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Encyclopedia > Opisthothelae
iSpider
Crab spider Xysticus sp.
Crab spider Xysticus sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Clerck, 1757
Diversity
111 families, 40,000 species
Suborders

Mesothelae
Mygalomorphae
Araneomorphae
 See table of families Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta Brachiopoda... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders The arachnids, are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Carl Alexander Clerck (1709-22 July 1765) was a Swedish entomologist and arachnologist. ... Diversity 111 families Families see table The Araneae are an order of the arthropod class Arachnida with about 40,000 described species, although there are probably many species that have escaped the human eye to this day, and lots of specimen stored in collections waiting to be described and classified. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ... Diversity 111 families Families see table The Araneae are an order of the arthropod class Arachnida with about 40,000 described species, although there are probably many species that have escaped the human eye to this day, and lots of specimen stored in collections waiting to be described and classified. ...

Wikispecies has information related to:
Spiders
A South American Argiope
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A South American Argiope

Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals with two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. They are classified in the order Araneae, one of several orders within the larger class of arachnids, a group which also contains scorpions, whip scorpions, mites, ticks, and opiliones (harvestmen). The study of spiders is known as arachnology. GFDL Wikispecies logo File links The following pages link to this file: Solanaceae Species Asterias Homo (genus) Human Wikipedia:Template messages/Links Wikipedia:Template messages/All Homo floresiensis User talk:Tuneguru Template:Wikispecies Categories: GFDL images ... Wikispecies logo Wikispecies is a project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that anybody can edit. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (852x1136, 101 KB) A spider at the Rainbow World Gathering 2004 in the south of Costa Rica near the Parque Internacional la Amistad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (852x1136, 101 KB) A spider at the Rainbow World Gathering 2004 in the south of Costa Rica near the Parque Internacional la Amistad. ... Diversity 78 species Species A. aetherea A. appensa A. aurantia A. bruennichi A. keyserlingi A. mascordi A. picta many more The genus Argiope includes rather large and spectacular spiders that have often a strikingly coloured abdomen. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe any animal without a spinal column. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta Brachiopoda... In invertebrate biology, a tagma (plural tagmata) is a specialized grouping of arthropodan segments, such as head, body, and tail. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Scorpiones Solifugae Uropygi The arachnids, Arachnida, are a class of invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... There are three orders of whip scorpions in the class Arachnida: Amblypygi - tailless whip scorpions Palpigradi - micro whip scorpions (less than 3mm) Uropygi - whip scorpions In addition, members of the Schizomida also also sometimes called micro whip scorpions. See also: Pseudoscorpionida - pseudoscorpions Scorpiones - scorpions Schizomida Solifugae - wind scorpions ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... The Phalangids (legacy name) or Opiliones (better known as harvestmen) are eight-legged invertebrate animals belonging to the order Opiliones in the class Arachnida, in the subphylum Chelicerata of the phylum Arthropoda. ... Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related organisms such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, altogether called arachnids. ...


All spiders produce silk, a thin, strong protein strand extruded by the spider from spinnerets most commonly found on the end of the abdomen. Many species use it to trap insects in webs, although there are many species that hunt freely. Silk can be used to aid in climbing, form smooth walls for burrows, build egg sacs, wrap prey, and temporarily hold sperm, among other applications. Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A spinneret is a spiders silk spinning organ. ... Spider web with morning dew enhancing its visibility. ...


All spiders except those in the families Uloboridae and Holarchaeidae, and in the suborder Mesothelae) (together about 350 species) can inject venom to protect themselves or to kill and liquefy prey. Only up to 200 species, however, have bites that can pose health problems to humans.[1] Many larger species' bites may be painful, but will not produce lasting health concerns. Genera Ariston Astavakra Conifaber Daramulunia Hyptiotes Lubinella Miagrammopes Octonoba Orinomana Philoponella Polenecia Purumitra Siratoba Sybota Tangaroa Uloborus Waitkera Zosis The hackled orbweavers (family Uloboridae) have the special distinction of being non-venomous spiders. ... Genera see text The Holarchaeidae are a spider family with only two described species in one genus. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... Wasp stinger, with droplet of venom Venom or zootoxin (literally, animal poison) is any of a variety of poisons used by several groups of animal species, for the purpose of defense and hunting prey. ... Chelicerae of a black wishbone (Nemesiidae) spider, a mygalomorph Spiders are widely known, and feared by some, for their capability of biting human beings. ...

Contents

Morphology

Spider anatomy: (1) four pairs of legs (2) cephalothorax (3) opisthosoma
Spider anatomy:
(1) four pairs of legs
(2) cephalothorax
(3) opisthosoma

Spiders, unlike insects, have only two body segments (tagmata) instead of three: a fused head and thorax (called a cephalothorax or prosoma) and an abdomen (called the opisthosoma). The exception to this rule are the assassin spiders, whose cephalothorax seems to be almost divided into two independent units. Except for a few species of very primitive spiders (family Liphistiidae), the abdomen is not externally segmented. The abdomen and cephalothorax are connected with a thin waist called the pedicle or the pregenital somite, a trait that allows the spider to move the abdomen in all directions. This waist is actually the last segment (somite) of the cephalothorax and is lost in most other members of the Arachnida (in scorpions it is only detectable in the embryos). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. ... In invertebrate biology, a tagma (plural tagmata) is a specialized grouping of arthropodan segments, such as head, body, and tail. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... The opisthosoma is the posterior portion of the arachnids body behind the prosoma. ... Assassin spider with a victim. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... In anatomy, the pedicle (also spelled pedicel) is the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. ...


Cephalothorax

All spiders have eight legs, although a few ant-mimicking species use their front legs to imitate antennae, which spiders lack. Their eyes are single lenses rather than compound eyes, ranging from simple light/dark-receptors to eyes rivalling that of a pigeon (some jumping spiders). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Antennae (singular antenna), are the paired appendages connecting to the first (and in crustaceans also to the second) segment of the head of the members of all subphyla of the arthropods except Chelicerata. ... A lens. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ...


They have pedipalps (or just palps), at the base of which are coxae or maxillae next to their mouth that aid in ingesting food; the ends of the palp are modified in adult males into elaborate and often species-specific structures used for mating. Since they don't have any antennae, they use specialised and sensitive hairs on their legs to pick up scent, sounds, vibrations and air currents. Male European garden spider with swollen pedipalps Pedipalps are a pair of feelers on the front end of a spiders prosoma (aka cephalothorax), which can be thought of as its head. ... Theta Leonis (θ Leo / θ Leonis) is a star in the constellation Leo. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ...


Because they can't chew their food, they have, like other arachnids, a tiny mouth they use as a short drinking straw to suck up the liquid parts of their prey. However, they are able to eat their own silk.


Sense organs

Multiple eyes of the jumping spider Platycryptus undatus
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Multiple eyes of the jumping spider Platycryptus undatus

Spiders usually have eight eyes in various arrangements, a fact which is used to aid in taxonomically classifying different species. Most species of the Haplogynae have six eyes, although some have eight (Plectreuridae), four (eg., Tetrablemma) or even two (most Caponiidae) eyes. Sometimes one pair of eyes is more well developed than the rest, or even, in some cave species, there are no eyes at all. Several families of hunting spiders, such as jumping spiders and wolf spiders, have fair to excellent vision. The main pair of eyes in jumping spiders even sees in colors. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1312x1024, 104 KB) Summary Macro photo showing a jumping spiders multiple eyes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1312x1024, 104 KB) Summary Macro photo showing a jumping spiders multiple eyes. ... Binomial name Platycryptus undatus (de Geer, 1778) Platycryptus undatus is a jumping spider. ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... The Haplogynae are a series of araneomorph spiders. ... Genera Kibramoa Plectreurys Plectreurid spiders (family Plectreuridae) belong to a small family confined to the North American deserts and the island of Cuba. ... Diversity 18 species Species See text. ... Genera Dysdera Orthonops Notnops Taintnops Tisentnops The caponiid spiders (family Caponiidae) include several genera of two eyed spiders, such as the North American genus Orthonops. ... As with other animals, there are some species of cave-dwelling spiders that have lost their ability to see. ... Diversity 553 genera, 5025 species Genera See List of Salticidae genera Wikispecies has information related to: Salticidae The jumping spiders (family Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species. ... Diversity 104 genera, 2304 species Genera Acantholycosa Adelocosa Agalenocosa Aglaoctenus Algidus Allocosa Allotrochosina Alopecosa Alopecosella Amblyothele Anomalomma Anomalosa Anoteropsis Arctosa Arctosippa Arctosomma Artoria Artoriellula Aulonia Auloniella Brevilabus Bristowiella Camptocosa Caporiaccosa Crocodilosa Cynosa Dejerosa Diapontia Dingosa Dolocosa Donacosa Dorjulopirata Edenticosa Evippa Evippomma Geolycosa Gladicosa Gnatholycosa Hesperocosa Hippasa Hippasella Hippasosa Hogna Hognoides...


Net-casting spiders have enormous, compound lenses that give a wide field of view and gather available light very efficiently. Net-casting spiders make a small web in the form of a net held by the front legs that can be stretched out wide to envelop an unwary insect passing by. ...


However, most spiders that lurk on flowers, webs, and other fixed locations waiting for prey tend to have very poor eyesight; instead they possess an extreme sensitivity to vibrations, which aids in prey capture. Vibration sensitive spiders can sense vibrations from such various mediums as the water surface, the soil or their silk threads. Also changes in the air pressure can be detected in the search for prey.


Respiration and circulation

Rear side of a spider
Rear side of a spider

Spiders have an open circulatory system; i.e., they do not have true blood, or veins to convey it. Rather, their bodies are filled with haemolymph, which is pumped through arteries by a heart into spaces called sinuses surrounding their internal organs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (792x860, 484 KB) An unidentified fat spider (belly side) Roughly 1 inch (~2-3 cm) Found outdoors (garden-like) at, Mexico See also Image:Fat_spider. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (792x860, 484 KB) An unidentified fat spider (belly side) Roughly 1 inch (~2-3 cm) Found outdoors (garden-like) at, Mexico See also Image:Fat_spider. ... An open circulatory system is an arrangement of internal transport in which blood bathes the organs directly and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by those animals, such as all arthropods and most mollusks, that have an open circulatory system. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The term sinus (Latin for bay, pocket, curve or bosom) is used in various contexts. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ...


Spiders have developed several different respiratory anatomies, based either on book lungs, a tracheal system, or both. Mygalomorph and Mesothelae spiders have two pairs of book lungs filled with haemolymph, where openings on the ventral surface of the abdomen allow air to enter and diffuse oxygen. This is also the case for some basal araneomorph spiders like the family Hypochilidae, but the remaining members of this group have just the anterior pair of book lungs intact while the posterior pair of breathing organs are partly or fully modified into tracheae, through which oxygen is diffused into the haemolymph or directly to the tissue and organs. This system has most likely evolved in small ancestors to help resist desiccation. The trachea were originally connected to the surroundings through a pair of spiracles, but in the majority of spiders this pair of spiracles has fused into a single one in the middle, and migrated posterior close to the spinnerets. A book lung is a rudimentary type of lung found in arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders, and in horseshoe crabs. ... Windpipe redirects here. ... Families Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Theraphosidae (tarantula) Source: Platnick 2003 The Mygalomorphae, previously called the Orthognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... A book lung is a rudimentary type of lung found in arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders, and in horseshoe crabs. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ... Genera Hypochilus Ectatosticta The Lampshade spiders of the family Hypochilidae are among the most primitive of araneomorph spiders. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ...


Among smaller araneomorph spiders we can find species who have evolved also the anterior pair of book lungs into trachea, or the remaining book lungs are simply reduced or missing, and in a very few the book lungs have developed deep channels, apparently signs of evolution into tracheae. Some very small spiders in moist and sheltered habitats have no breathing organs at all, and instead breathe directly through their body surface. In the tracheal system oxygen interchange is much more efficient, enabling cursorial hunting (hunting involving extended pursuit) and other advanced characteristics as having a smaller heart and the ability to live in drier habitats. Cursorial hunting is a hunting strategy practised by animals that are much slower over short distances than their quarry but have superior endurance over long distances. ...


Digestion

A spider in the process of wrapping a bluebottle caught in its web
A spider in the process of wrapping a bluebottle caught in its web

Digestion is carried out internally and externally. Spiders that do not have powerful chelicerae secrete digestive fluids into their prey from a series of ducts perforating their chelicerae. These digestive fluids dissolve the prey's internal tissues. Then the spider feeds by sucking the partially digested fluids out. Other spiders with more powerfully built chelicerae masticate the entire body of their prey and leave behind only a relatively small residue of indigestible materials. Spiders consume only liquid foods. Many spiders will store prey temporarily. Web weaving spiders that have made a shroud of silk to quiet their envenomed prey's death struggles will generally leave them in these shrouds and then consume them at their leisure. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (703x738, 297 KB) Summary Photograph of a spider in stages of wrapping bluebottle fly. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (703x738, 297 KB) Summary Photograph of a spider in stages of wrapping bluebottle fly. ... Subfamilies Blow-flies (also frequently spelled blow flies or blowflies) are members of the family Calliphoridae of flies (Diptera). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Spinnerets

The abdomen has no appendages except from one to four (usually three) modified pairs of movable telescoping organs called spinnerets, which produce silk. The suborder Mesothelae is unique in having only two types of silk glands - thought to be the ancestral condition. All other spiders have the spinnerets further towards the posterior end of the body where they form a small cluster, and the anterior central spinnerets on the tenth segment are lost or reduced (suborder Mygalomorphae), or modified into a specialised and flattened plate called the cribellum (parts of suborder Araneomorphae), which produces a thread made up of hundreds to thousands of very fine dry silk fibers resulting in a woolly structure that traps prey. The cribellate spiders were the first spiders to build specialised prey catching webs. Later some groups evolved (called ecribellate) that use silk threads dotted with sticky droplets to capture prey ranging from small arthropods to sometimes even small bats and birds. A spinneret is a spiders silk spinning organ. ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ...


Coloration

Only three classes of pigment (ommochromes, bilins and guanine have been identified in spiders, although other pigments have been detected but not yet characterized. Melanins, carotenoids and pterins, very common in other animals, are apparently absent. In some species the exocuticle of the legs and prosoma is modified by a tanning process, resulting in brown coloration. [2] For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... Ommochrome (or visual pigment) refers to several biological pigments that occur in the eyes of crustaceans and insects. ... Bilins are blue or green pigments that consist of a linear arrangement of pyrroles. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Carotenoids are organic pigments that are naturally occurring in plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some types of fungus and some bacteria. ... A pterin is any chemical compound that contains the bicyclic ring system of a pteridine. ... The procuticle is the major portion of the exoskeleton of an insect (and various other arthropods); its exact composition and structure may differ somewhat among different taxa, but certain aspects can be generalized: When first secreted by the epidermis, it is soft, pliable, and pale, as much of the chemical... Tanning is the process of conversion of putrescible skin into non putrescible leather. ...


Bilins are found for example in Micrommata virescens, resulting in its green color. Guanine is responsible for the white markings of the European garden spider Araneus diadematus. It is in many species accumulated in specialized cells called guanocytes. In genera such as Tetragnatha, Leucauge, Argyrodes or Theridiosoma, guanine creates their silvery appearance. While guanine is originally an end-product of protein metabolism, its excretion can be blocked in spiders, leading to an increase in its storage.[2] Binomial name Micrommata virescens Clerck, 1757 Synonyms Araneus virescens Araneus roseus Aranea viridissima Aranea virescens Aranea rosea Aranea smaragdula Micrommata smaragdina Sparassus smaragdulus Sparassus roseus Micrommata viridissima Micrommata rosea Micrommata roseum The Green Huntsman Spider (Micrommata virescens) is a spider of the family Sparassidae. ... Binomial name Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 The European garden spider (Araneus diadematus, cross spider) is a very common and well-known orb-weaver spider in Western Europe. ... Diversity 170 species Species L. venusta  many more Leucauge is a spider genus with pantropical distribution. ... Diversity 95 species Species A. argentatus  many more Spiders of the genus Argyrodes (Theridiidae), also called dewdrop spiders, occur worldwide. ... Diversity 12 genera, 75 species Genera see text Wikispecies has information related to: Theridiosomatidae The ray spiders (family Theridiosomatidae) are spiders most recognizable for their construction of cone-shaped webs. ...


Structural colors occur in some species, which are the result of the diffraction, scattering or interference of light, for example by modified setae or scales. The white prosoma of Argiope results from hairs reflecting the light, Lycosa and Josa both have areas of modified cuticle that act as light reflectors.[2] A seta is a stiff hair, bristle, or bristle-like process or part of an organism. ... Diversity 78 species Species A. aetherea A. appensa A. aurantia A. bruennichi A. keyserlingi A. mascordi A. picta many more The genus Argiope includes rather large and spectacular spiders that have often a strikingly coloured abdomen. ... Diversity 245 species Species L. aspersa L. tarantula  hundreds more Lycosa is a genus of wolf spiders. ...


Life cycle

Golden orb weavers in Parque Nacional Corcovado, a female in the foreground and a male behind her
Golden orb weavers in Parque Nacional Corcovado, a female in the foreground and a male behind her
Pisaura mirabilis guarding her egg sac
Pisaura mirabilis guarding her egg sac
Spider showing its epigyne
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Spider showing its epigyne
Bird dropping spider with its unusual eggs
Bird dropping spider with its unusual eggs
Spiderlings on a web
Spiderlings on a web
The exuvia of a spider after moulting
Enlarge
The exuvia of a spider after moulting

The spider life cycle progresses through three stages: the embryonic, the larval, and the nympho-imaginal. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (934x1358, 116 KB) Golden Orb Weavers (Nephila sp. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (934x1358, 116 KB) Golden Orb Weavers (Nephila sp. ... Diversity 27 species Species N. clavata N. clavipes N. edulis N. inaurata N. pilipes  many more The golden silk orb-weavers (genus Nephila) are also commonly called golden orb-weavers or banana spiders. ... Corcovado National Park, or Parque Nacional Corcovado, is a National Park on the Osa Peninsula in the South West of Costa Rica (9° North, 83° West), which is part of the Osa Conservation Area. ... Download high resolution version (816x608, 224 KB)A spider carrying its egg sac, Jerusalem. ... Download high resolution version (816x608, 224 KB)A spider carrying its egg sac, Jerusalem. ... The epigyne or epigynum is the female genital opening in spiders. ... Download high resolution version (1024x873, 215 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x873, 215 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Celaenia excavata L. Koch, 1867 The bird dropping spider (Celaenia excavata) derives its name from mimicking bird droppings to avoid predators, mainly birds. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1302, 271 KB)Spiderlings File links The following pages link to this file: Spider Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1600x1302, 271 KB)Spiderlings File links The following pages link to this file: Spider Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1052x940, 108 KB) Summary The exoskeleton of a spider after moulting stuck to a blade of grass. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1052x940, 108 KB) Summary The exoskeleton of a spider after moulting stuck to a blade of grass. ... Exuvia of an Antarctic krill. ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


The time between when an egg is fertilized and when the spider begins to take the shape of an adult spider is referred to as the embryonic stage. As the spider enters the larval stage, it begins to look more and more like a full grown spider. It enters the larval stage as a prelarva and, through subsequent moults, reaches its larval form, a spider-shaped animal feeding off its yolk supply. After a few more moults (also called instars) body structures become differentiated. Soon, all organ systems are complete and the animal begins to hunt on its own; it has reached the nympho-imaginal stage.[3] Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt. ...


This stage is differentiated into two sub-stages: the nymph, or juvenile stage and the imago, or adult stage. A spider does not become sexually mature until it makes the transition from nymph to imago.[3] Once a spider has reached the imago stage, it will remain there until its death. After sexual maturity is reached, the general rule is that they stop moulting, but the females of some non-araneomorph species will continue to moult the rest of their lives. Sexual maturity is the stage at which an organism can reproduce. ...


Many spiders may only live for about a year, but a number will live two years or more, overwintering in sheltered areas. The annual influx of 'outdoor' spiders into houses in the fall is due to this search for a warm place to spend the winter. It is common for tarantulas to live around twenty years. Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma...


Reproduction

Spiders reproduce by means of eggs, which are packed into silk bundles called egg sacs. Spiders often use elaborate mating rituals (especially the visually advanced jumping spiders) to allow conspecifics to identify each other and to allow the male to approach and inseminate the female without triggering a predatory response. If the approach signals are exchanged correctly, the male spider must (in most cases) make a timely departure after mating to escape before the female's normal predatory instincts return. In most birds and reptiles, an apple (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Sperm transmission from male to female occurs indirectly. When a male is ready to mate, he spins a web pad upon which he discharges his seminal fluid. He then dips his pedipalps (also known as palpi), the small, leg-like appendages on the front of his cephalothorax, into the seminal fluid, picking it up by capillary attraction. Mature male spiders have swollen bulbs on the end of their palps for this purpose, and this is a useful way to identify the sex of a spider in the field. With his palps thus charged he goes off in search of a female. Copulation occurs when the male inserts one or both palps into the female's genital opening, known as the epigyne. He transfers his seminal fluid into the female by expanding the sinuses in his palp. Once the sperm is inside her, she stores it in a chamber and only uses it during the egg-laying process, when the eggs comes into contact with the male sperm for the first time and are fertilized; this may be why the vivipary has never evolved in spiders. The signifier sperm can refer to: (mass noun, from Greek sperma = seed) a substance which consists of spermatozoa and which is a component of semen (mass noun) semen itself (informally, count noun with plural sperm or sperms) a single spermatozoon (= sperm cell) sperma ceti (Latin ceti, genitive of cetus = whale... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The epigyne or epigynum is the female genital opening in spiders. ... The term sinus (Latin for bay, pocket, curve or bosom) is used in various contexts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Very unusual behaviour is seen in spiders of the genus Tidarren: the male amputates one of his palps before maturation and enters his adult life with one palp only. The palpi constitute 20% of the body mass of males of this species, and since this weight greatly impedes its movement, by detaching one of the two he gains increased mobility. In the Yemeni species Tidarren argo, the remaining palp is then torn off by the female. The separated palp remains attached to the female's epigynum for about four hours and apparently continues to function independently. In the meantime the female feeds on the palpless male. [4] In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... Tidarren is a genus of spiders. ...


Sacrificial males

Main article: Spider cannibalism

It is a common belief that male spiders, which usually are significantly smaller than the females, are likely to be killed after or during mating, or sometimes even before mating can occur. eating a conspecific Sacrificial males It is often said that the male (usually significantly smaller than the female, down to 1% of her size as seen in Tidarren sisyphoides) is likely to be killed by the female after the coupling, or sometimes even before intercourse has been initiated. ...


Even in some species of black widow, which are named exactly for this belief, the male may live in the female's web for some time without being harmed. However, the male of the closely related Australian redback spider is killed ritually by the females after it inserts its second palpus in the female genital opening; in over 60% of cases the female then eats the male. [5] Males that 'sacrifice' themselves gain the benefit of increasing their paternity relative to males who do not get cannibalized, by feeding the egg-laying female. black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans), a poisonous spider that is infamous for the females habit of eating the male after sexual intercourse. ... Binomial name Latrodectus hasselti The red-back spider (Lactrodectus hasselti) is a potentially dangerous spider now found throughout Australia. ... Pedipalps, the second pair of appendages of the cephalothorax in Arachnida, is homologous with mandibles in Crustacea, and corresponding to the mandibles of insects. ...


In many other species, males are sometimes killed by females. In at least some of these cases it's likely that the males are simply mistaken as prey.


Ecology

Spiders have a great range of variation and lifestyle, although all are predatory. This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


While spiders are generalist predators, in actuality their different methods of prey capture often determine the type of prey taken. Thus web-building spiders rarely capture caterpillars, and crab spiders that ambush prey in flowers capture more bees, butterflies and some flies than other insects. Groups of families that tend to take certain types of prey because of their prey capture methods are often called guilds. A few spiders are more specialized in their prey capture. Dysdera captures and eats sowbugs, pillbugs and beetles, while pirate spiders eat only other spiders. Bolas spiders in the family Araneidae use sex pheromone analogs to capture only the males of certain moth species. Despite their generally broad prey ranges, spiders are one of the most important links in the regulation of the populations of insects. Every day on a meadow they devour over 10 g/m² of insects and other arthropods.[citation needed] The striking caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprised of butterflies and moths). ... Families Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae Bee collecting pollen Bees (a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila) are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. ... Families Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera, it belongs to either the Hesperioidea (the skippers) or Papilionoidea (all other butterflies) Superfamilies. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... Diversity 237 species Species D. crocata  hundreds more Dysdera is a genus of spiders from the family Dysderidae, with more than 200 species. ... Infraorders and Families Infraorder Tylomorpha Tylidae Infraorder Ligiamorpha Ligiidae Mesoniscidae Superfamily Trichoniscoidea Buddelundiellidae Trichoniscidae Superfamily Styloniscoidea Schoebliidae Styloniscidae Titaniidae Tunanoniscidae Superfamily Oniscoidea Bathytropidae Berytoniscidae Detonidae Halophilosciidae Olibrinidae Oniscidae Philosciidae Platyarthridae Pudeoniscidae Rhyscotidae Scyphacidae Speleoniscidae Sphaeroniscidae Stenoniscidae Tendosphaeridae Superfamily Armadilloidea Actaeciidae Armadillidae Armadillidiidae Atlantidiidae Balloniscidae Cylisticidae Eubelidae Periscyphicidae Porcellionidae Trachelipodidae incertae... Infraorders and Families Not necessarily a complete list Infraorders: Ligiamorpha Tylomorpha Families: Dubioniscidae Irmaosidae Pseudarmadillidae Scleropactidae Armadillidium vulgare A woodlouse, also known as a pill bug (genus Armadillidium only), armadillo bug, sow bug, slater, ball bug, or roley-poley, is a terrestrial crustacean with a rigid, segmented, calcareous exoskeleton and... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Wikispecies has information related to: Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Genera 12 genera, including: Mimetus Ero The pirate spiders, also known as cannibal spiders (family Mimetidae) are a family of spiders that typically feed on other spiders. ... Diversity 66 species Genera Cladomelea Mastophora Ordgarius Bolas Spiders are unusual orb-weaver spiders that have given up spinning the typical web. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is any chemical or set of chemicals produced by a living organism that transmits a message to other members of the same species. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. ...


Behavior

Spiders show a wide range of behavior, from the ballet-like mating dances of certain jumping spiders to the seeming athletics of bolas spiders snatching their prey. Most diversity comes with the mode of predation, for example whether the spider waits for it in its orb web, or hunts it down.


Predatory techniques

Main article: Spider diversity
A spider hiding in its leaf (located at the center of its web)
A spider hiding in its leaf (located at the center of its web)

There are many families of spiders, and the ways that they catch prey are diverse. But whether they catch insects, fish, small mammals, small birds, or some other small form of life, as soon as a spider makes contact with its prey it will generally attempt to bite it. Almost 40,000 types of spiders are known to exist. ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 244 KB)A spiders house in a leaf Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Spider Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 244 KB)A spiders house in a leaf Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Spider Categories: GFDL images ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Orders Many - see section below. ...


Spiders bite their prey, and occasionally animals that cause them pain or threaten them, to do two things. First, they inflict mechanical damage, which, in the case of a spider that is as large as or larger than its prey, can be severe. Second, they can choose to inject venom through their hollow fangs. Many genera, such as the widow spiders, inject neurotoxins that can spread through the prey's entire body and interfere with vital body functions. Other genera inject venom that operates to produce tissue damage at the site of the bite. Genera such as that of the brown recluse spider produce a necrotoxin. The necrotoxin is injected into prey where it causes the degradation of cell membranes. In the larger victims that do not die from these attacks, painful lesions over a fairly wide area of the body can remain active for fairly long periods of time. The spitting spiders have modified their poison glands to produce a mixture of venom and sticky substance that works as glue and immobilises the prey. It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ... Fang may mean: Fang (Harry Potter), a pet of Hagrid in the Harry Potter series Fang (band), a California punk band The Fang people of Central Africa A canine tooth A common Chinese surname (æ–¹), and less common ones (防,房 etc. ... Species Approx. ... It has been suggested that Neurotoxicity be merged into this article or section. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Binomial name Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940 The brown recluse spider is a venomous spider, Loxosceles reclusa, of the family Sicariidae (formerly of the family Loxoscelidae). ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Illustration of a lipid bilayer The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma and cell surface membrane, is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer which comprises the outer layer of a cell. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Scytodes Spitting spiders (Family Scytodidae) are spiders of the genus Scytodes and their relatives. ...


Although there are no vegetarian spiders, some species in the families Anyphaenidae, Corinnidae, Clubionidae, Thomisidae and Salticidae have been observed feeding on plant nectar[6]. Several spider species are also known to feed on bananas, marmalade, milk, egg yolk and sausages in captivity.[6] For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Diversity 56 genera, 508 species Genera Anyphaena Aysha Hibana  many more The anyphaenid sac spiders (family Anyphaenidae) are distinguished from the sac spiders and other spiders by having the abdominal spiracle placed one third to one half of the way anterior to the spinnerets toward the epigastric furrow on the... Genera Castianeira Corinna Mazax Meriola Myrmecium Myrmecotypus Phrurolithus Phrurotimpus Trachelas The corinnid sac spiders (family Corinnidae), like the other clubionoid families, have a very confusing taxonomic history. ... Genera Clubiona Elaver The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae have a very confusing taxonomic history. ... Genera Misumena Misumenops Misumenoides Thomisius Xysticus Tmarus The true crab spiders are a group of spiders constituting the family Thomisidae or thomisids. ... Genera Bagheera Corythalia Eris Freya Ghelna Habronattus Hentzia Lyssomanes Maevia Marpissa Messua Metacyrba Naphrys Paramarpissa Paraphidippus Phidippus Portia Salticus Sarinda Sassacus Sitticus Synemosyna Thiodina Zygoballus and many others The jumping spiders (Salticidae) are a family of spiders containing more than 4,000 species. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


Spider webs

Main article: Spider web
Having completed its web, a spider in the forests of Malaysia awaits its prey. Appears to be some species of Nephila.
Having completed its web, a spider in the forests of Malaysia awaits its prey. Appears to be some species of Nephila.
A golden silk orb-weaver (Nephila clavipes?), member of the family Tetragnathidae
A golden silk orb-weaver (Nephila clavipes?), member of the family Tetragnathidae

Some spiders spin funnel-shaped webs, others make sheet webs, spiders like the black widow make tangled, maze-like, webs, and still others make the spiral "orb" webs that are most commonly associated with spiders. These webs may be made with sticky capture silk, or with "fluffy" capture silk, depending on the type of spider. Webs may be in a vertical plane (most orb webs), a horizontal plane (sheet webs), or at any angle in between. Most commonly found in the sheet-web spider families, some webs will have loose, irregular tangles of silk above them. These tangled obstacle courses serve to disorient and knock down flying insects, making them more vulnerable to being trapped on the web below. They may also help to protect the spider from aerial predators such as birds and wasps. Spider web with morning dew enhancing its visibility. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Spider01250. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Spider01250. ... Download high resolution version (2148x1611, 564 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Spider Long-jawed orb weaver User:Jacobolus Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Animals/Spiders Categories: Nephila ... Download high resolution version (2148x1611, 564 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Talk:Spider Long-jawed orb weaver User:Jacobolus Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Animals/Spiders Categories: Nephila ... Diversity 27 species Species N. clavata N. clavipes N. edulis N. inaurata N. pilipes  many more The golden silk orb-weavers (genus Nephila) are also commonly called golden orb-weavers or banana spiders. ... Genera Leucauge Meta Neophila Tetragnatha The Long-jawed orb weavers or Long jawed spiders constitute the Family Tetragnathidae of the Order Araneae. ... A typical kitchen funnel. ... In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which turns around some central point or axis, getting progressively closer to or farther from it, depending on which way you follow the curve. ...


The spider, after spinning its web, will then wait on, or near, the web for a prey animal to become trapped. The spider can sense the impact and struggle of a prey animal by vibrations transmitted along the web lines.


Other species of spiders do not use webs for capturing prey directly, instead pouncing from concealment (e.g. trapdoor spiders) or running them down in open chase (e.g. wolf spiders). The net-casting spider balances the two methods of running and web-spinning in its feeding habits. This spider weaves a small net which it attaches to its front legs. It then lurks in wait for potential prey and, when such prey arrives, lunges forward to wrap its victim in the net, bite and paralyze it. Hence, this spider expends less energy catching prey than a primitive hunter such as the Wolf spider. It also avoids the energy cost of weaving a large orb-web. The diving bell spider does not use its web directly in prey capture, but has modified it into an underwater diving bell. Even species whose ancestors were building spiral orb webs have given rise to spiders who no longer make webs, for instance some Hawaiian spiny-legged spiders (genus Tetragnatha, family Tetragnathidae) which have abandoned web construction entirely. Diversity 9 genera, 120 species Genera Bothriocyrtum Cyclocosmia Ummidia Cteniza several others, see text Trapdoor spiders (superfamily Ctenizoidea, family Ctenizidae) are medium-sized mygalomorph spiders that construct burrows with a cork-like trapdoor made of soil, vegetation and silk. ... Diversity 104 genera, 2304 species Genera Acantholycosa Adelocosa Agalenocosa Aglaoctenus Algidus Allocosa Allotrochosina Alopecosa Alopecosella Amblyothele Anomalomma Anomalosa Anoteropsis Arctosa Arctosippa Arctosomma Artoria Artoriellula Aulonia Auloniella Brevilabus Bristowiella Camptocosa Caporiaccosa Crocodilosa Cynosa Dejerosa Diapontia Dingosa Dolocosa Donacosa Dorjulopirata Edenticosa Evippa Evippomma Geolycosa Gladicosa Gnatholycosa Hesperocosa Hippasa Hippasella Hippasosa Hogna Hognoides... Net-casting spiders make a small web in the form of a net held by the front legs that can be stretched out wide to envelop an unwary insect passing by. ... Diversity 104 genera, 2304 species Genera Acantholycosa Adelocosa Agalenocosa Aglaoctenus Algidus Allocosa Allotrochosina Alopecosa Alopecosella Amblyothele Anomalomma Anomalosa Anoteropsis Arctosa Arctosippa Arctosomma Artoria Artoriellula Aulonia Auloniella Brevilabus Bristowiella Camptocosa Caporiaccosa Crocodilosa Cynosa Dejerosa Diapontia Dingosa Dolocosa Donacosa Dorjulopirata Edenticosa Evippa Evippomma Geolycosa Gladicosa Gnatholycosa Hesperocosa Hippasa Hippasella Hippasosa Hogna Hognoides... Binomial name Argyroneta aquatica Clerck, 1757 The diving bell spider or water spider, Argyroneta aquatica, is a spider which lives entirely under water, even though it could survive on land. ... Genera Leucauge Meta Neophila Tetragnatha The Long-jawed orb weavers or Long jawed spiders constitute the Family Tetragnathidae of the Order Araneae. ...


Some spiders manage to use the 'signalling snare' technique of a web without spinning a web at all. Several types of water-dwelling spiders will rest their feet on the water's surface in much the same manner as an orb-web user. When an insect falls onto the water and is ensnared by surface tension, the spider can detect the vibrations and run out to capture the prey.


Hunting spiders

Many spiders do not build webs for catching prey. Some examples include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (921x574, 55 KB) Summary Ant mimic spider Bangalore. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (921x574, 55 KB) Summary Ant mimic spider Bangalore. ... A species of jumping spider which imitates and ant by waving its front legs in the air to simulate antennae. ...

Species The Brazilian wandering spider (Phoneutria spp. ... Binomial name Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940 The brown recluse spider is a venomous spider, Loxosceles reclusa, of the family Sicariidae (formerly of the family Loxoscelidae). ... Genera Delena (Flat huntsman spider) Heteropoda (Brown huntsman spider) Holconia (Banded huntsman spider) Isopeda Isopedella Neosparassus (Shield hunstman spider) Pediana Numerous others, see links Huntsman spiders is a common name given to the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae). ... Diversity 553 genera, 5025 species Genera See List of Salticidae genera Wikispecies has information related to: Salticidae The jumping spiders (family Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species. ... Genera Oxyopes (Common lynx spider) Peucetia (Green lynx spider) The Lynx spiders are hunting spiders somewhat similar to the wolf spiders and the jumping spiders. ... Diversity 52 genera, 328 species Genera Pisaura Dolomedes many more Wikispecies has information related to: Pisauridae Nursery web spiders are spiders of the family Pisauridae. ... Genera Scytodes Spitting spiders (Family Scytodidae) are spiders of the genus Scytodes and their relatives. ... Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... Diversity 104 genera, 2304 species Genera Acantholycosa Adelocosa Agalenocosa Aglaoctenus Algidus Allocosa Allotrochosina Alopecosa Alopecosella Amblyothele Anomalomma Anomalosa Anoteropsis Arctosa Arctosippa Arctosomma Artoria Artoriellula Aulonia Auloniella Brevilabus Bristowiella Camptocosa Caporiaccosa Crocodilosa Cynosa Dejerosa Diapontia Dingosa Dolocosa Donacosa Dorjulopirata Edenticosa Evippa Evippomma Geolycosa Gladicosa Gnatholycosa Hesperocosa Hippasa Hippasella Hippasosa Hogna Hognoides... Binomial name Cheiracanthium inclusum Hentz, 1847 The Yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium inclusum) is not a true sac spider (of the family Clubionidae), but a long-legged sac spider, that is, a member of the family Miturgidae that was formerly classified in that group. ... Assassin spider with a victim. ...

Ambush predators

Some actively lure prey (the Bolas spiders) and may capture them with a sticky ball of silk on a line; others (like the crab spiders, trapdoor spiders, or the six-eyed sand spider) wait in a high-traffic area and directly attack their prey from ambush. Diversity 66 species Genera Cladomelea Mastophora Ordgarius Bolas Spiders are unusual orb-weaver spiders that have given up spinning the typical web. ... Genera Misumena Misumenops Misumenoides Thomisius Xysticus Tmarus The true crab spiders are a group of spiders constituting the family Thomisidae or thomisids. ... Diversity 9 genera, 120 species Genera Bothriocyrtum Cyclocosmia Ummidia Cteniza several others, see text Trapdoor spiders (superfamily Ctenizoidea, family Ctenizidae) are medium-sized mygalomorph spiders that construct burrows with a cork-like trapdoor made of soil, vegetation and silk. ... Binomial name Sicarius hahnii Walckenaer, 1847 The six-eyed sand spider (Sicarius hahnii) is a medium-sized spider of deserts and other sandy places in southern Africa. ...


Defense

All spiders will attempt to protect themselves by biting, especially if they are unable to flee. Some tarantulas have a second kind of defense, a patch of urticating hairs, or urticating setae, on their abdomens, which is generally absent on modern spiders and Mesothelae. These ultra-fine hairs causes irritation and sometimes even allergic reactions in the attacker. Certain other species have specialized defense tactics. For example, the golden wheeling spider (Carparachne aureoflava) of the desert of Namibia escapes tarantula hawks (a species of wasp that lays its eggs in a paralyzed spider so the larvae have enough food when they hatch) by flipping onto its side and cartwheeling away. Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... Genera Pepsis Hemipepsis The tarantula hawk is the common name for species in the genera Pepsis and Hemipepsis of the family Pompilidae, in the insect Order Hymenoptera. ... Suborder Symphyta Apocrita See text for families. ...


Social spiders

A few species of spiders that build webs live together in large colonies and show social behavior, albeit not as well evolved as in social insects. The most social species is probably Anelosimus eximius, which can form colonies of up to fifty thousand individuals. This section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Web types

Tangleweb spiders

Members of this group (family Theridiidae) are characterized by irregular, messy-looking, tangled, three-dimensional (non-sticky) webs, generally low and anchored to the ground or floor and wall. They are commonly found in or near buildings; some build webs in bushes. The spider generally hangs in the center of its web, upside-down. Prey is generally ground-dwelling insects such as ants or crickets, in addition to small flying insects. These include the infamous black widows, the minute happyface spider, and thousands of other species. Image File history File links Latrodectus_mactans. ... Image File history File links Latrodectus_mactans. ... For other uses of the name Black Widow, see Black Widow. ... Genera Latrodectus Argyrodes Theridion Steatoda The tangle-web spiders or comb-footed spiders (family Theridiidae) are a large group (over 2000 species in nearly 80 genera) of haphazard web-builders found throughout the world. ... Binomial name Theridion grallator Simon, 1900 Theridion grallator, also known as the happyface spider, is a member of the Theridiidae family. ...


Orb web spiders

Nephila clavata, a golden orb weaver
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Nephila clavata, a golden orb weaver

Spiders in several families (eg., Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, Nephilidae) spin the familiar spiral snare that most people think of as the typical spider web. On average, an orb-weaving spider takes 30 minutes to an hour to weave a web. They range in size from quite large (6+ cm) to very small (<1 cm), but all are quite harmless to humans, beyond the shock entailed from walking into a face-height web and having a large spider dangling from your nose. Many of the daytime hunters have a 'ferocious' appearance, with spines or large 'fangs', but they are almost invariably inoffensive, preferring to drop on a dragline to the ground when disturbed, rather than bite, which can nevertheless be quite painful. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (660x820, 265 KB) Nephila clavata, L. KOCH. - a spider in Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (660x820, 265 KB) Nephila clavata, L. KOCH. - a spider in Japan. ... Binomial name Nephila clavata Nephila clavata is a species of golden orb-web spider. ... Genera many, see text The orb-weaver spiders (family Araneidae) are the familiar builders of spiral wheel-shaped webs often found in gardens, fields and forests. ... Genera Leucauge Meta Neophila Tetragnatha The Long-jawed orb weavers or Long jawed spiders constitute the Family Tetragnathidae of the Order Araneae. ... Diversity 4 genera, 75 species Genera see text The Nephilidae are a spider family with 75 described species in four genera. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Other forms of webs

Many other groups spin webs in a variety of structural styles.


Some (the Linyphiidae) make various forms of bowl- or dome-shaped webs with or without a flat sheet or a tangled web above or below. Some make a flat platform extending from a funnel-shaped retreat, with generally a tangle of silk above the web. The common northern hemisphere 'funnel-web', 'house' or 'grass' spiders are only superficially similar to the notorious Sydney funnel-web spider, and are generally considered to be quite harmless. Some of the more primitive group Atypidae may make tubular webs up the base of trees, from inside which they bite insects that land on the webbing. These spiders look quite ferocious, but are not generally considered to be particularly dangerous to humans. Genera many, see text The bowl and doily and dwarf spiders, also known as money spiders (family Linyphiidae) include nearly 4250 species in over 550 genera worldwide. ... Binomial name Atrax robustus Pickard-Cambridge, 1877 The Sydney funnel-web spider, also called a funnel-web tarantula, (Atrax robustus) is regarded by some to be the most dangerous spider in the world. ... Families See Taxonomy section Spiders are invertebrate animals that produce silk, have eight legs and no wings. ...


Evolution

Main article: Spider evolution

Trigonotarbids, spider-like arachnids, were among the oldest known land arthropods. Like spiders, they were terrestrial, respired through book lungs, and walked on eight legs with two additional legs adapted to use around their mouth. However, they were not true spiders, not even ancestral to them, but represented independent offshoots of the Arachnida. Todays 40,000 described species of spiders are members of the hugely diverse arthropod animal class. ... Trigonotarbids are an extinct group of arachnids whose fossil record extends from the Silurian to the Lower Permian and are known from several localities in Europe and North America. ...


True spiders (thin-waisted arachnids) evolved about 400 million years ago, and were among the first species to live on land. They are distinguished by abdominal segmentation and silk producing spinnerets. The Pedipalpi (including whip scorpions) are believed to constitute the sister group to the Araneae.[7] A spinneret is a spiders silk spinning organ. ... Male European garden spider with swollen pedipalps Pedipalps are a pair of feelers on a spiders face. ... There are three orders of whip scorpions in the class Arachnida: Amblypygi - tailless whip scorpions Palpigradi - micro whip scorpions (less than 3mm) Uropygi - whip scorpions In addition, members of the Schizomida also also sometimes called micro whip scorpions. See also: Pseudoscorpionida - pseudoscorpions Scorpiones - scorpions Schizomida Solifugae - wind scorpions ...


Most of the early segmented fossil spiders belonged to the Mesothelae, a group of primitive spiders with the spinnerets placed underneath the middle of the abdomen, rather than at the end as in modern spiders (Opisthothelae). They were probably ground dwelling predators of other primitive arthropods. Silk may have been used simply as a protective covering for the eggs, a lining for a retreat hole, and later perhaps for simple ground sheet web and trapdoor construction. The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ...


As plant and insect life diversified so also did the spider's use of silk. Spiders with spinnerets at the end of the abdomen (Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae) appeared more than 250 million years ago, presumably promoting the development of more elaborate sheet and maze webs for prey capture both on ground and foliage, as well as the development of the safety dragline. Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ...


By the Jurassic, the sophisticated aerial webs of the orb weaving spiders had already developed to take advantage of the rapidly diversifying groups of insects. A spider web preserved in amber, thought to be 110 million years old, shows evidence of a perfect orb web. The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 200 Ma (million years ago), at the end of the Triassic to 146 Ma, at the beginning of the Cretaceous. ... Spider web with morning dew enhancing its visibility. ...


The ability to weave orb webs is thought to have been "lost", and sometimes even re-evolved or evolved separately, in different breeds of spiders since its first appearance.


Taxonomy

Main article: Spider taxonomy

Almost 40,000 species of spiders (order Araneae) have been identified and are currently grouped into 111 families by arachnologists, but because of difficulties in collecting these often very minute and evasive animals, and because of many specimens stored in collections waiting to be described and classified, it is believed that up to 200,000 species may exist. Diversity 111 families Families see table The Araneae are an order of the arthropod class Arachnida with about 40,000 described species, although there are probably many species that have escaped the human eye to this day, and lots of specimen stored in collections waiting to be described and classified. ... In biology, a species is a kind of organism. ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related organisms such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, altogether called arachnids. ... Look up Specimen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A museum is distinguished a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, education, research, etc. ...


The order is composed of three suborders. In the non-venomous primitive Mesothelae, body segmentation is clearly visible, demonstrating the link of spiders with their segmented arthropod ancestors. The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ...


The two other suborders, the Mygalomorphae (trapdoor spiders, funnel-web spiders, tarantulas) and the Araneomorphae ("modern" spiders), are sometimes grouped together as Opisthothelae. The latter account for about 94% of all spider species. Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ... Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ...


Mesothelae

Main article: Mesothelae
Liphistius sp.
Liphistius sp.
The tarantula Brachypelma smithi
The tarantula Brachypelma smithi

The Mesothelae include the only recent family Liphistiidae. Two more families (Arthrolycosidae and Arthromygalidae) are recognized from fossil evidence only. The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... Image File history File links Liphistius. ... Image File history File links Liphistius. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x640, 28 KB) Beschreibung: Brachypelma smithi, adult, female Fotograf: Jurgen E Haug first upload in en wikipedia on 08:01, 13 Jan 2005 Lizenz: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x640, 28 KB) Beschreibung: Brachypelma smithi, adult, female Fotograf: Jurgen E Haug first upload in en wikipedia on 08:01, 13 Jan 2005 Lizenz: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Binomial name Brachypelma smithi F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 The Mexican redknee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi) is a species of terrestrial tarantula native to Mexico, but might be found in small numbers in neighboring countries. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (748x1006, 235 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spider Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Animals/Spiders Araneoidea ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (748x1006, 235 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Spider Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Animals/Spiders Araneoidea ... Binomial name Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 The European garden spider (Araneus diadematus, cross spider) is a very common and well-known orb-weaver spider in Western Europe. ... The Liphistiidae are the most primitive living spiders, placed in their own suborder, called the Mesothelae. ... Arthrolycosidae is a family of primitive spiders that bear some resemblance to the wolf spiders. ... The Arthromygalidae are primitive spiders that bear some resemblance to the tarantulas. ...


The Liphistiidae are burrowing spiders only found in Southeast Asia, China, and Japan with about 90 species in 5 genera. Spiders of this remnant suborder are very rare, and are among the most "primitive" types of spiders in existence. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Occurring in or characteristic of an early stage of development or evolution. ...


Recent Mesothelae are characterized by the narrow sternum on the ventral side of the prosoma. Several plesiomorphic characters may be useful in recognizing these spiders: there are tergite plates on the dorsal side and the almost-median position of the spinnerets on the ventral side of the opisthosoma. The sternum or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... The cephalothorax is an anatomical term used of arachnid and malacostracan arthropods for the first major body section. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... A tergum (pl. ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lower half. ... A spinneret is a spiders silk spinning organ. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The opisthosoma is the posterior portion of the arachnids body behind the prosoma. ...


Mygalomorphae

Main article: Mygalomorphae

The Mygalomorphae are also called the Orthognatha, referring to the orientation of the fangs which point straight down and do not cross each other (cf Araneomorphae). This suborder includes the heavy bodied, stout legged spiders popularly known as tarantulas as well as the dangerous Australasian funnel-web spiders. They have ample poison glands that lie entirely within their chelicerae. Their chelicerae and fangs are large and powerful. Occasionally members of this suborder will even kill small fish, small mammals, etc. Most members of this suborder occur in the tropics and subtropics, but their range can extend farther toward the poles, e.g. into the southern and western regions of the United States and Canada, the northern parts of Europe and south into Argentina and Chile. Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ... The Cheliceral fang of a spider is so called because the chelicerae of spiders consist of two parts, one containing all or part of the glands that produce the spiders venom and the other part a kind of organic hypodermic needle through which the venom is injected into prey... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ... Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... Genera Atrax Hadronyche Australasian funnel-web spiders are very dangerous spiders of the family Hexathelidae. ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... The chelicerae of spiders are the mouth parts from which the fangs extend. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... The subtropics refers to the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the two tropic zones, which are bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ...


Araneomorphae

Main article: Araneomorphae

The Araneomorphae, (previously called the Labidognatha), are often known as the modern spiders. They are distinguished by having chelicerae that point diagonally forward and cross in a pinching action, in contrast to the Mygalomorphae (tarantulas and their close kin), where they point straight down. Most of the spiders that people encounter in daily life belong to this suborder, which makes up 94% of all spider species. Image File history File linksMetadata Gasteracantha. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gasteracantha. ... Species The spiny orb-weavers (genus Gasteracantha) are a type of spider. ... The Araneomorphae, previously called the Labidognatha, are a suborder of spiders. ... The chelicerae of spiders are the mouth parts from which the fangs extend. ... Families Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider) Atypidae (atypical tarantula) Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider) Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider) Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula) Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula) Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas) Theraphosidae (tarantula) The Mygalomorphae, (also called the Orthognatha), are an infraorder of spiders. ...


There are approximately 95 families in this suborder, ranging from the minute Patu digua (0.37 mm) to the big and flashy Argiope, from the common orb-weaver spiders to the abstruse assassin spiders, from the reclusive tree trapdoor spiders to the inquisitive jumping spiders.
Diversity 111 families Families see table The Araneae are an order of the arthropod class Arachnida with about 40,000 described species, although there are probably many species that have escaped the human eye to this day, and lots of specimen stored in collections waiting to be described and classified. ... Binomial name Patu digua Forster & Platnick, 1977 Patu digua is by some accounts considered to be the smallest spider in the world, with males reaching a body size of about 0. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Diversity 78 species Species A. aetherea A. appensa A. aurantia A. bruennichi A. keyserlingi A. mascordi A. picta many more The genus Argiope includes rather large and spectacular spiders that have often a strikingly coloured abdomen. ... Diversity 166 genera, 2840 species Genera Aculepeira Araneus Araniella Argiope (St Andrews Cross spider) Austracantha Bertrana Celaenia Cladomelea Cyclosa Cyrtophora Dicrostichus Eriophora Gasteracantha (Spiny orb-weavers) Kaira Larinia Larinioides Lewisepeira Mangora Mastophora Metepiera Micrathena Neoscona Nuctenea Ordgarius Perilla Zygiella many others Araneida redirects here. ... Assassin spider with a victim. ... Diversity 10 genera, 91 species Genera see text The tree trapdoor spiders (Migidae) are a spider family with about 90 species in 10 genera. ... Diversity 553 genera, 5025 species Genera See List of Salticidae genera Wikispecies has information related to: Salticidae The jumping spiders (family Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5,000 species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species. ...


Creatures often mistaken for spiders

In addition to the true spiders, there are several arachnids commonly mistaken for spiders, but which are not true spiders. Orders The arachnids, are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ...

  • Camel spider, a species of solifugid (also commonly called sun-spiders or wind-scorpions), are the source of many urban legends. In spite of their bad reputation they are actually harmless to humans, and have no venom.
  • The daddy long-legs or harvestman is a member of the order Opiliones. These round-bodied arachnids have only two eyes and their heads are fused to their bodies. However, the name "daddy long-legs" is sometimes used to refer to cellar spiders, which have a similar leg shape; these are true spiders. Both are also often said to produce a deadly venom. While the harvestmen do not produce venom at all, the cellar spider's venom is completely harmless to humans.

Wind scorpion, Eastern Washington, USA The Camel Spider (aka wind scorpion or sun spider) is the common name for a Solpugid: a large non-spider arachnid that lives in desert regions worldwide. ... Genera Eremobates Syndaesia A Solifugid (plural form Solifugae) is an arachnid belonging to the order Solifugae. ... An urban legend is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... The Phalangids (legacy name) or Opiliones (better known as harvestmen) are eight-legged invertebrate animals belonging to the order Opiliones in the class Arachnida, in the subphylum Chelicerata of the phylum Arthropoda. ... Diversity 80 genera, 959 species Genera Spermaphora many others Check out the Daddy Long Legs at www. ...

Spiders and people

Spider bites

Sydney funnel-web spider
Sydney funnel-web spider
Main article: Spider bite

Most spiders are unlikely to bite humans because they do not identify humans as prey. Spiders, even small ones, may however bite humans when pinched. For instance, a common jumping spider (Family: Salticidae), around ⅜ inch (1 cm) long, when pinched between the folds of a human's palm may inflict a bite that is about as painful as a bee sting. Image File history File linksMetadata Atrax_robustus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Atrax_robustus. ... Families Suborder Mesothelae     Liphistiidae (primitive burrowing spiders) Suborder Mygalomorphae     Atypidae (atypical tarantula)     Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider)     Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas)     Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula)     Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula)     Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider)     Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider)     Theraphosidae (tarantula) Suborder Araneomorphae     Hypochilidae (lampshade spider)     Filistatidae (crevice weaver)     Sicariidae (recluse spider)     Scytodidae (spitting...


Spiders in the world which have been linked to fatalities in humans, or have been shown to have potentially fatal bites by toxicology studies of their venom, include:

Spiders which likely are not deadly to humans, but which are nonetheless medically significant include: Species The Brazilian wandering spider (Phoneutria spp. ... Genera Atrax Hadronyche Australasian funnel-web spiders are very dangerous spiders of the family Hexathelidae. ... Binomial name Sicarius hahnii Walckenaer, 1847 The six-eyed sand spider (Sicarius hahnii) is a medium-sized spider of deserts and other sandy places in southern Africa. ... Species Approx. ... Genera Loxosceles Sicarius The recluse spiders (family Sicariidae) comprise two genera and 122 species [1], best known being the Brown recluse spider. ...

Spiders which can inflict painful bites (often similar to a bee sting), but whose bites generally do not cause any systemic or long-lasting effects, include: Binomial name Tegenaria agrestis Walckenaer, 1802 The hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) is a member of the genus of spiders known colloquially as funnel web spiders. ... Binomial name Cheiracanthium inclusum Hentz, 1847 The Yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium inclusum) is not a true sac spider (of the family Clubionidae), but a long-legged sac spider, that is, a member of the family Miturgidae that was formerly classified in that group. ... Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... Species Approx. ... A bee sting in the vernacular means a sting of a bee, wasp or hornet. ...

None of these spiders will intentionally "come after you," but they should be removed from one's house to avoid accidental injury. Many authorities warn against spraying poisons indiscriminately to kill all spiders, because doing so may actually remove one of the biological controls against incursions of the more dangerous species by ridding them of their competition. Genera Delena (Flat huntsman spider) Heteropoda (Brown huntsman spider) Holconia (Banded huntsman spider) Isopeda Isopedella Neosparassus (Shield hunstman spider) Pediana Numerous others, see links Huntsman spiders is a common name given to the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae). ... Binomial name Phidippus johnsoni (Peckham & Peckham, 1883) Synonyms Attus johnsonii Dendryphantes johnsoni The redbacked jumping spider (Phidippus johnsoni) is one of the largest and most commonly encountered jumping spider of western North America. ... Binomial name Latrodectus hasselti The red-back spider (Lactrodectus hasselti) is a potentially dangerous spider now found throughout Australia. ...


If dangerous spiders are present in your area, be mindful when moving cardboard boxes and other such objects that may have become the shelter of a poisonous spider. There is no need to be fearful; just do not grab a spider.


Spiders as food

Spiders, especially larger sorts, are eaten routinely or as a delicacy in various parts of the world, including Cambodia, Thailand, the Solomon Islands, and parts of South America. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Arachnophobia

Main article: Arachnophobia

Arachnophobia is a specific phobia, an abnormal fear of spiders. It is among the most common of phobias. The reactions of arachnophobics often seem irrational to others (and sometimes to the sufferers themselves). People with arachnophobia tend to feel uneasy in any area they believe could harbor spiders or that has visible signs of their presence, such as webs. If they see a spider they may not enter the general vicinity until they overcome the panic attack that is often associated with their phobia. They may feel humiliated if such episodes happen in the presence of peers or family members. The fear of spiders can be treated by any of general techniques suggested for specific phobias. Arachnophobia is a specific phobia, an abnormal fear of spiders. ... Specific phobia is a generic term for any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations. ... Families Suborder Mesothelae     Liphistiidae (primitive burrowing spiders) Suborder Mygalomorphae     Atypidae (atypical tarantula)     Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider)     Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas)     Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula)     Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula)     Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider)     Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider)     Theraphosidae (tarantula) Suborder Araneomorphae     Hypochilidae (lampshade spider)     Filistatidae (crevice weaver)     Sicariidae (recluse spider)     Scytodidae (spitting...


Arachnophobia is also the title of a 1990 film, as well as a spin-off video game, in which (fictitious) deadly spiders overrun a small California town. Arachnophobia was an American horror film released in 1990 directed by Frank Marshall and starring John Goodman and Jeff Daniels. ... Arachnophobia is a video game based on the film Arachnophobia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Spiders in symbolism and culture

There are many references to the spider in popular culture, folklore and symbolism. The spider symbolizes patience for its hunting with web traps, and mischief and malice for its poison and the slow death this causes. It symbolizes possessiveness for its spinning its prey into a ball and taking it to its burrow (for burrowing species). There are many references to the spider in popular culture, folklore and symbolism. ...


See also

Almost 40,000 types of spiders are known to exist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ Diaz, James H. (2004). The global epidemiology, syndromic classification, management, and prevention of spider bites. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71 (2): 239-250.
  2. ^ a b c Oxford, G.S. & Gillespie, R.G. (1998). Evolution and Ecology of Spider Coloration. Annual Review of Entomology 43:619-643. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.619
  3. ^ a b Foelix, Rainer F (1996). Biology of Spiders, 2nd edition.
  4. ^ Knoflach, B. & van Harten, A. (2001). Tidarren argo sp. nov. (Araneae: Theridiidae) and its exceptional copulatory behaviour: emasculation, male palpal organ as a mating plug and sexual cannibalism. Journal of Zoology 254: 449–459. DOI:10.1017/S0952836901000954.
  5. ^ Andrade, Maydianne C.B. (2003). Risky mate search and male self-sacrifice in redback spiders. Behavioral Ecology 14: 531–538.
  6. ^ a b Jackson, R.R. et al. (2001). Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) that feed on nectar (PDF). J. Zool. Lond. 255: 25-29.
  7. ^ Coddington, J.A. & Levi, H.W. (1991). Systematics and Evolution of Spiders (Araneae). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 22: 565-592.
  • W. S. Bristowe (1976). The World of Spiders. Taplinger Pub Co. ISBN 0-8008-8598-8.
  • Crompton, John. The Life of the Spider, Mentor, 1950.
  • Hillyard, Paul. The Book of the Spider, Random House, New York, 1994.
  • Kaston, B. J. How to Know the Spiders, Dubuque, 1953.
  • Main, Barbara York. Spiders, Collins (The Australian Naturalist Library), Sydney, 1976.
  • Ubick, Darrell; Pierre Paquin, Paula E. Cushing, and Vincent Roth. Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual, American Arachnological Society, 2005.
  • Wise, David H. "Spiders in Ecological Webs." Cambridge University Press. Great Britain: 1993.

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  • Histology of Salticid Spiders

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