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Encyclopedia > Opiate
For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid.
Scoring the poppy pod.
Scoring the poppy pod.

In medicine, the term opiate describes any of the narcotic alkaloids found in opium. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... An opiate is any of the narcotic alkaloids found in opium. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Harvesting opium poppy US govt site, [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Opium Opium poppy Categories: United States government images ... Harvesting opium poppy US govt site, [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Opium Opium poppy Categories: United States government images ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... This article is about the drug. ...

Contents

Overview

The main opiates derived from opium are morphine, codeine, thebaine, and Papaverine. Noscapine, narceine and approximately 25 other alkaloids are also present, but have essentially little to no effect on the central nervous system, and are not usually considered to be opiates. This article is about the drug. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Papaverine is an opium alkaloid used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the heart and the brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... Noscapine (also known as Narcotine) is an opioid agonist without significant analgesic properties [1]. It is grouped as part of the benzylisoquinolines, of which papaverine is also included. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


The alkaloids

Morphine

Morphine is by far the most prevalent alkaloid in opium, making up anywhere from 10% to 16% of the total mass, and is responsible for many of its potentially harmful effects, such as pulmonary edema, respiratory depression, coma, cardiac and/or respiratory failure, with a normal lethal dose of 120 to 250 mg.[1] (approximately two grams of opium.[2]) However the occurrence of pulmonary edema is uncommon. The most frequently reported occurrences of opiate/opioid induced pulmonary edema are among recreational heroin users.[3][4] Although uncommon, reports of morphine induced pulmonary edema are not unheard of.[5] The primary difference being the more careful supervision of morphine administration compared to the lack of supervision and medical expertise among illicit heroin users. Conversely, morphine may also be used in the treatment of pulmonary edema.[6][7] Despite morphine being the most medically significant alkaloid, larger quantities of the milder codeine—most of it manufactured from morphine—are consumed medically. This article is about the drug. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ...


The expression of the morphine content of opium as a percentage depends in part on the moisture content. When the government purchases the opium as soon as practicable after it is collected, the moisture content is then usually about 30%. Commercial opium usually has around 10 to 15% moisture. Opium apparently dried at ordinary temperatures still retains considerable moisture—usually about six percent—which can be driven off at about 103 degrees Celsius.


The quantity of morphine produced by poppy plants in the form of opium depends on two factors: the percentage of morphine in the opium, and the quantity of opium produced. The latter factor in turn depends in part on whether each capsule is bled several times, or just once. In Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece and the Balkans, each capsule is bled only once, but in most other opium-producing countries, like Iran, India, and Afghanistan, the capsules are incised repeatedly, often four or five times on different days, until they will yield no more latex. The quantity of latex falls off rapidly with later incisions, and so does the morphine content.[8] Usually, all the opium obtained is mixed together. This is probably the chief reason for the often lower morphine content of Iranian and Indian opiums as compared with Turkish and Balkan opiums, although it must also be recognized that there are low-yielding and high-yielding strains of the poppy, one or the other of which may predominate in a given region. Balkan redirects here. ...


Samples of opium assaying some 15% morphine from Japan, Indochina and Afghanistan, as well as from Turkey, Greece and the Balkans have been examined by the Secretariat. Afghanistan at one time exported two grades of opium, one of about 15% morphine and the other about 10%. The morphine content of dry capsule-chaff is about 0.25% to 0.5%, when not washed out by rain. Here again there are low-yielding and high-yielding varieties, but proper agricultural selection of poppies for morphine production means taking into account not only the percentage yield of morphine, but also the total weight of capsule-chaff produced per hectare, the poppy seed production per hectare, and other factors. Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ...


Most of the licit morphine is used to manufacture codeine through O-methylation. Morphine is also used to manufacture other drugs, such as heroin, dihydromorphine, hydromorphone and many others. Of these, the conversion of morphine to heroin is particularly noteworthy due to heroin's unusual pharmacological properties. The acetylation of morphine's two hydroxyl groups results in a chemically different drug, but nearly identical pharmacological properties, the principal difference being lipid solubility. This increase in lipid solubility allows heroin to enter the brain more rapidly than morphine.[1] As heroin is not pharmacologically active it must first be metabolized. The active metabolites of heroin are morphine and 3-monoacetylmorphine. Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Methylation is a term used in the chemical sciences to denote the attachment or substitution of a methyl group on various substrates. ... Diacetylmorphine (INN), diamorphine (BAN), or more commonly heroin, is a semi-synthetic opioid. ... Dihydromorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid invented in Germany in the first years of the twentieth century. ... Hydromorphone is a drug developed in Germany in the 1920s and introduced to the mass market beginning in 1926. ...


Codeine

The codeine content of opium is related inversely to the morphine content but only in a general way. Codeine yield is closely related to the type of opium produced in a given district or even in some cases in an entire country. The opiums of the principal exporting countries have approximately the following percentages of codeine: Balkans 1.25%; Turkey 1.25%; Iran 3.4%; India 3.0%.


The highest percentages of codeine obtained by the Secretariat (averaging about 4.3%) were found in opium samples which came from north-eastern Asia (Korea, northern China).


The manufacturers’ statistics do not ordinarily show all the codeine obtained from opium. Some of it co-precipitates with the morphine, and there is no necessity of purifying the morphine completely of its codeine content, especially if it is to be used to manufacture more codeine.


Codeine is used to manufacture dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, and others. It may also be used to manufacture the drugs ordinarily made by conversion of thebaine.[2] Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, SS Bron, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine, Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin, Rapacodin, Fortuss, Dico, and DF-118 amongst others, is a semi-synthetic opioid... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (marketed as Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan (or generically Hydromet), Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Novahistex, Hydroco, Tussionex, Vicoprofen, Xodol) is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ...


Thebaine and Papaverine

The United Nations Secretariat is currently engaged in a survey, the most extensive ever attempted in this field, of opium samples from different regions for their thebaine and papaverine percentages. As yet, it is premature for general conclusions. However, the highest thebaine percentages found (nearly 5%) were in some samples from Indochina, which at the same time had virtually no papaverine. Both thebaine and papaverine have been high in most Iranian samples run. Papaverine is low in some Afghan and Indian opiums. Secretariat may refer to: A racehorse who won the Triple Crown in 1973, see Secretariat (horse) In a Communist Party, a Secretariat is a key body that controls the central administration of the party, and if it is a ruling party, the country. ...


Thebaine is the most poisonous opium alkaloid and is scarcely used medically. It is even omitted from some of the preparations of mixed opium alkaloids which are used as soluble substitutes for opium. However, it is converted into several other narcotics which have medical use: hydrocodone, acetyldihydrocodeine, oxycodone, and the highly potent and powerful narcotic, oxymorphone. This article is about the drug. ... Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (marketed as Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan (or generically Hydromet), Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Novahistex, Hydroco, Tussionex, Vicoprofen, Xodol) is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from two of the naturally occurring opiates, codeine and thebaine. ... Acetyldihydrocodeine is an opiate derivative developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... Oxymorphone (Opana, Numorphan) or 14-Hydroxydihydromorphinone is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic that is derived from thebaine, and is approximately 6–8 times more potent than morphine. ...


Papaverine has a considerable medical use, so much so that supplies available from opium have sometimes run short. It is then manufactured synthetically.[3]


Terminology

Opiate has traditionally referred to not only the alkaloids in opium, but also natural and semi-synthetic derivatives of morphine (itself an opiate). The term is often incorrectly used to refer to all drugs with opium- or morphine-like pharmacological action, which are more properly classified under the broader term opioid. This article is about the drug. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ...


References

  1. ^ Mallinckrodt MSDS.
  2. ^ Anil Aggrawal. Narcotic Drugs.
  3. ^ Sporer KA, Dorn E.. Heroin-related noncardiogenic pulmonary edema : a case series..
  4. ^ Steensen P, Jørgensen HS, Juhl B.. Heroin-induced pulmonary edema.
  5. ^ Lethal Acute Pulmonary Edema Following Intravenous Naloxone in A Patient Received Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplantation.
  6. ^ Effectiveness of morphine in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to chlorine gas inhalation..
  7. ^ Mattu A, Martinez JP, Kelly BS.. Modern management of cardiogenic pulmonary edema..
  8. ^ Annett, Harold Edward, "Factors Influencing Alkaloidal Content and Yield of Latex in the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)". Biochemical Journal, 14, 618–36 (1920).

  Results from FactBites:
 
TheBostonChannel.com - Health Encyclopedia - Opiate Withdrawal (887 words)
Opiate withdrawal is caused by stopping, or dramatically reducing, opiate use after heavy and prolonged use (several weeks or more).
About 9% of the population is believed to misuse opiates over the course of their lifetime, including illegal drugs like heroin and prescribed pain medications such as Oxycontin.
Because opiate withdrawal produces vomiting, and vomiting during anesthesia significantly increases death risk, many specialists think the risks of this procedure significantly outweigh the potential (and unproven) benefits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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