate more on the familiar problem of venereal diseases than the foreign group, the Vietcong.
  • "Love our country", "America, love it or leave it" and "No glory like old glory" are examples of pro-war slogans.

There are many other pro- and anti-war slogans, however the mere informational use of those are very small. The group that mostly used the anti-war slogans were called "doves"; those that supported the war were known as "hawks." A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Anti-war songs of the Vietnam Era

The former church where the story begins; the restaurant itself is roughly six miles north in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. ... Arlo Davy Guthrie (born July 10, 1947) is an American folk singer. ... Ball of Confusion (Thats What the World is Today) is the name of a 1970 hit single for the Motown label performed by The Temptations and produced by Norman Whitfield. ... “Temptations” redirects here. ... Billy Dont Be a Hero is a 1974 anti-war pop song by Paper Lace and was also recorded by Bo Donaldson and the Heywoods. ... Paper Lace was a Nottingham based pop group, formed in 1969. ... Blowin in the Wind is a song written by Bob Dylan, and released on his 1963 album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Steppenwolf is a rock band that helped establish heavy metal music in the late 1960s along with bands like Blue Cheer and Iron Butterfly. ... This article is about the 1967 song by Buffalo Springfield. ... Buffalo Springfield was a short-lived but influential folk rock group that served as a springboard for the careers of Neil Young, Stephen Stills, Richie Furay and Jim Messina and is most famous for the song For What Its Worth. After its formation in April 1966, a series of... Fortunate Son is a song by Creedence Clearwater Revival on their album Willy and the Poor Boys in 1969. ... Creedence Clearwater Revival (commonly referred to by its initials CCR or simply as Creedence) was an American rock band, which consisted of John Fogerty (vocals, guitar, harmonica, piano), Tom Fogerty (guitar, vocals, piano), Stu Cook (bass guitar, vocals), and Doug Clifford (drums, percussion, vocals). ... Give Peace a Chance is a song written by John Lennon and originally credited to Lennon-McCartney (John Lennon and Paul McCartney). ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... I Aint Marching Anymore was Phil Ochs second long player, released on Elektra Records in 1965. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... The Fish Cheer / I-Feel-Like-Im-Fixin-To-Die Rag is a popular protest song from the band Country Joe and the Fish from their 1967 album of the same name. ... Country Joe and the Fish, from the cover of Feel Like Im Fixin to Die Country Joe and the Fish was a rock music/folk music band known for musical protests against the Vietnam War, from 1965 to 1970. ... I Should Be Proud is a 1970 protest song by Motown girl group Martha and the Vandellas. ... Martha and the Vandellas (known from 1967 to 1972 as Martha Reeves and the Vandellas) were one of the most successful groups in the Motown roster during the 1960s and fully active from 1960 to 1972, performing at various times doo-wop, blues, pop, rock and roll and soul. ... Imagine is a utopian-themed song performed by John Lennon, which appears on his 1971 album, Imagine. ... Jimi Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American guitar virtuoso, singer and songwriter. ... Masters of War is a song by Bob Dylan, written in 1963 and released on the album The Freewheelin Bob Dylan. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Ohio is a protest song performed by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, and written by Neil Young in reaction to the Kent State shootings of May 4, 1970. ... Crosby, Stills & Nash, also Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young when including occasional fourth member Neil Young, are a folk rock/rock supergroup. ... Charles Mingus (April 22, 1922 – January 5, 1979) was an American jazz bassist, composer, bandleader, and occasional pianist. ... One Tin Soldier is a ‘60s era anti-war song written by Dennis Lambert and Brian Potter. ... Coven is a pop/rock band, composed of vocalist Jinx Dawson, bassist Oz Osborne (not to be confused with Ozzy Osbourne of Black Sabbath) and drummer Steve Ross. ... Stoned Love is a 1970 hit single recorded by The Supremes for the Motown label. ... For other uses, see Supremes (disambiguation). ... The 1960s anti-war song Universal Soldier was performed by Buffy Sainte-Marie. ... Buffy Sainte-Marie Buffy Sainte-Marie (born February 20, Canadian First Nations musician, composer, visual artist, educator and social activist. ... For other uses, see Donovan (disambiguation). ... The Unknown Soldier (Tuntematon sotilas) is perhaps the most famous novel by Väinö Linna. ... The Doors were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles by vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger. ... The Dark Side of the Moon Tracks Speak to Me (1:08) Breathe (2:48) On the Run (3:31) Time / Breathe (Reprise) (7:04) The Great Gig in the Sky (4:47) Money (6:23) Us and Them (7:48) Any Colour You Like (3:25) Brain Damage (3... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic or space rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... Volunteers is a 1969 album by American psychedelic rock band, Jefferson Airplane. ... Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement. ... War Pigs is an anti-war song by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath from their 1970 album, Paranoid. ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... War is a soul song written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong for the Motown label in 1969. ... “Temptations” redirects here. ... Edwin Starr (January 21, 1942 – April 3, 2003) was a soul music singer. ... Whats Going On is a song written by Renaldo Obie Benson, Al Cleveland, and Marvin Gaye. ... With God On Our Side is a song by Bob Dylan, released as the third track on his 1964 album The Times They Are A-Changin. Dylan first performed the song during his debut appearance at The Town Hall in New York City on April 12, 1963. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Gianni Morandi (born 1944) is an Italian pop singer and entertainer. ... Jimmy Cliff, real name James Chambers OM (Jamaica) (born April 1, 1948, in St Catherine, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae musician, best known among mainstream audiences for songs like Sittin in Limbo, You Can Get It If You Really Want and Many Rivers to Cross from The Harder They Come...

See also

For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Canada did not fight in the Vietnam War, and diplomatically it was officially non-belligerent. Nevertheless, the war had considerable effects on Canada, while Canada and Canadians affected the war, in return. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... This article is about parties opposing to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War from outside Iraq. ... In recent political debate there have been many comparisons between the Iraq war and the Vietnam war[1] [2]. // Both Wars began with false intelligence. ... Pacifist redirects here. ... The following is a list of protest marches on Washington, DC: April 30, 1894 - Coxeys Army. ... On Monday, May 3rd, 1971 one of the most disruptive actions of the Vietnam War era occurred in Washington, DC, when thousands of anti-war activists tried to shut down the Federal government in protest of the Vietnam War. ... The Sterling Hall Bombing was a crime on the University of Wisconsin–Madison campus on August 24, 1970 committed as a protest against the Universitys research connections with US military during the Vietnam War. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.library.law.ua.edu/spcoll/findaids/murpaid/murpaid4.htm
  2. ^ a b Gallup, Alec (2006). {{{title}}}. Rowman & Littlefield, 315-318. ISBN 0742552586. 
  3. ^ Nonrandom Risk: The 1970 Draft Lottery, Norton Starr, Journal of Statistics Education v.5, n.2, 1997
  4. ^ Antiwar campaigners to donate documents to Vietnamese museum, Keiji Hirano, Kyodo News, The Japan Times, February 16, 2002. (Web edition hosted by lbo-talk under the title "What Japanese Anti-Vietnam War activists are up to")
  5. ^ 1961–1973: GI Resistance in the Vietnam War, libcom.org
  6. ^ War Tax Resistance War Resisters League (2003) p. 75
  7. ^ http://www.library.law.ua.edu/spcoll/findaids/murpaid/murpaid4.htm
  8. ^ Acid Dreams: An FBI Plot that Backfired
  9. ^ (1970) The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (Subscription), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.  This book is also known as The Scranton Commission Report.

is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

This article is about the modern journalist and author. ... G. P. Putnams Sons was a major United States book publisher based in New York City, New York. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vietnam War - MSN Encarta (3320 words)
Students and professors began to organize “teach-ins” on the war in early 1965 at the University of Michigan, the University of Wisconsin, and the University of California at Berkeley.
Labor unions were also becoming increasingly militant in opposition to the war, as they were forced to respond to the concerns of their members that the draft was imposing an unfair burden on working-class people.
The national organization, Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), has become one of the most important service organizations lobbying in Washington, D.C. Also in the capital, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in 1982 to commemorate the U.S. personnel who died or were declared missing in action in Vietnam.
Vietnam War History (1314 words)
The protest movement in opposition to the Vietnam War was a complex amalgam of political, social, economic, and cultural motivations, factors, and events.
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
Vietnam brought a new dimension to the Cold War -- and forced the United States to rethink its goals in the superpower rivalry.
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