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Encyclopedia > Opium
A field of opium poppies in Burma
A field of opium poppies in Burma

Opium is a narcotic formed from the latex (i.e., sap) released by lacerating (or "scoring") the immature seed pods of opium poppies (Papaver somniferum). It contains up to 16% morphine, an opiate alkaloid, which is most frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. The resin also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids, such as papaverine and noscapine. Meconium historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the poppy or different species of poppies. Modern opium production is the culmination of millennia of production, in which the source poppy, methods of extraction and processing, and methods of consumption have become increasingly potent. Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... field of opium poppy US govt site, [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... field of opium poppy US govt site, [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Papaverine is an opium alkaloid used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the heart and the brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... Noscapine (also known as Narcotine) is an opioid agonist without significant analgesic properties [1]. It is grouped as part of the benzylisoquinolines, of which papaverine is also included. ...


Cultivation of opium poppies for food, anesthesia, and ritual purposes dates back to at least the Neolithic Age. The Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Minoan, Greek, Roman, Persian and Arab Empires each made widespread use of opium, which was the most potent form of pain relief then available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides, Galen, and Avicenna. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a precisely controlled dosage. American morphine is still produced primarily from poppies grown and processed in India in the traditional manner and remains the standard of pain relief for casualties of war. Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Pain therapy is treatment given to patients experiencing chronic or acute pain. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ebers medical papyrus giving the treatment of cancer. ... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about the drug. ...


Recreational use of the drug began in China in the fifteenth century but was limited by its rarity and expense. Opium trade became more regular by the seventeenth century, when it was mixed with tobacco for smoking, and addiction was first recognized. Opium prohibition in China began in 1729 and was followed by nearly two centuries of exponentially increasing opium use. China had a positive balance sheet in trading with the British, which led to a decrease of the British silver stocks. Therefore, the British tried to encourage Chinese opium use to enhance their balance, and they delivered it from Indian provinces under British control. A massive confiscation of opium by the Chinese emperor, who tried to stop the opium deliveries, led to two Opium Wars in 1840 and 1858, in which Britain suppressed China and traded opium all over the country. After 1860, opium use continued to increase with widespread domestic production in China, until more than a quarter of the male population was addicted by 1905. Recreational or addictive opium use in other nations remained rare into the late nineteenth century, recorded by an ambivalent literature that sometimes praised the drug. Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ...


Global regulation of opium began with the stigmatization of Chinese immigrants and opium dens, leading rapidly from town ordinances in the 1870s to the formation of the International Opium Commission in 1909. During this period, the portrayal of opium in literature became squalid and violent, British opium trade was largely supplanted by domestic Chinese production, purified morphine and heroin became widely available for injection, and patent medicines containing opiates reached a peak of popularity. Opium was prohibited in many countries during the early twentieth century, leading to the modern pattern of opium production as a precursor for illegal recreational drugs or tightly regulated legal prescription drugs. Illicit opium production, now dominated by Afghanistan, has increased steadily in recent years to over 6600 tons yearly, nearly one-fifth the level of production in 1906. Opium for illegal use is often converted into heroin, which multiplies its potency to approximately twice that of morphine, can be taken by intravenous injection, and is easier to smuggle.[citation needed] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The International Opium Commission was a meeting convened in 1909 in Shanghai that represented one of the first steps toward international drug prohibition. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Patent medicine is the term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were for the most part actually trademarked medicines, not patented. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ...

Opium
Botanical Opium
Source plant(s) Papaver somniferum
Part(s) of plant sap
Geographic origin Middle East (?)
Active ingredients Morphine, Codeine
Main producers Afghanistan (primary), Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Mexico, Colombia
Main consumers worldwide (#1: U.S.)
Legal status DEA schedule II or V
$300 per kilogram
Retail price $16,000 per kilogram
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Contents

Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... The Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as heroin are extracted, as well as an important food item. ... The abbreviation, acronym, or initialism SAP has several different meanings: SAP AG, a German software company, or its various products such as SAP R/3 or SAP Business Information Warehouse second audio program (television) Session Announcement Protocol Soritong audio player Simple As Possible Computer Architecture Structural Adjustment Program of the... This article is about the drug. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...

History

Ancient use (4200 BC - 800 BC)

Poppy crop from the Malwa region of India (probably Papaver somniferum var. album.)
Poppy crop from the Malwa region of India (probably Papaver somniferum var. album.[1])

The use of the opium poppy dates from time immemorial. At least seventeen finds of Papaver somniferum from Neolithic settlements have been reported throughout Switzerland, Germany, and Spain, including the placement of large numbers of poppy seed capsules at a burial site (the Cueva de los Murciélagos, or "Bat cave", in Spain), which have been carbon dated to 4200 B.C. Numerous finds of Papaver somniferum or Papaver setigerum from Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have also been reported.[2] The first known cultivation of opium poppies was in Mesopotamia, approximately 3400 B.C., by Sumerians who called the plant Hul Gil, the "joy plant".[3][4] Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.[1] Cultivation continued in the Middle East by the Assyrians, who also collected poppy juice in the morning after scoring the pods with an iron scoop; they called the juice aratpa-pal, possibly the root of Papaver. Opium production continued under the Babylonians and Egyptians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1147x783, 101 KB)Opium crop from the Malwa region of India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1147x783, 101 KB)Opium crop from the Malwa region of India File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people quickly and painlessly to death, but it was also used in medicine. The Ebers Papyrus, ca. 1500 B.C., describes a way to "prevent the excessive crying of children" using grains of the poppy-plant strained to a pulp. Spongia somnifera, sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery.[3] The Egyptians cultivated opium thebaicum in famous poppy fields around 1300 B.C. Opium was traded from Egypt by the Phoenicians and Minoans to destinations around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece, Carthage, and Europe. By 1100 B.C., opium was cultivated on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, and opium was cultivated, traded, and smoked.[5] Opium was also mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonia in the sixth century B.C.[1] Binomial name Conium maculatum L. Conium is a genus of 2-3 species of perennial herbaceous plants in the family Apiaceae. ... Ebers medical papyrus giving the treatment of cancer. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ...


From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, and anthropologists have speculated that ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power.[3] In Egypt, the use of opium was generally restricted to priests, magicians, and warriors, its invention credited to Thoth, and it was said to have been given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.[1] A figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of three opium poppies, ca. 1300 B.C., was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi, Crete, together with a simple smoking apparatus.[5][6] The Greek gods Hypnos (Sleep), Nyx (Night), and Thanatos (Death) were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding poppies. Poppies also frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Asklepios, Pluto, Demeter, Aphrodite, Kybele and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion.[1] In Greek mythology, Hypnos was the personification of sleep; the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus . ... In Greek mythology, Nyx (, Nox in Roman translation) was the primordial goddess of the night. ... In Greek mythology, Thanatos (in Ancient Greek, θάνατος – Death) was the Daimon personification of Death and Mortality. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Asclepius was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Cybele with her attributes. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ...


Islamic Empire (600-1500 A.D.)

As the power of the Roman Empire declined, the lands to the south and east of the Mediterranean sea became incorporated into the Islamic Empire, which assembled the finest libraries and the most skilled physicians of the era. Many Muslims believe that the hadith of al-Bukhari prohibits every intoxicating substance as haraam, but the use of intoxicants in medicine has been widely permitted.[7] Dioscorides' five-volume De Materia Medica, the precursor of pharmacopoeias, remained in use (with some improvements in Arabic versions)[8]) from the 1st to 16th centuries and described opium, meconium and the wide range of uses prevalent in the ancient world.[9] Somewhere between 400 and 1200 AD, Arab traders introduced opium to China.[4][10][1] The Persian physician Agha Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (845-930 A.D.), who was born near Tehran, maintained a laboratory and school in Baghdad, and was a student and critic of Galen, made use of opium in anesthesia and recommended its use for the treatment of melancholy in Man la Yahduruhu Al-Tabib, a home medical manual directed toward ordinary citizens for self-treatment if a doctor was not available.[11][12] The renowned ophthalmologic surgeon Abu al-Qasim Ammar (936-1013 AD) relied on opium and mandrake as surgical anaesthetics and wrote a treatise, al-Tasrif, that influenced medical thought well into the sixteenth century.[13][14] The Persian physician Abū ‘Alī al-Husayn ibn Sina (Avicenna) described opium as the most powerful of the stupefacients, by comparison with mandrake and other highly effective herbs, in The Canon of Medicine. This classic text was translated into Latin in 1175 and later into many other languages and remained authoritative into the seventeenth century.[15] Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu used opium in the fourteenth century Ottoman Empire to treat migraine headaches, sciatica, and other painful ailments.[16] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري (born 810 - died 870), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (Hadith) from Muhammad, was born at Bokhara (Bukharä), of an Iranian family, in AH... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ... Pedanius Dioscorides Pedanius Dioscorides (c. ... Materia medica is a Latin term for any material or substance used in the composition of curative agents in medicine. ... Back cover of the Chinese pharmacopoeia First Edition (published in 1930) Pharmacopoeia (literally, the art of the drug compounder), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Sciatica is pain caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that are branches of the sciatic nerve. ...


Reintroduction to Western medicine

Latin translation of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, 1483
Latin translation of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, 1483

Opium became stigmatized in Europe during the Inquisition as a Middle Eastern influence and became a taboo subject in Europe from approximately 1300 to 1500 A.D. Manuscripts of Pseudo-Apuleius's fifth-century work from the tenth and eleventh centuries refer to the use of wild poppy Papaver agreste or Papaver rhoeas (identified as Papaver silvaticum) instead of Papaver somniferum for inducing sleep and relieving pain.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1272x890, 619 KB) Summary I took this image and allow its free use. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1272x890, 619 KB) Summary I took this image and allow its free use. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pseudo-Apuleius refers to the author of a Herbarium or De herbarum virtutibus; it is a medical herbal of the 5th century, A.D. A 10th century manuscript of the work is in the Musee Meermanno Westreenianum, The Hague. ... Binomial name Papaver rhoeas L. The Corn Poppy is the wild poppy of agricultural cultivation—Papaver rhoeas. ... The Opium Poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as heroin are extracted, as well as an important food item. ...


The use of Paracelsus' laudanum was introduced to Western medicine in 1527, when Philip Aureolus Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim returned from his wanderings in Arabia with a famous sword, within the pommel of which he kept "Stones of Immortality" compounded from opium thebaicum, citrus juice, and "quintessence of gold".[4][18][19] The name "Paracelsus" was a pseudonym signifying him the equal or better of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, whose text, which described the use of opium or a similar preparation, had recently been translated and reintroduced to medieval Europe.[20] The Canon of Medicine, the standard medical textbook that Paracelsus burned in a public bonfire three weeks after being appointed professor at the University of Basel, also described the use of opium, though many Latin translations were of poor quality.[21] Laudanum was originally the sixteenth-century term for a medicine associated with a particular physician that was widely well-regarded, but became standardized as "tincture of opium", a solution of opium in ethyl alcohol, which Paracelsus has been credited with developing. During his lifetime, Paracelsus was viewed as an adventurer who challenged the theories and mercenary motives of contemporary medicine with dangerous chemical therapies, but his therapies marked a turning point in Western medicine. In the seventeenth century laudanum was recommended for pain, sleeplessness, and diarrhea by Thomas Sydenham,[22] the renowned "father of English medicine" or "English Hippocrates", to whom is attributed the quote, "Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to relieve his sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium."[23] Use of opium as a cure-all was reflected in the formulation of mithridatium described in the 1728 Chambers Cyclopedia, which included true opium in the mixture. Subsequently, laudanum became the basis of many popular patent medicines of the nineteenth century. Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... This article is about the medicine. ... Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC—50) was a Roman encyclopedist and possibly, although not likely, a physician. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located at Basel, Switzerland. ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Thomas Sydenham. ... Elaborately-gilded drug jar for storing mithridate. ... Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... E.W. Kembles Deaths Laboratory in Colliers Magazine in 1906 Patent medicine is the somewhat misleading term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were, for the most part, actually medicines with trademarks, not patented medicines. ...


The standard medical use of opium persisted well into the nineteenth century. U.S. president William Henry Harrison was treated with opium in 1841, and in the American Civil War, the Union Army used 2.8 million ounces of opium tincture and powder and about 500,000 opium pills.[1] During this time of popularity, users called opium "God's Own Medicine".[24] William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ...


Recreational use

An opium den in 18th-century China through the eyes of a Western artist.
An opium den in 18th-century China through the eyes of a Western artist.
A typical depiction of an opium smoking scene in London's Limehouse district based on fictional accounts of the day.
A typical depiction of an opium smoking scene in London's Limehouse district based on fictional accounts of the day.
Main article: Opium den

The earliest clear description of the use of opium as a recreational drug came from Xu Boling, who wrote in 1483 that opium was "mainly used to aid masculinity, strengthen sperm and regain vigor", and that it "enhances the art of alchemists, sex and court ladies." He described an expedition sent by the Chenghua Emperor in 1483 to procure opium for a price "equal to that of gold" in Hainan, Fujian, Zhejiang, Sichuan and Shaanxi where it is close to Xiyu. A century later, Li Shizhen listed standard medical uses of opium in his renowned Compendium of Materia Medica (1578), but also wrote that "lay people use it for the art of sex", in particular the ability to "arrest seminal emission". This association of opium with sex continued in China until the twentieth century. Opium smoking began as a privilege of the elite and remained a great luxury into the early nineteenth century, but by 1861, Wang Tao wrote that opium was used even by rich peasants, and even a small village without a rice store would have a shop where opium was sold.[25] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixelsFull resolution (1008 × 651 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 517 pixelsFull resolution (1008 × 651 pixel, file size: 1. ... Opium smokers in the East End of London, 1874. ... Opium smokers in the East End of London, 1874. ... An opium den was an establishment where opium was sold and smoked. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... The Chenghua Emperor (December 9, 1447 – September 9, 1487) was Emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, between 1464 and 1487. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... The Western Regions or Xiyu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsiyü) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to 8th century that referred to the region of Central Asia west of Jade Gate. ... Li Shizhen (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Shih-Chen) (1518 - 1593 CE, Ming Dynasty), was one of the greatest physicians and pharmacologists in Chinese history. ... The Compendium of Materia Medica (Chinese: 本草綱目; pinyin: BÄ›ncÇŽo Gāngmù) is a pharmaceutical text written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) during the Ming Dynasty of China. ... Wang Tao Wang Tao (Chinese: 王韬) (November 10, 1828 – April, 1897) was a Qing dynasty translator, reformer, political columnist, newspaper publisher, and fiction writer. ...


Smoking of opium came on the heels of tobacco smoking and may have been encouraged by a brief ban on the smoking of tobacco by the Ming emperor, ending in 1644 with the Qing dynasty, which had encouraged smokers to mix in increasing amounts of opium.[1] In 1705, Wang Shizhen wrote that "nowadays, from nobility and gentlemen down to slaves and women, all are addicted to tobacco". Tobacco in that time was frequently mixed with other herbs (this continues with clove cigarettes to the modern day), and opium was one component in the mixture. Tobacco mixed with opium was called madak (or madat) and became popular throughout China and its seafaring trade partners (such as Taiwan, Java and the Philippines) in the seventeenth century.[25] In 1712, Engelbert Kaempfer described addiction to madak: "No commodity throughout the Indies is retailed with greater profit by the Batavians than opium, which [its] users cannot do without, nor can they come by it except it be brought by the ships of the Batavians from Bengal and Coromandel."[10] Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Wang Shizhen was a Chinese general and Minister of War in the Republic of China three times, 1915-1916 and twice in 1917. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational intoxicant smoking mixture in 17th and 18th century China. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational intoxicant smoking mixture in 17th and 18th century China. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ...


Fueled in part by the 1729 ban on madak, which at first effectively exempted pure opium as a potentially medicinal product, the smoking of pure opium became more popular in the eighteenth century. In 1736, the smoking of pure opium was described by Huang Shujing, involving a pipe made from bamboo rimmed with silver, stuffed with palm slices and hair, fed by a clay bowl in which a globule of molten opium was held over the flame of an oil lamp. This elaborate procedure, requiring the maintenance of pots of opium at just the right temperature for a globule to be scooped up with a needle-like skewer for smoking, formed the basis of a craft of "paste-scooping" by which servant girls could become prostitutes as the opportunity arose.[25] Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational intoxicant smoking mixture in 17th and 18th century China. ... Huáng Shújǐng (黃叔璥) was the first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan (1722). ...


Beginning in eighteenth-century China, famine and political upheaval, as well as rumors of wealth to be had in nearby Southeast Asia, led to the Chinese Diaspora. Chinese emigrants to cities such as San Francisco, London, and New York brought with them the Chinese manner of opium smoking and the social traditions of the opium den.[26][27] The Indian Diaspora distributed opium-eaters in the same way, and both social groups survived as "lascars" (seamen) and "coolies" (manual laborers). French sailors provided another major group of opium smokers, having contracted the habit in French Indochina, where the drug was promoted by the colonial government as a monopoly and source of revenue.[28][29] Among white Europeans, opium was more frequently consumed as laudanum or in patent medicines. Britain's All-India Opium Act of 1878 formalized social distinctions, limiting recreational opium sales to registered Indian opium-eaters and Chinese opium-smokers and prohibiting its sale to workers from Burma.[30] Likewise, American law sought to contain addiction to immigrants by prohibiting Chinese from smoking opium in the presence of a white man.[31] Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Overseas Chinese (華僑 in pinyin: huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo) are ethnic Chinese who live outside of Hong Kong, Taiwan. ... An opium den was an establishment where opium was sold and smoked. ... A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. ... Lascars is a now outmoded word that comes from an ancient Persian word Lashkar. ... Coolie labourer circa 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... This article is about the medicine. ... E.W. Kembles Deaths Laboratory in Colliers Magazine in 1906 Patent medicine is the somewhat misleading term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were, for the most part, actually medicines with trademarks, not patented medicines. ...


Because of the low social status of immigrant workers, contemporary writers and media had little trouble portraying opium dens as seats of vice, white slavery, gambling, knife and revolver fights, a source for drugs causing deadly overdoses, with the potential to addict and corrupt the white population. By 1919, anti-Chinese riots attacked Limehouse, the Chinatown of London. Chinese men were deported for playing puck-apu, a popular gambling game, and sentenced to hard labor for opium possession. Both the immigrant population and the social use of opium fell into decline.[32][33] Yet despite lurid literary accounts to the contrary, nineteenth-century London was not a hotbed of opium smoking. The total lack of photographic evidence of opium smoking in Britain, as opposed to the relative abundance of historical photos depicting opium smoking in North America and France, indicates that the infamous Limehouse opium smoking scene was little more than fantasy on the part of British writers of the day who were intent on scandalizing their readers while drumming up the threat of the "yellow peril".[34][35] White slavery is a term that is currently used to refer to sexual slavery. ... , Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... , Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ...


Prohibition and conflict in China

Destruction of opium in China
Destruction of opium in China
Main articles: Prohibition (drugs) and Opium Wars

Opium prohibition began in 1729, when Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty, disturbed by madak smoking at court and carrying out the government's role of upholding Confucian virtue, officially prohibited the import of opium, except for a small amount for medicinal purposes. The ban punished sellers and opium den keepers, but not users of the drug.[10] Opium prohibition in China continued until 1860 and was later resumed. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 239 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 239 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 本檔案其他版本 no from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 17:08 2006å¹´11月9æ—¥ . . Iflwlou (Talk | 贡献 | 查封) . . 400×239 (17,176字节) ({ {subst:Information| |A= 虎門銷煙 |B= http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 239 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 239 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 本檔案其他版本 no from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 17:08 2006å¹´11月9æ—¥ . . Iflwlou (Talk | 贡献 | 查封) . . 400×239 (17,176字节) ({ {subst:Information| |A= 虎門銷煙 |B= http://www. ... For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational intoxicant smoking mixture in 17th and 18th century China. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... An opium den was an establishment where opium was sold and smoked. ...

English opium ships
English opium ships

Under the Qing Dynasty, China opened itself to foreign trade under the Canton System through the port of Guangzhou (Canton), and traders from the British East India Company began visiting the port by the 1690s. Due to the growing British demand for Chinese tea and the Chinese disinterest in British commodities other than silver, the British became interested in opium as a high-value commodity for which China was not self-sufficient. The British traders had been purchasing small amounts of opium from India for trade since Ralph Fitch first visited in the mid-sixteenth century.[10] Trade in opium was standardized, with production of balls of raw opium, 1.1 to 1.6 kilograms, 30% water content, wrapped in poppy leaves and petals, and shipped in chests of 60-65 kilograms (one picul).[10] Chests of opium were sold in auctions in Calcutta with the understanding that the independent purchasers would then smuggle it into China (see Opium Wars). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 355 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 本檔案其他版本 no from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 00:15 2006å¹´11月15æ—¥ . . Iflwlou (Talk | 贡献 | 查封) . . 600×355 (39,055字节) (删) (复) 00:13 2006å¹´11月15æ—¥ . . Iflwlou (Talk | 贡献 | 查封) . . 600×375 (93,226... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 355 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 本檔案其他版本 no from zh wp (删除该图像的所有修订版本) (当前) 00:15 2006å¹´11月15æ—¥ . . Iflwlou (Talk | 贡献 | 查封) . . 600×355 (39,055字节) (删) (复) 00:13 2006å¹´11月15æ—¥ . . Iflwlou (Talk | 贡献 | 查封) . . 600×375 (93,226... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Canton System (1760-1842) served as a means for China to control trade within its own country. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... An editor has expressed a concern that the tone or style of this section may not be appropriate for an encyclopedia. ... Ralph Fitch (died 1611) was a gentleman merchant of London and one of the earliest English travellers and traders to visit Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia. ... Catty is the English word for a traditional Chinese measurement of weight called a jÄ«n (Chinese characters: æ–¤) in Mandarin Chinese used across East Asia, commonly found in wet markets and in supermarkets in Taiwan and Hong Kong. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ...


After the 1757 Battle of Plassey and 1764 Battle of Buxar, the British East India Company gained the power to act as diwan of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa (See company rule in India). This allowed the company to pursue a monopoly on opium production and export in India, to encourage ryots to cultivate the cash crops of indigo and opium with cash advances, and to prohibit the "hoarding" of rice. This strategy led to the increase of the land tax to 50% of the value of crops, the starvation of ten million people in the Bengal famine of 1770, and the doubling of East India Company profits by 1777. Beginning in 1773, the British government began enacting oversight of the company's operations, culminating in the establishment of British India in response to the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Bengal opium was highly prized, commanding twice the price of the domestic Chinese product, which was regarded as inferior in quality.[36] Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... // The East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. ... This article is about the economic term. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ...


Some competition came from the newly independent United States, which began to compete in Guangzhou (Canton) selling Turkish opium in the 1820s. Portuguese traders also brought opium from the independent Malwa states of western India, although by 1820, the British were able to restrict this trade by charging "pass duty" on the opium when it was forced to pass through Bombay to reach an entrepot.[10] Despite drastic penalties and continued prohibition of opium until 1860, opium importation rose steadily from 200 chests per year under Yongzheng to 1,000 under Qianlong, 4,000 under Jiaqing, and 30,000 under Daoguang.[37] The illegal sale of opium became one of the world's most valuable single commodity trades and has been called "the most long continued and systematic international crime of modern times".[38] Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... An entrepôt is a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... The Jiaqing Emperor (November 13, 1760 - September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ... The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 - February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ...


In response to the ever-growing number of Chinese people becoming addicted to opium, Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty took strong action to halt the import of opium, including the seizure of cargo. In 1838, the Chinese Commissioner Lin Zexu destroyed 20,000 chests of opium in Guangzhou (Canton).[10] Given that a chest of opium was worth nearly $1,000 in 1800, this was a substantial economic loss. The British, not willing to replace the cheap opium with costly silver, began the First Opium War in 1840, winning Hong Kong and trade concessions in the first of a series of Unequal Treaties. The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 - February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Lin Zexu Lin Zexu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 30, 1785 - November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing dynasty. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth...

Map showing the amount of Opium produced in China in 1908
Map showing the amount of Opium produced in China in 1908

Following China's defeat in the Second Opium War in 1858, China was forced to legalize opium and began massive domestic production. Importation of opium peaked in 1879 at 6,700 tons, and by 1906, China was producing 85% of the world's opium, some 35,000 tons, and 27% of its adult male population was addicted—13.5 million addicts consuming 39,000 tons of opium yearly.[39] From 1880 to the beginning of the Communist era, the British attempted to discourage the use of opium in China, but this effectively promoted the use of morphine, heroin, and cocaine, further exacerbating the problem of addiction.[40] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 467 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 1121 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Present Day Conditions in China by Marshall Broomhall; Morgan & Scott 1908; London This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 467 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 1121 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Present Day Conditions in China by Marshall Broomhall; Morgan & Scott 1908; London This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ...


Scientific evidence of the pernicious nature of opium use was largely undocumented in the 1890s when Protestant missionaries in China decided to strengthen their opposition to the trade by compiling data which would demonstrate the harm the drug did. Faced with the problem that many Chinese associated Christianity with opium, partly due to the arrival of early Protestant missionaries on opium clippers, at the 1890 Shanghai Missionary Conference, they agreed to establish the Permanent Committee for the Promotion of Anti-Opium Societies in an attempt to overcome this problem and to arouse public opinion against the opium trade. The members of the committee were John G. Kerr, MD, American Presbyterian Mission in Canton; B.C. Atterbury, MD, American Presbyterian Mission in Peking; Archdeacon Arthur E. Moule, Church Missionary Society in Shanghai; Henry Whitney, MD, American Board of Commissioners for foreign Missions in Foochow; the Rev. Samuel Clarke, China Inland Mission in Kweiyang; the Rev. Arthur Shorrock, English Baptist Mission in Taiyuan; and the Rev. Griffith John, London Mission Society in Hankow. [41] These missionaries were generally outraged over the British government's Royal Commission on Opium visiting India but not China. Accordingly, the missionaries first organized the Anti-Opium League in China among their colleagues in every mission station in China. American missionary Hampden Coit DuBose acted as first president. This organization, which had elected national officers and held an annual national meeting, was instrumental in gathering data from every Western-trained medical doctor in China, which was then published as William Hector Park compiled Opinions of Over 100 Physicians on the Use of Opium in China (Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1899). The vast majority of these medical doctors were missionaries; the survey also included doctors who were in private practices, particularly in Shanghai and Hong Kong, as well as Chinese who had been trained in medical schools in Western countries. In England, the home director of the China Inland Mission, Benjamin Broomhall, was an active opponent of the Opium trade, writing two books to promote the banning of opium smoking: The Truth about Opium Smoking and The Chinese Opium Smoker. In 1888, Broomhall formed and became secretary of the Christian Union for the Severance of the British Empire with the Opium Traffic and editor of its periodical, National Righteousness. He lobbied the British Parliament to stop the opium trade. He and James Laidlaw Maxwell appealed to the London Missionary Conference of 1888 and the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910 to condemn the continuation of the trade. When Broomhall was dying, his son Marshall read to him from The Times the welcome news that an agreement had been signed ensuring the end of the opium trade within two years. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... John Glasgow Kerr, M.D., LL.D., (1824 – 1901) was a Presbyterian medical missionary to China with the American Presbyterian Mission. ... Arthur Evans Moule (1836- ? ) was an English missionary to China. ... Griffith John (December 14, 1831 – July 25, 1912) was a Welsh Christian Congregationalist missionary to China and a pioneer evangelist with the London Missionary Society. ... The China Inland Mission was a missionary society, set up by English missionary Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865 in Brighton during a home leave. ... Benjamin Broomhall (born Bradley Staffordshire 15 August 1829; died London, 29 May 1911) was the General Secretary of the China Inland Mission (CIM), (from 1878 to 1895). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Dr James Laidlaw Maxwell Snr (Taiwanese: Má Ngá-kok; 馬雅各; born Scotland, 18 March 1836; died March 1921) was the first (modern) missionary to Taiwan. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


Official Chinese resistance to opium was renewed on September 20, 1906, with an anti-opium initiative intended to eliminate the drug problem within ten years. The program relied on the turning of public sentiment against opium, with mass meetings at which opium paraphernalia was publicly burned, as well as coercive legal action and the granting of police powers to organizations such as the Fujian Anti-Opium Society. Smokers were required to register for licenses for gradually reducing rations of the drug. Addicts sometimes turned to missionaries for treatment for their addiction, though many associated these foreigners with the drug trade. The program was counted as a substantial success, with a cessation of direct British opium exports to China (but not Hong Kong[42]) and most provinces declared free of opium production. Nonetheless, the success of the program was only temporary, with opium use rapidly increasing during the disorder following the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916.[43] is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


Beginning in 1915, Chinese nationalist groups came to describe the period of military losses and Unequal Treaties as the "Century of National Humiliation", later defined to end with the conclusion of the Chinese Civil War in 1949.[44] The Mao Zedong government is generally credited with eradicating both consumption and production of opium during the 1950s using unrestrained repression and social reform. Ten million addicts were forced into compulsory treatment, dealers were executed, and opium-producing regions were planted with new crops. Remaining opium production shifted south of the Chinese border into the Golden Triangle region, at times with the involvement of Western intelligence agencies.[36] The remnant opium trade primarily served Southeast Asia, but spread to American soldiers during the Vietnam War, with 20% of soldiers regarding themselves as addicted during the peak of the epidemic in 1971. In 2003, China was estimated to have four million regular drug users and one million registered drug addicts.[45] Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Mao redirects here. ... The Golden Triangle is one of Asia’s two main illicit opium-producing areas. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

See also: Japanese opium policy in Taiwan (1895-1945)

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Prohibition outside China

There were no legal restrictions on the importation or use of opium in the United States until the San Francisco, California, Opium Den Ordinance, which banned dens for public smoking of opium in 1875, a measure fueled by anti-Chinese sentiment and the perception that whites were starting to frequent the dens. This was followed by an 1891 California law requiring that narcotics carry warning labels and that their sales be recorded in a registry, amendments to the California Pharmacy and Poison Act in 1907 making it a crime to sell opiates without a prescription, and bans on possession of opium or opium pipes in 1909.[46] San Francisco redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


At the U.S. federal level, the legal actions taken reflected constitutional restrictions under the Enumerated powers doctrine prior to reinterpretation of the Commerce clause, which did not allow the federal government to enact arbitrary prohibitions but did permit arbitrary taxation.[47] Beginning in 1883, opium importation was taxed at $6 to $300 per pound, until the Opium Exclusion Act of 1909 prohibited the importation of opium altogether. In a similar manner the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914, passed in fulfillment of the International Opium Convention of 1912, nominally placed a tax on the distribution of opiates, but served as a de facto prohibition of the drugs. Today, opium is regulated by the Drug Enforcement Administration under the Controlled Substances Act. The enumerated powers are a list of specific responsibilities found in Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution, which enumerate the authority granted to the United States Congress. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was an American law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, distribution and use of opiates. ... Opium article from The Daily Picayune, February 24, 1912, New Orleans, Louisiana. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...


Following passage of a regional law in 1895, Australia's Aboriginal Protection and restriction of the sale of opium act 1897 addressed opium addiction among Aborigines, though it soon became a general vehicle for depriving them of basic rights by administrative regulation. Opium sale was prohibited to the general population in 1905, and smoking and possession was prohibited in 1908.[48] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group...


Hardening of Canadian attitudes toward Chinese opium users and fear of a spread of the drug into the white population led to the effective criminalization of opium for non-medical use in Canada between 1908 and the mid-1920s.[49]


In 1909, the International Opium Commission was founded, and by 1914, thirty-four nations had agreed that the production and importation of opium should be diminished. In 1924, sixty-two nations participated in a meeting of the Commission. Subsequently, this role passed to the League of Nations, and all signatory nations agreed to prohibit the import, sale, distribution, export, and use of all narcotic drugs, except for medical and scientific purposes. This role was later taken up by the International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations under Article 23 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and subsequently under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Opium-producing nations are required to designate a government agency to take physical possession of licit opium crops as soon as possible after harvest and conduct all wholesaling and exporting through that agency.[1] The International Opium Commission was a meeting convened in 1909 in Shanghai that represented one of the first steps toward international drug prohibition. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Mr. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ...


Obsolescence

Bayer heroin bottle
Bayer heroin bottle

Opium has gradually been superseded by a variety of purified, semi-synthetic, and synthetic opioids with progressively stronger effect, and by other general anesthesia. This process began in 1817, when Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner reported the isolation of pure morphine from opium after at least thirteen years of research and a nearly disastrous trial on himself and three boys.[50] The great advantage of purified morphine was that a patient could be treated with a known dose—whereas with raw plant material, as Gabriel Fallopius once lamented, "if soporifics are weak they do not help; if they are strong they are exceedingly dangerous." Morphine was the first pharmaceutical isolated from a natural product, and this success encouraged the isolation of other alkaloids: by 1820, isolations of narcotine, strychnine, veratrine, colchicine, caffeine, and quinine were reported. Morphine sales began in 1827, by Heinrich Emanuel Merck of Darmstadt, and helped him expand his family pharmacy into the massive Merck KGaA pharmaceutical company. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (539x790, 120 KB) Summary Self-made photo of pre-war Heroin bottle, originally containing 5 grams of Heroin substance Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (539x790, 120 KB) Summary Self-made photo of pre-war Heroin bottle, originally containing 5 grams of Heroin substance Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner (born 19 June 1783 in Neuhaus, Germany (near Paderborn), died 20 February 1841 in Hamelin) was a German pharmacist, who discovered morphine in 1803. ... This article is about the drug. ... Gabriele Falloppio (1523- October 9, 1562), often known by his Latin name of Fallopius, was one of the founders of the study of human anatomy. ... Noscapine (also known as Narcotine) is an alkaloid opioid agonist from plants of the Papaveraceae family, without significant painkilling properties [1]. It is grouped as part of the benzylisoquinolines, of which papaverine is also included. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... Veratrine is an alkaloid drug that increases the sodium permeability of axons. ... Colchicine is a highly deadly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Heinrich Emanuel Merck (15 September 1794 – 14 February 1855) was an apothecary whose descendants are the founders of Merck and Company and Merck KGaA. He was a direct descendant of company founder Friedrich Jacob Merck, who had purchased the Engel-Apotheke (Angel Pharmacy) in Darmstadt in 1668. ... Merck KGaA is a German based pharmaceutical company. ...


Codeine was isolated in 1832 by Robiquet. Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Pierre Jean Robiquet (born January 13, 1780 in Rennes, died April 1840 in Paris) was a French chemist. ...


The use of diethyl ether and chloroform for general anesthesia began in 1846-1847, and rapidly displaced the use of opiates and tropane alkaloids from Solanaceae due to their relative safety.[51] This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ...


Heroin, the first semi-synthetic opiate, was first synthesized in 1874, but was not pursued until its rediscovery in 1897 by Felix Hoffmann at the Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany. From 1898 to 1910 heroin was marketed as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough medicine for children. By 1902, sales made up 5% of the company's profits, and "heroinism" had attracted media attention.[52] Oxycodone, a thebaine derivative similar to codeine, was introduced by Bayer in 1916 and promoted as a less-addictive analgesic. Preparations of the drug such as Percocet and Oxycontin remain popular to this day. For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Felix Hoffmann (January 21, 1868 – February 8, 1946) was a German chemist, who first synthesized medically useful forms of Heroin and Aspirin. ... Bayer AG (IPA pronunciation //) (ISIN: DE0005752000, NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. ... Elberfeld is a district of the German town Wuppertal; it was an independent town until 1929. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ...


A range of synthetic opioids such as methadone (1937), pethidine (1939), fentanyl (late 1950s), and derivatives thereof have been introduced, and each is preferred for certain specialized applications. Nonetheless, morphine remains the drug of choice for American combat medics, who carry packs of syrettes containing 16 milligrams each for use on severely wounded soldiers.[53] No drug has yet been found that can match the painkilling effect of opium without also duplicating much of its addictive potential. An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and anti-addictive. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolargan® (in Poland);[1] Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. ... Medical team at work during the Battle of Normandy. ... The Syrette is a device for injecting liquid through a needle. ...


Modern production and usage

Papaver somniferum

Scoring the poppy pod.
Scoring the poppy pod.
Raw opium
Raw opium
Main article: Opium poppy

In South American countries, opium poppies (Papaver somniferum) are technically illegal, but nonetheless appear in some nurseries as ornamentals. They are popular and attractive garden plants, whose flowers vary greatly in color, size and form. A modest amount of domestic cultivation in private gardens is not usually subject to legal controls. In part, this tolerance reflects variation in addictive potency: a cultivar for opium production, Papaver somniferum L. elite, contains 92% morphine, codeine, and thebaine in its latex alkaloids, whereas the condiment cultivar "Marianne" has only one-fifth this total, with the remaining alkaloids made up mostly of narcotoline and noscapine.[54] Harvesting opium poppy US govt site, [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Opium Opium poppy Categories: United States government images ... Harvesting opium poppy US govt site, [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Opium Opium poppy Categories: United States government images ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 703 × 600 pixels Full resolution (777 × 663 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Raw opium. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 703 × 600 pixels Full resolution (777 × 663 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Raw opium. ... Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ... Narcotoline (C21H21NO7, molecular weight 399. ... Noscapine (also known as Narcotine) is an opioid agonist without significant analgesic properties [1]. It is grouped as part of the benzylisoquinolines, of which papaverine is also included. ...


Seed capsules can be dried and used for decorations, but they also contain morphine, codeine, and other alkaloids. These pods can be boiled in water to produce a bitter tea that induces a long-lasting intoxication (See Poppy tea). If allowed to mature, poppy pods can be crushed into "poppy straw" and used to produce lower quantities of morphinans. In poppies subjected to mutagenesis and selection on a mass scale, researchers have been able to use poppy straw to obtain large quantities of oripavine, a precursor to opioids and antagonists such as naltrexone.[55] Dried poppy pods and seeds Poppy tea is a narcotic analgesic tea which is brewed from the dried parts of the Papaver somniferum plant. ... Morphinan is the base chemical structure of a subgroup of opioids. ... Oripavine is an opiate and the major metabolite of thebaine. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ...


Poppyseeds are a common and flavorsome topping for breads and cakes. One gram of poppy seeds contains up to 33 micrograms of morphine and 14 micrograms of codeine, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration formerly mandated that all drug screening laboratories use a standard cutoff of 300 nanograms per milliliter in urine samples. A single poppy seed roll (0.76 grams of seeds) usually did not produce a positive drug test, but a positive result was observed from eating two rolls. A slice of poppy seed cake containing nearly five grams of seeds per slice produced positive results for 24 hours. Such results are viewed as false positive indications of drug abuse and were the basis of a legal defense.[56][57] On November 30, 1998, the standard cutoff was increased to 2000 nanograms (two micrograms) per milliliter.[58] During the Communist era in Eastern Europe, poppy stalks sold in bundles by farmers were processed by users with household chemicals to make kompot ("Polish heroin"), and poppy seeds were used to produce koknar, an opiate.[59] Genera See text A poppy is an annual, biennial, or perennial plant of the Family Papaveraceae, typically with showy flowers borne one per stem, native mainly to the Northern hemisphere and often grown for ornament, opium or food. ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the US Federal agency charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death, disability, and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses. ... For the episode of the American television series The Office, see Drug Testing. A drug test is commonly a technical examination of urine, semen, blood, sweat, or oral fluid samples to determine the presence or absence of specified drugs or their metabolized traces. ... A false positive, also called false alarm, exists when a test reports, incorrectly, that it has found a signal where none exists in reality. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Man shooting kompot. Also known as kompot or compote, this is a highly addictive drug which is used mainly in eastern Europe. ...


Harvesting and processing

When grown for opium production, the skin of the ripening pods of these poppies is scored by a sharp blade at a time carefully chosen so that neither rain, wind, nor dew can spoil the exudation of white, milky latex, usually in the afternoon. Incisions are made while the pods are still raw, with no more than a slight yellow tint, and must be shallow to avoid penetrating hollow inner chambers or loculi while cutting into the lactiferous vessels. In India, the special tool used to make the incisions is called a nushtar and carries three or four blades three millimeters apart, which are scored upward along the pod. Incisions are made three or four times at intervals of two to three days, and each time the "poppy tears", which dry to a sticky brown resin, are collected the following morning. One acre harvested in this way can produce three to five kilograms of raw opium.[60] In the Soviet Union, pods were typically scored horizontally, and opium was collected three times, or else one or two collections were followed by isolation of opiates from the ripe capsules. Oil poppies, an alternative strain of P. somniferum, were also used for production of opiates from their capsules and stems.[61] This article is about the typesetting system. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ...

Black tar opium seized in Afghanistan, spring 2005
Black tar opium seized in Afghanistan, spring 2005

Raw opium may be sold to a merchant or broker on the black market, but it usually does not travel far from the field before it is refined into morphine base, because pungent, jelly-like raw opium is bulkier and harder to smuggle. Crude laboratories in the field are capable of refining opium into morphine base by a simple acid-base extraction. A sticky, brown paste, morphine base is pressed into bricks and sun-dried, and can either be smoked or processed into heroin.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Heroin is widely preferred because of increased potency. One study in postaddicts found heroin to be approximately 2.2 times more potent than morphine by weight with a similar duration; at these relative quantities, they could distinguish the drugs subjectively but had no preference.[62] Heroin was also found to be twice as potent as morphine in surgical anesthesia.[63] Morphine is converted into heroin by a simple chemical reaction with acetic anhydride, followed by a varying degree of purification.[64][65] Especially in Mexican production, opium may be converted directly to "black tar heroin" in a simplified procedure. This form predominates in the U.S. west of the Mississippi. Relative to other preparations of heroin, it has been associated with a dramatically increased rate of HIV transmission among intravenous drug users (4% in Los Angeles vs. 40% in New York) due to technical requirements of injection, although it is also associated with greater risk of venous sclerosis and necrotizing fasciitis.[66] For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ... Black tar heroin Black tar heroin is a variety of heroin produced primarily in Mexico, but similar in appearance and texture to so called Home Bake Heroin from New Zealand. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease, a non-contagious chronic autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system which can present with a variety of neurological symptoms occurring in attacks or slowly progressing over time. ... Necrotizing fasciitis or fasciitis necroticans, commonly known as flesh-eating bacteria, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue. ...


Illegal production

Main producers of opium for the heroin trade
Main producers of opium for the heroin trade
Approximate global opium production for recreational purposes
Approximate global opium production for recreational purposes
See also: Opium production in Afghanistan and Illegal drug trade

Opium production has fallen greatly since 1906, when 41,000 tons were produced, but because 39,000 tons of that year's opium were consumed in China, overall usage in the rest of the world was much lower.[67] In 1980, 2,000 tons of opium supplied all legal and illegal uses.[10] Recently, opium production has increased considerably, surpassing 5,000 tons in 2002. In 2002, the price for one kilogram of opium was $300 for the farmer, $800 for purchasers in Afghanistan, and $16,000 on the streets of Europe before conversion into heroin.[68] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Opium production in Afghanistan is controlled by local Afghan and regional mafia groups of Asia, more particularly of South and Central Asia. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ...


Following documented trends of increasing availability mirroring increased American military and geo-political regional involvement, Afghanistan is currently the primary producer of the drug. After regularly producing 70% of the world's opium, Afghanistan decreased production to 74 tons per year under a ban by the Taliban in 2000, although the ban may have been intended primarily to boost prices after the country accumulated a stockpile with over two years' supply.[69] After the 2001 war in Afghanistan, production increased again. According to DEA statistics, Afghanistan's production of oven-dried opium increased to 1,278 tons in 2002, more than doubled by 2003, and nearly doubled again during 2004. In late 2004, the U.S. government estimated that 206,000 hectares were under poppy cultivation, 4.5% of the country's total cropland, and produced 4,200 metric tons of opium, 87% of the world's supply, yielding 60% of Afghanistan's gross domestic product.[70] In 2006, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime estimated production to have risen 59% to 407,000 acres (1,650 km²) in cultivation, yielding 6,100 tons of opium, 92% of the world's supply.[71] The value of the resulting heroin was estimated at $3.5 billion, of which Afghan farmers were estimated to have received $700 million in revenue (of which the Taliban have been estimated to have collected anywhere from tens of millions to $140 million in taxes).[72] For farmers, the crop can be up to ten times more profitable than wheat. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... DEA is an abbreviation of the following, among others: Dance Educators of America Drug Enforcement Administration (USA) TheDEA.org, a harm reduction web site. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a metric unit of surface area, equal to 100 ares (the name is a contraction of the SI prefix hecto + are). ... GDP redirects here. ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is a United Nations agency which was founded in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention with the intent to fight drugs and crime on an international level. ...


An increasingly large fraction of opium is processed into morphine base and heroin in drug labs in Afghanistan. Despite an international set of chemical controls designed to restrict availability of acetic anhydride, it enters the country, perhaps through its Central Asian neighbors which do not participate. A counternarcotics law passed in December 2005 requires Afghanistan to develop registries or regulations for tracking, storing, and owning acetic anhydride.[73] Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ...


Besides Afghanistan, smaller quantities of opium are produced in Pakistan, the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia (particularly Myanmar), Colombia and Mexico. The Golden Triangle is one of Asia’s two main illicit opium-producing areas. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule...


Legal production

Main article: Opium licensing

Legal opium production is allowed under the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and other international drug treaties, subject to strict supervision by the law enforcement agencies of individual countries. The leading legal production method is the Gregory process, whereby the entire poppy, excluding roots and leaves, is mashed and stewed in dilute acid solutions. The alkaloids are then recovered via acid-base extraction and purified. This process was developed in the UK during World War II, when wartime shortages of many essential drugs encouraged innovation in pharmaceutical processing. Opium licensing is a policy instrument used to counter illegal drug cultivation and production. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 in New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit manufacture and trafficking of narcotic drugs that... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization are those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population; they should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price the community can afford. ... Bold textReed Business Information is the largest business publisher in the United States and a division of Reed Elsevier. ...


Legal production in India is much more traditional. As of 1996, opium was collected by farmers who were licensed to grow 0.1 hectare of opium poppies (0.24 acre), who to maintain their licenses needed to sell 4.5 kilograms of unadulterated raw opium paste at a fixed government price of 32 rupees ($8 US) per kilogram. One kilogram represents two days' work for a family. Some additional money is made by drying the poppy heads and collecting poppy seeds, and a small fraction of opium beyond the quota may be consumed locally or diverted to the black market. The opium paste is sun-dried and stirred in large pans before it is packed into cases of 60 kilograms for export. Purification of chemical constituents is done in India for domestic production, but typically done abroad by foreign importers.[74]


Legal opium importation from India and Turkey is conducted by Mallinckrodt, Noramco, Abbott Laboratories, and Purdue Pharma in the United States, and legal opium production is conducted by GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson and Johnson, Johnson Matthey, and Mayne in Tasmania, Australia; Sanofi Aventis in France; Shionogi Pharmaceutical in Japan; and MacFarlan Smith in the United Kingdom.[75] The UN treaty requires that every country submit annual reports to the International Narcotics Control Board, stating that year's actual consumption of many classes of controlled drugs as well as opioids and projecting required quantities for the next year. This is to allow trends in consumption to be monitored and production quotas allotted. Mallinckrodt Incorporated is a set of pharmaceutical, chemical, imaging, and respiratory equipment suppliers based in the St. ... Abbott Laboratories (NYSE: ABT) is a diversified pharmaceuticals and health care company. ... Purdue Pharma L.P., is privately-held pharmaceutical company founded by physicians. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is an international Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices manufacturer founded in 1885. ... Johnson Matthey plc (LSE: JMAT) is a British chemical company which has its headquarters near Holborn in central London. ... Mayne is a surname, and may refer Andrew Mayne Brent Mayne Cuthbert Mayne Edgar Mayne Edith Mayne Ferdy Mayne James ONeil Mayne Jasper Mayne John Mayne Kenny Mayne Laurie Mayne Lennie Mayne Mosley Mayne Paddy Mayne Richard Mayne Roger Mayne Seymour Mayne Simon Mayne Stephen Mayne Thom Mayne Thomas... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Sanofi-aventis (Euronext: SAN, NYSE: SNY), headquartered in Paris, France, is one of the 3 largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, along with Pfizer,GlaxoSmithKline. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Mr. ...


A recent proposal from the European Senlis Council hopes to solve the problems caused by the massive quantity of opium produced illegally in Afghanistan, most of which is converted to heroin and smuggled for sale in Europe and the USA. This proposal is to license Afghan farmers to produce opium for the world pharmaceutical market, and thereby solve another problem, that of chronic underuse of potent analgesics where required within developing nations. Part of the proposal is to overcome the "80-20 rule" that requires the U.S. to purchase 80% of its legal opium from India and Turkey to include Afghanistan, by establishing a second-tier system of supply control that complements the current INCB regulated supply and demand system by providing poppy-based medicines to countries who cannot meet their demand under the current regulations. Senlis arranged a conference in Kabul that brought drug policy experts from around the world to meet with Afghan government officials to discuss internal security, corruption issues, and legal issues within Afghanistan.[76] In June 2007, the Council launched a "Poppy for Medicines" project that provides a technical blueprint for the implementation of an integrated control system within Afghan village-based poppy for medicine projects: the idea promotes the economic diversification by redirecting proceeds from the legal cultivation of poppy and production of poppy-based medicines (See Senlis Council).[77] The Senlis Council is an international policy think tank with offices in Kabul, London, Paris and Brussels. ... Opium production in Afghanistan is controlled by local Afghan and regional mafia groups of Asia, more particularly of South and Central Asia. ... Opium licensing is a policy instrument used to counter illegal drug cultivation and production. ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita... The Senlis Council is an international policy think tank with offices in Kabul, London, Paris and Brussels. ...


Cultivation in the UK

In late 2006, the British government permitted the pharmaceutical company Macfarlan Smith (a Johnson Matthey company) to cultivate opium poppies in England for medicinal reasons, after Macfarlan Smith's primary source, India, decided to increase the price of export opium latex. This move is well received by British farmers, with a major opium poppy field based in Didcot, England. The British government has contradicted the Home Office's suggestion that opium cultivation can be legalized in Afghanistan for exports to the United Kingdom, helping lower poverty and internal fighting whilst helping NHS to meet the high demand for morphine and diamorphine. Opium poppy cultivation in the United Kingdom does not need a licence; however, a licence is required for those wishing to extract opium for medicinal products.[78] Johnson Matthey plc (LSE: JMAT) is a British chemical company which has its headquarters near Holborn in central London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Statistics Population: 25,231 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SU525900 Administration District: South Oxfordshire Shire county: Oxfordshire Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Oxfordshire Historic county: Berkshire Services Police force: Thames Valley Police Ambulance: South Central Post office and telephone Post town... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly-funded healthcare system of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the drug. ... Heroin or diamorphine (INN) (colloquially referred to as junk, babania, horse, golden brown, smack, black tar, big H, lady H, dope, skag, juice, diesel, etc. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...


Consumption

In the industrialized world, the USA is the world's biggest consumer of prescription opioids, with Italy one of the lowest.[79] Most opium imported into the United States is broken down into its alkaloid constituents, and whether legal or illegal, most current drug use occurs with processed derivatives such as heroin rather than with pure and untouched opium. Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Intravenous injection of opiates is most used: by comparison with injection, "dragon chasing" (heating of heroin with barbital on a piece of foil) and "ack ack" (smoking of cigarettes containing heroin powder) are only 40% and 20% efficient, respectively.[80] One study of British heroin addicts found a 12-fold excess mortality ratio (1.8% of the group dying per year).[81] Most heroin deaths result not from overdose per se, but combination with other depressant drugs such as alcohol or benzodiazepines.[82] In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Barbital (marketed under the brand name Veronal), also called barbitone, was the first commercially marketed barbiturate. ... A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ...

An Akha man smokes a pipe. Although this pipe was described as an opium pipe by the photographer, a true opium pipe requires an external heat source. Still, opium can be smoked by mixing it with tobacco, as in madak and ack ack.
An Akha man smokes a pipe. Although this pipe was described as an opium pipe by the photographer, a true opium pipe requires an external heat source. Still, opium can be smoked by mixing it with tobacco, as in madak and ack ack.

The smoking of opium does not involve the pyrolysis of the material as might be imagined. Rather, the prepared opium is indirectly heated to temperatures at which the active alkaloids, chiefly morphine, are vaporized. In the past, smokers would utilize a specially designed opium pipe which had a removable knob-like pipe-bowl of fired earthenware attached by a metal fitting to a long, cylindrical stem.[83] A small "pill" of opium about the size of a pea would be placed on the pipe-bowl, which was then heated by holding it over an opium lamp, a special oil lamp with a distinct funnel-like chimney to channel heat into a small area. The smoker would lie on his or her side in order to guide the pipe-bowl and the tiny pill of opium over the stream of heat rising from the chimney of the oil lamp and inhale the vaporized opium fumes as needed. Several pills of opium were smoked at a single session depending on the smoker's tolerance to the drug. The effects could last up to twelve hours. Download high resolution version (1086x762, 53 KB)I, John Hill, took this photo in 1979. ... Download high resolution version (1086x762, 53 KB)I, John Hill, took this photo in 1979. ... An Akha village, with the traditional thatched roofs, in northern Thailand. ... Madak was a blend of opium and tobacco used as a recreational intoxicant smoking mixture in 17th and 18th century China. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... A complete opium smoking layout including two opium pipes. ... A complete opium smoking layout including an opium lamp. ...


In Eastern culture, opium is more commonly used in the form of paregoric to treat diarrhea. This is a weaker solution than laudanum, an alcoholic tincture which was prevalently used as a pain medication and sleeping aid. Tincture of opium has been prescribed for, among other things, severe diarrhea.[84] Taken thirty minutes prior to meals, it significantly slows intestinal motility, giving the intestines greater time to absorb fluid in the stool. The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium, is a medication known for its antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic properties. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... This article is about the medicine. ...


Chemical and physiological properties

Morphine is the primary biologically-active chemical constituent of opium.
Morphine is the primary biologically-active chemical constituent of opium.
See also: Opioid, Opiate, and Morphinan

Opium contains two main groups of alkaloids. Those that use opium are commonly referred to as "opiats" (Coined by James St. Louis). Phenanthrenes include morphine, codeine, and thebaine and are the main narcotic constituents. Isoquinolines such as papaverine have no significant central nervous system effects and are not regulated under the Controlled Substances Act. Morphine is by far the most prevalent and important alkaloid in opium, consisting of 10%-16% of the total, and is responsible for most of its harmful effects such as lung edema, respiratory difficulties, coma, or cardiac or respiratory collapse, with a normal lethal dose of 120 to 250 milligrams[85]—the amount found in approximately two grams of opium.[86] Morphine binds to and activates μ-opioid receptors in the brain, spinal cord, stomach and intestine. Regular use leads to physical tolerance and dependence. Chronic opium addicts in 1906 China[87] or modern-day Iran[88] consume an average of eight grams daily. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1118, 65 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Morphine Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1118, 65 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Morphine Category: ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... Morphinan is the base chemical structures of a subgroup of opioids. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings--as the above formula shows. ... This article is about the drug. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Isoquinoline, also known as benzo[c]pyridine or 2-benzanine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Papaverine is an opium alkaloid used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the heart and the brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ...


Both analgesia and drug addiction are functions of the mu opioid receptor, the class of opioid receptor first identified as responsive to morphine. Tolerance is associated with the superactivation of the receptor, which may be affected by the degree of endocytosis caused by the opioid administered, and leads to a superactivation of cyclic AMP signalling.[89] Long-term use of morphine in palliative care and management of chronic pain can be managed without the development of drug tolerance or physical dependence. Many techniques of drug treatment exist, including pharmacologically based treatments with naltrexone, methadone, or ibogaine [90]. For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... The μ opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin but low affinity for dynorphins. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the drug. ... Endocytosis (IPA: ) is a process whereby cells absorb material (molecules such as proteins) from the outside by engulfing it with their cell membrane. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... Chronic pain was originally defined as pain that has lasted 6 months or longer. ... Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ... Drug treatment can mean either: Treatment of illness with drugs - see Medicine. ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and anti-addictive. ... Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. ...


Cultural references

There is a rich and longstanding literature by and about opium users. Thomas De Quincey's 1822 Confessions of an English Opium-Eater is one of the first and most famous literary accounts of opium addiction written from the point of view of an addict and details both the pleasures and the dangers of the drug. De Quincey writes about the great English Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), whose poem "Kubla Khan" is also widely considered to be a poem of the opium experience. Coleridge began using opium in 1791 after developing jaundice and rheumatic fever and became a full addict after a severe attack of the disease in 1801, requiring 80-100 drops of laudanum daily.[91] "The Lotos-Eaters", an 1832 poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, reflects the generally favorable British attitude toward the drug. In The Count of Monte Cristo (1844) by Alexandre Dumas, père, the Count is assuaged by an edible form of opium, and his experience with it is depicted vividly. Thomas de Quincey from the frontispiece of Revolt of the Tartars, Thomas de Quincey (August 15, 1785 – December 8, 1859) was an English author and intellectual. ... Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821). ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ...


Edgar Allan Poe presents opium in a more disturbing context in his 1838 short story "Ligeia", in which the narrator, deeply distraught for the loss of his beloved, takes solace in opium until he "had become a bounden slave in the trammels of opium", unable to distinguish fantasy from reality after taking immoderate doses of opium. In music, Hector Berlioz' 1830 Symphony Fantastique tells the tale of an artist who has poisoned himself with opium while in the depths of despair for a hopeless love. Each of the symphony's five movements takes place at a different setting and with increasingly audible effects from the drug. For example, in the fourth movement, "Marche au Supplice", the artist dreams that he is walking to his own execution. In the fifth movement, "Songe d’une Nuit du Sabbat", he dreams that he is at a witch's orgy, where he witnesses his beloved dancing wildly along to the demented Dies Irae. Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Ligeia is a short story written by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Symphonie Fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Opus 14, is a symphony written by French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up movement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In drama, the set (or setting) is the location of a storys action. ... Francisco Goyas Los Caprichos: Linda maestra! (Nice mistress!) - witches heading to a Sabbath In Christian folklore, the Sabbath (also known as Witchs Sabbath) was a gathering supposed to have been celebrated by Satanists, witches and warlocks to honor the Devil, offend God, Jesus, the sacraments, the cross, and... For other uses, see Dies Irae (disambiguation). ...


Towards the end of the nineteenth century, references to opium and opium addiction in the context of crime and the foreign underclass abound in English literature, such as in the opening paragraphs of Charles Dickens's 1870 serial The Mystery of Edwin Drood and in Arthur Conan Doyle's 1891 Sherlock Holmes short story "The Man with the Twisted Lip". In Oscar Wilde's 1890 The Picture of Dorian Gray, the protagonist visits an opium den "for forgetfulness", unable to bear the guilt and shame of committing murder. Opium likewise underwent a transformation in Chinese literature, becoming associated with indolence and vice by the early twentieth century.[43] Perhaps the best-known literary reference to opium is Karl Marx's metaphor in his "Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right'", where he refers to religion as "the opium of the people." (This phrase is more commonly quoted as "the opiate of the masses.") The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Dickens redirects here. ... The Mystery of Edwin Drood is the final novel by Charles Dickens. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... The Man with the Twisted Lip, one of the 56 short Sherlock Holmes stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is the sixth of the twelve stories in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only published novel written by Oscar Wilde, and first came out as the lead story in Lippincotts Monthly Magazine on 20 June 1890. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


In the twentieth century, as the use of opium was eclipsed by morphine and heroin, its role in literature became more limited, and often focused on issues related to its prohibition. In The Good Earth by Pearl S. Buck, Wang Lung, the protagonist, gets his troublesome uncle and aunt addicted to opium in order to keep them out of his hair. William S. Burroughs autobiographically describes the use of opium beside that of its derivatives. His associate Jack Black's memoir You Can't Win chronicles one man's experience both as an onlooker in the opium dens of San Francisco, and later as a "hop fiend" himself. The book and subsequent movie The Wonderful Wizard of Oz may allude to opium at one point in the story, when Dorothy and her friends are drawn into a field of poppies, in which they fall asleep. This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... The Good Earth is a novel by Pearl S. Buck, first published in 1931, which was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1932. ... Pearl Sydenstricker Buck, most familiarly known as Pearl S. Buck (birth name Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973), was a prolific American writer and Nobel Prize winner. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Jack Black was a late 19th century hobo, living out the dying age of the Wild West. ... You Cant Win is an autobiography by Jack Black. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) is a childrens book written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ...


See also

A complete opium smoking layout including two opium pipes. ... A complete opium smoking layout including an opium lamp. ... An opium den was an establishment where opium was sold and smoked. ... Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the Forbes family related to US Senator John Kerry. ... Imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the medicine. ... Nabidh was an intoxicating beverage. ... Religion is the opium of the people (translated from the German ) is one of the most frequently quoted statements of Karl Marx, from the introduction of his 1843 work Contribution to Critique of Hegels Philosophy of Right which was actually subsequently released one year later in Marx own journal... Opium production in Afghanistan is controlled by local Afghan and regional mafia groups of Asia, more particularly of South and Central Asia. ... Protocol for Limiting and Regulating the Cultivation of the Poppy Plant, the Production of, International and Wholesale Trade in, and Use of Opium Opened for signature June 23, 1953 at New York Entered into force March 8, 1963 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Protocol for Limiting and Regulating... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ...

Further reading

  • Ahmad, Diana L. The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth-century American West (University of Nevada Press, 2007). Drugs and Racism in the Old West.
  • Armero and Rapaport. The Arts of an Addiction. Qing Dynasty Opium Pipes and Accessories (privately printed, 2005)
  • Booth, Martin. Opium: A History. London: Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996.
  • Day, Horace B. (1868). The Opium Habit.
  • de Quincey, Thomas (1821). Confessions of an English opium-eater.
  • Fairbank, J.K. (1978) The Cambridge History of China: volume 10 part I, Cambridge, CUP
  • Franck Daninos, L'opium légal produit en France, La Recherche, May 2005
  • Great Britain (1913). Agreement between Great Britain and Portugal for regulation of the opium monopolies of the colonies of Hong Kong and Macao.
  • Great Britain, India office (1922). The truth about Indian opium.
  • Hai guan zong shui wu si shu (1889). The poppy in China.
  • Hideyuki Takano; The Shore Beyond Good and Evil: A Report from Inside Burma's Opium Kingdom (2002, Kotan, ISBN 0970171617)
  • Latimer, Dean, and Jeff Goldberg with an Introduction by William Burroughs. Flowers in the Blood: The Story of Opium. New York: Franklin Watts, 1981
  • MacPherson, Duncan (1843). Two years in China. Narrative of the Chinese expedition, from its formation in April, 1840, to the treaty of peace in August, 1842.
  • Martin, Steven. The Art of Opium Antiques. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2007.
  • McCoy, Alfred W. The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1991.
  • Merwin, Samuel (1907). Drugging a nation, the story of China and the opium curse; a personal investigation, during an extended tour, of the present conditions of the opium trade in China and its effects upon the nation.
  • Morewood, Samuel (1838). A philosophical and statistical history of the inventions and customs of ancient and modern nations in the manufacture and use of inebriating liquors; with the present practice of distillation in all its varieties: together with an extensive illustration of the consumption and effects of opium, and other stimulants used in the East, as substitutes for wine and spirits.
  • Musto, David F. The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Nye, Gideon (1873). The morning of my life in China : comprising an outline of the history of foreign intercourse from the last year of the regime of honorable East India Company, 1833, to the imprisonment of the foreign community in 1839.
  • Ouchterlony, John (1844). The Chinese war : an account of all the operations of the British forces from the commencement to the Treaty of Nanking.
  • Speer, William (1870). The oldest and the newest empire : China and the United States.
  • Thelwall, A. S. (1839). The iniquities of the opium trade with China ; being a development of the main causes which exclude the merchants of Great Britain from the advantages of an unrestricted commercial intercourse with that vast empire. With extracts from authentic documents.
  • Turner, Frederick Storrs (1876). British opium policy and its results to India and China.

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External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
frontline: the opium kings: Opium Throughout History | PBS (2557 words)
The Dutch export shipments of Indian opium to China and the islands of Southeast Asia; the Dutch introduce the practice of smoking opium in a tobacco pipe to the Chinese.
The British dependence on opium for medicinal and recreational use reaches an all time high as 22,000 pounds of opium is imported from Turkey and India.
In San Francisco, smoking opium in the city limits is banned and is confined to neighboring Chinatowns and their opium dens.
Opium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2398 words)
Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum).
To harvest opium, the skin of the ripening pods is scored by a sharp blade.
In the 19th century, the smuggling of opium to China from India, particularly by the British, was the cause of the Opium Wars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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