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Encyclopedia > Ophthalmoscope

The ophthalmoscope, invented by Hermann von Helmholtz, is an instrument used to examine the eye. Its use is crucial in determining the health of the retina and the vitreous humor. Hermann von Helmholtz Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Vitreous humour is the clear gel that fills the eyeball, lying between the lens and the retina in the eye. ...


In 1915, inventors Willam Noah Allyn and Dr. Frederick Welch invented the world's first hand-held direct illuminating ophthalmoscope, precurser to the device now used by clinicians around the world. This refinement and updating of von Helmoltz's invention enabled ophthalmoscopy to become one of the most ubiqutous medical screening techniques in the world today. The company started as a result of this invention is Welch Allyn, today a leading manufacturers of medical products and the largest manufacturer of ophthalmoscopes in the world. In 2001 the company "reinvented" the ophthalmoscope with the introduction of the PanOptic, an innovative and patented new optical design called Axial PointSourceâ„¢ Optics. This enabling technology makes it easier to enter small pupils and provides a dramatically wider, more panoramic view of the fundus that's 5X larger than ever before achieved with a standard ophthalmoscope in an undilated eye. Welch Allyn, Inc. ...


In patients with headaches, the finding of swollen optic discs, or papilledema, on ophthalmoscopy is a key sign, as this indicates raised intracranial pressure (ICP) which could be due to hydrocephalus, benign intracranial hypertension (aka pseudotumor cerebri) or brain tumor, amongst other conditions. Cupped optic discs are seen in glaucoma. A headache (medically known as cephalgia) is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point in the eye where the optic nerve fibres enters the retina; it is not sensitive to light. ... Papilledema is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure. ... Intracranial pressure, or ICP, is the pressure of the brain, Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains blood supply within the intracranial space. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... A brain tumour is any intracranial mass created by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells either normally found in the brain itself: neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and...


In patients with diabetes mellitus, regular ophthalmoscopic eye examinations (once every 6 months to 1 year) is mandatory to screen for diabetic retinopathy as visual loss due to diabetes can be prevented by retinal laser treatment if retinopathy is spotted early. Diabetes mellitus is a medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels), especially after eating. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ...


In arterial hypertension, hypertensive changes of the retina closely mimic those in the brain, and may predict cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ...


There are numerous companies that manufacture direct ophthalmoscopes.


Types

  • Direct ophthalmoscope
  • Indirect ophthalmoscope
  • Binocular indirect ophthalmoscope
  • Monocular indirect ophthalmoscope

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ophthalmoscope definition - Eye Disorders including cataracts, Lasik eye surgery, blindness, glaucoma and eye allergy (445 words)
Ophthalmoscope: A lighted instrument, one of the most important tools of the physician, used to examine the interior of the eye, including the lens, retina and optic nerve.
Helmholtz demonstrated the principle of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 using a crude device (cardboard, glue, and microscope glass plates).
By means of his ophthalmoscope, Helmholtz could place the eye of the observer in the path of the rays of light entering and leaving the patient's eye, allowing the patient's retina to be seen.
ophthalmoscope - Encyclopedia.com (1021 words)
ophthalmoscope, instrument used for examining the inner structure of the eye.
The ophthalmoscope is equipped with a rotating disc of lenses to permit observation of the eye at varying depths and magnifications.
A new digital ophthalmoscope about the size of a mobile phone is being created by a team led by scientists from the university in Gibbet Hill, Coventry...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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