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Encyclopedia > Ophthalmology
A phoropter in use.
A phoropter in use.
Slit lamp examination of eyes in an Ophthalmology Clinic
Slit lamp examination of eyes in an Ophthalmology Clinic

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eye, brain, and areas surrounding the eye, such as the lacrimal system and eyelids. The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word, thought or discourse; ophthalmology literally means "The science of eyes." As a discipline it applies to animal eyes also, since the differences from human practice are surprisingly minor and are related mainly to differences in anatomy or prevalence, not differences in disease processes. However, veterinary medicine is regulated separately in many countries and states/provinces resulting in few ophthalmologists treating both humans and animals. By convention the term ophthalmologist is more restricted and implies a medically trained specialist. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are generally categorized as physicians and surgeons. Ophthalmology may refer to: A branch of medicine called ophthalmology. ... Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 302 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 302 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A refractor in use The name and shape of the PHOROPTOR® is a registered trademark of Reichert, Inc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2180x1597, 389 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ophthalmology Eye examination Slit lamp Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2180x1597, 389 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ophthalmology Eye examination Slit lamp Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The slit-lamp examination looks at structures that are at the front of the eye (the anterior segment): The eyelid, the sclera (white outer structure of the eye), conjunctiva (membranes lining the eyelid and sclera surface), iris (colored part of the eye), natural crystalline lens, and the cornea (thin transparent... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...

Contents

History of ophthalmology

The eye, including its structure and mechanism, has fascinated scientists and the public in general since ancient times. The majority of all input to the brain comes from vision. Many of the expressions in the English language that mean to understand are equivalent vision terms. "I see", to mean I understand. Many patients when told that they may have an eye problem will be more concerned about diseases that affect vision than other, more lethal diseases. Being deprived of sight can have a devastating effect on the psyche, as well as economic and social effects, as many blind individuals require significant assistance with activities of daily living and are often unable to continue gainful employment previously held while seeing.


The maintenance of ocular health and correction of eye problems that decrease vision contribute greatly to the ability to appreciate the longer lifespan that all of medicine continues to allow. Given the importance of vision to quality of life, many opthamologists consider their job to be rewarding, as they are often able to restore or improve a patient's sight. As detailed below, advances in diagnosis and treatment of disease, and improved surgical techniques have extended our abilities to restore vision like never before.


Sushruta

Sushruta wrote Sushruta Samhita in about fifth Century BCE in India. He described about 72 ocular diseases as well as several ophthalmological surgical instruments and techniques. Sushruta has been described as the first Indian cataract surgeon. [1] [2] [3] Arab scientists are some of the earliest to have written about and drawn the anatomy of the eye—the earliest known diagram being in Hunain ibn Is-hâq's Book of the Ten Treatises on the Eye. Earlier manuscripts exist which refer to diagrams which are not known to have survived. Current knowledge of the Græco-Roman understanding of the eye is limited, as many manuscripts lacked diagrams. In fact, there are very few Græco-Roman diagrams of the eye still in existence. Thus, it is not clear to which structures the texts refer, and what purpose they were thought to have. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text on surgery, attributed to Sushruta (lived in ca. ...


Pre-Hippocrates

The pre-Hippocratics largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism. They recognized the sclera and transparent cornea running flushly as the outer coating of the eye, with an inner layer with pupil, and a fluid at the centre. It was believed, by Alcamaeon and others, that this fluid was the medium of vision and flowed from the eye to the brain via a tube. Aristotle advanced such ideas with empiricism. He dissected the eyes of animals, and discovering three layers (not two), found that the fluid was of a constant consistency with the lens forming (or congealing) after death, and the surrounding layers were seen to be juxtaposed. He, and his contemporaries, further put forth the existence of three tubes leading from the eye, not one. One tube from each eye met within the skull. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Alcmæon of Croton (mid-Fifth Century BCE) was an Ancient Greek philosopher and medical theorist. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Alexandrian studies

Alexandrian studies extensively contributed to knowledge of the eye. Aëtius tells us that Herophilus dedicated an entire study to the eye which no longer exists. In fact, no manuscripts from the region and time are known to have survived, leading us to rely on Celsius' account—which is seen as a confused account written by a man who did not know the subject matter. From Celsius it is known that the lens had been recognised, and they no longer saw a fluid flowing to the brain through some hollow tube, but likely a continuation of layers of tissue into the brain. Celsius failed to recognise the retina's role, and did not think it was the tissue that continued into the brain. This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Aëtius Amidenus or Aëtius of Amida (Αέτιος Αμιδηνός) was the court physician of Justinian I. His Βιβλία Ιατρικά (#REDIRECT Libri medicinales) document the medical knowledge of the Late Antique period. ... Herophilos, sometimes Latinized Herophilus (335-280 BC), was a Greek physician. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ...


Rufus

Rufus recognised a more modern eye, with conjunctiva, extending as a fourth epithelial layer over the eye. Rufus was the first to recognise a two chambered eye - with one chamber from cornea to lens (filled with water), the other from lens to retina (filled with an egg-white-like substance). Galen remedied some mistakes including the curvature of the cornea and lens, the nature of the optic nerve, and the existence of a posterior chamber. Though this model was roughly a correct but simplistic modern model of the eye, it contained errors. Yet it was not advanced upon again until after Vesalius. A ciliary body was then discovered and the sclera, retina, choroid and cornea were seen to meet at the same point. The two chambers were seen to hold the same fluid as well as the lens being attached to the choroid. Galen continued the notion of a central canal, though he dissected the optic nerve, and saw it was solid, He mistakenly counted seven optical muscles, one too many. He also knew of the tear ducts. Rufus of Ephesus (fl. ... The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Andreas Vesalius (Brussels, December 31, 1514 - Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). ... Schematic diagram of the human eye The ciliary body is the part of the eye containing the ciliary muscle and ciliary processes. ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ...


After Galen

After Galen a period of speculation is again noted by Arab scientists - the lens modified Galen's model to place the lens in the middle of the eye, a notion which lasted until Vesalius reversed the era of speculation. However, Vesalius was not an ophthalmologist and taught that the eye was a more primitive notion than the notion of both Galen and the Arabian scientists - the cornea was not seen as being of greater curvature and the posterior side of the lens wasn't seen to be larger. For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Understanding of the eye had been so slow to develop because for a long time the lens was perceived to be the seat of vision, not as part of the pathway for vision. This mistake was corrected when Fabricius and his successors correctly placed the lens and developed the modern notion of the structure of the eye. They removed the idea of Galen's seventh muscle (the retractor bulbi) and reinstated the correct curvatures of the lens and cornea, as well as stating the ciliary body as a connective structure between the lens and the choroid. Girolamo Fabrizi d Acquapendente. ...


Muslim ophthalmology

Of all the branches of Islamic medicine, ophthalmology was considered the foremost. The specialized instruments used in their operations ran into scores. Innovations such as the “injection syringe”, invented by Ammar ibn Ali of Mosul, which was used for the extraction by suction of soft cataracts, were quite common. Ibn al-Haytham, the "father of optics", studied the anatomy of the eye extensively. The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Seventeenth and eighteenth century

The seventeenth and eighteenth century saw the use of hand-lenses (by Malpighi), microscopes (van Leeuwenhoek), preparations for fixing the eye for study (Ruysch) and later the freezing of the eye (Petit). This allowed for detailed study of the eye and an advanced model. Some mistakes persisted such as: why the pupil changed size (seen to be vessels of the iris filling with blood), the existence of the posterior chamber, and of course the nature of the retina. In 1722 Leeuwenhoek noted the existence of rods and cones though they were not properly discovered until Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus in 1834 by use of a microscope. Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ... Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (February 4, 1776 - February 16, 1837) was a German naturalist. ...


Ophthalmic surgery in Great Britain

The first ophthalmic surgeon in Great Britain was John Freke, appointed to the position by the Governors of St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1727, but the establishment of the first dedicated ophthalmic hospital in 1805 - now called Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, England was a transforming event in modern ophthalmology. Clinical developments at Moorfields and the founding of the Institute of Ophthalmology by Sir Stewart Duke-Elder established the site as the largest eye hospital in the world and a nexus for ophthalmic research. John Freke (1688-1756) was an English surgeon. ... The King Henry VIII Gate at Barts, which was constructed in 1702. ... Moorfields Eye Hospital. ...


Professional requirements

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors (M.D.) or Doctors of Osteopathy (D.O.) who have completed medical school and completed a further four years post-graduate training in ophthalmology in many countries. Many ophthalmologists also undergo additional specialized training in one of the many subspecialities. Ophthalmology was the first branch of medicine to offer board certification, now a standard practice among all specialties. The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ...


United States

In the United States, four years of training after medical school are required, with the first year being an internship in surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, or a general transition year. The scope of a physician's licensure is such that he or she need not be board certified in ophthalmology to practice as an ophthalmologist. The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) promotes the use of the phrase "Eye MD" to distinguish ophthalmologists from optometrists who hold the degree OD (Doctor of Optometry). This, however, can lead to confusion among patients, since a few ophthalmologists' are DOs, or Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine, rather than MDs. In both cases, the same residency and certification requirements must be fulfilled. Completing the requirements of continuing medical education is mandatory for continuing licensure and re-certification. Professional bodies like the AAO and ASCRS organize conferences and help members through CME programs to maintain certification, in addition to political advocacy and peer support. The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) is a medical association of ophthalmologists–medical doctors (MDs) specializing in eye care and surgery). ... Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is a health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, vision, visual system and vision information processing in humans. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, there are four colleges that grant postgraduate degrees in ophthalmology. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists grants MRCOphth and FRCOphth (postgraduate exams), the Royal College of Edinburgh grants MRCSEd, the Royal College of Glasgow grants FRCS and Royal College of Ireland grants FRCSI. Work experience as a specialist registrar and one of these degrees is required for specialisation in eye diseases. A specialist registrar is a doctor in the United Kingdom who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field of medicine in order to eventually become a consultant. ...


Australia and New Zealand

In Australia and New Zealand, the FRACO/FRANZCO is the equivalent postgraduate specialist qualification. Overseas-trained Ophthalmologists are assessed using the pathway published on the RANZCO website. Those who have completed their formal training in the UK and have the CCST/CCT are usually deemed to be comparable.


On case by case basis, suitably-qualified Ophthalmologists are permitted to work in Area of Need positions, usually in regional areas.


India

In India, after completing MBBS degree, post-graduation in Ophthalmology is required. The degrees are Doctor of Medicine (MD), Master of Surgery (MS), Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery (DOMS) or Diplomate of National Board (DNB). The concurrent training and work experience is in the form of a Junior Residency at a Medical College, Eye Hospital or Institution under the supervision of experienced faculty. Further work experience in form of fellowship, registrar or senior resident refines the skills of these eye surgeons. All India Ophthalmological Society (AIOS) and various state level Ophthalmological Societies (like DOS) hold regular conferences and actively promote continuing medical education. Royal colleges of the united kingdom, mainly Royal college of surgeons of Edinburgh(RCSEd), Royal College of ophthalmologists(RCOphth) and Royal college of physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow(RCPSG) are conducting their fellowship and membership examinations since mid 1990s and awarding fellowships and memberships to the successful candidates.


Pakistan

In Pakistan, there is a residency program leading into FCPS which is composed of two parts.


Canada

In Canada, an Ophthalmology residency after medical school. A minimum of 5 years after the MD. degree although subspecialty training is undertaken by about 30% of fellows (FRCSC). There are about 30 vacancies per year for ophthalmology training in all of Canada.


Finland

In Finland, physicians willing to become ophthalmologists must undergo a 5 year specialization which includes practical training and theoretical studies.


Veterinary

Formal specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology now exist in some countries [4] [5] [6]. Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Distinction from Optometry

Ophthalmologists are trained and licensed to perform surgery and prescribe ocular, oral and systemic medications. They can manage diseases and conditions of the eye, the visual pathway, and structures surrounding the eye, with medical and/or surgical treatments. For example this may include:

  • examining, ordering lab tests and imaging studies for the diagnosis of different eye and orbit diseases.
  • prescribing topical, systemic, and injectable medications.
  • performing laser and incisional surgery (such as trabeculoplasty,iridotomy, and trabeculotomy) surgery for glaucoma
  • cataract extraction with intra-ocular lens replacement for cataracts,
  • laser refractive surgery on cornea for refractive error remediation
  • extra-ocular muscle surgery for strabismus,
  • laser and incisional surgery for some retinal diseases
  • excision or biopsy of tumors on eyelid or in the eye
  • prescribing temporary topical medical treatment for amblyopia

Optometrists, are optometric doctors rather than medical doctors. Optometrists usually receive 4-5 years training in vision science, eye health and optometry-related areas, sometimes following a bachelor's degree (usually in science) in some countries. (In the USA, all optometrists attend optometry school for 4 years FOLLOWING their bachelors degree) An iridectomy, also known as a surgical iridectomy or corectomy, is the surgical removal of part of the iris[1][2]. These procedures are most frequently performed in the treatment of closed-angle glaucoma and iris melanoma[2]. // In acute angle closure glauocma cases, surgical iridectomy has been superseded by... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... An intraocular lens (IOL) is an implanted lens in the eye, usually replacing the existing crystalline lens because it has been clouded over by a cataract, or as a form of refractive surgery to change the eyes optical power. ... Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Optometry - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Optometry - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The two fields often have a mutually beneficial relationship.

  • Both optometrists and ophthalmologists perform screening for common ocular problems affecting children (i.e., amblyopia and strabismus) and the adult population (cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy). Optometrists may refer to ophthalmology for further assessment and medical treatment of ocular diseases; however, in the USA, most optometrists now treat many medical conditions, including early glaucoma, with topical medications.
  • Ophthalmologists may refer patients to optometrists for optical aids or low vision rehabilitation whilst continuing to treat the ocular disease/condition that may have reduced vision. While both ophthalmologists and optometrists are trained in refraction for glasses, it is generally accepted that optometrists receive more thorough training in prescribing optical aids such as spectacles, contact lens and magnifiers.

Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ... Low vision is alternatively a general term used to describe lowered visual acuity, and a specific legal term in Canada and the United States used to designate someone with vision of 20/70 or less in the better eye with correction. ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual training, vision training, or visual therapy, is a method attempting to correct or improve presumed ocular, visual processing, and perceptual disorders. ...

Sub-specialities

Extraocular muscle surgery for strabismus (Inferior rectus muscle here) in progress
Extraocular muscle surgery for strabismus (Inferior rectus muscle here) in progress

Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. Some of them are: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2277x1484, 347 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ophthalmology Strabismus Eye surgery Strabismus surgery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2277x1484, 347 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ophthalmology Strabismus Eye surgery Strabismus surgery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit that depresses, adducts, and rotates the eye laterally. ...

  • Anterior segment surgery
  • Cataract - not considered a subspecialty per se, since most general ophthalmologists do surgery for this.
  • Cornea, ocular surface, and external disease

anterior segment ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Neuro-ophthalmology is the subspecialty of both neurology and ophthalmology concerning visual problems that are related to the nervous system [1]. A neuro-ophthalmologist is a physician or optometrist specializing in diseases affecting vision that originate from the nervous system. ... Ocular oncology is the branch of medicine dealing with tumors relating to the eye and its adnexa. ... Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, is a subspecialty of ophthalmology that includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, and the face. ... Opthalmic pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes. ... Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases and vision care in children. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ... The posterior segment is the back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all structures behind it: the vitreous humor, retina, choroid, and optic nerve. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ...

Ophthalmic surgery

Eye surgery in the middle ages. ...

Famous ophthalmologists

See also: Category:Ophthalmologists.

  • Jules Stein born in Chicago, attended Rush Medical College, and moved to Los Angeles after training in ophthalmology. Instead of medicine, his career turned to the music industry. He founded the Music Corporation of America, or MCA Records, which went on to become the largest Hollywood media conglomerate of its time. Dr. Stein had a philanthropic role in the specialty of ophthalmology, encouraging the formation of the National Eye Institute (NEI), substantially created the Research to Prevent Blindness organization, that went on to provide large funds to independent ophthalmology academic departments to allow for the construction of eye institutes across the United States. His most famous contribution was to fund the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute in Los Angeles, which is recognized as one of the top 5 eye hospitals in the United states, as well as one of the top 5 ophthalmology programs in the United States.
  • Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, born in Mosul (Iraq) and worked in Egypt, described c.1000 AD the first cataract extraction using aspiration with a hollow needle.
  • William Horatio Bates (USA) Creator of the unorthodox Bates Method, credited for being the founder of the Natural Vision Improvement movement.
  • Marie Colinet, wife of Wilhelm Fabry, employs a magnet for removing a foreign body from the eye, 1627.
  • Jacques Daviel (France) claimed to be the 'father' of modern cataract surgery in that he performed extracapsular extraction instead of needling the cataract or pushing it back into the vitreous. It is said that he carried out the technique on 206 patients in 1752-3, out of which 182 were reported to be successful. These figures are not very credible, given the total lack of both anaesthesia and aseptic technique at that time.
  • Chevalier De Tadini (Italy), cited in the memoirs of Giacomo Casanova as the first ophthalmologist proposing (1764-65) the replacement of the cataract by an artificial lens.
  • Florent Cunier (Belgium) founded the world's first ophthalmologic journal, Annales d'Oculistique, 1838.
  • Albrecht von Graefe (Germany) Along with Helmholtz and Donders, one of the 'founding fathers' of ophthalmology as a specialty. A brilliant clinician and charismatic teacher who had an international influence on the development of ophthalmology. A pioneer in mapping visual field defects and diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Introduced a cataract extraction technique that remained the standard for over 100 years, and many other important surgical techniques such as iridectomy. Rationalised the use of many ophthalmically important drugs, including mydriatics & miotics. The founder of the one of the earliest ophthalmic societies (German Ophthalmological Society, 1857) and one of the earliest ophthalmic journals (Graefe's Archives of Ophthalmology). The most important ophthalmologist of the nineteenth century.
  • Allvar Gullstrand (Sweden), Nobel Prize winner in 1911 for his research on the eye as a light-refracting apparatus. Described the schematic eye a mathematical model of the human eye based on his measurements known as the optical constants of the eye. His measurements are still used today.
  • Hermann von Helmholtz, great German polymath, invented the ophthalmoscope (1851) and published important work on physiological optics, including colour vision (1850s).
  • Frans Cornelis Donders (Dutch) published pioneering analyses of ocular biomechanics, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and physiological optics. Made possible the prescribing of combinations of spherical and cylindrical lenses to treat astigmatism.
  • Hermann Snellen (Netherlands) introduced the Snellen chart to study visual acuity.
  • Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the elder (Austrian) proved that myopia is largely due to an excessive axial length, published influential textbooks on eye disease, and ran annual eye clinics in needy areas long before the concept of volunteer eye camps became popular. His name is still attached to some disease signs, eg, von Arlt's line in trachoma. His son Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the younger, was also an ophthalmologist.
  • Vladimir Petrovich Filatov (Ukraine) (1875-1956) His contributions to the medical world include the tube flap grafting method, corneal transplantation and preservation of grafts from cadaver eyes and tissue therapy. He founded The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy, Odessa, one of the leading eye care institutes in the world.
  • Sir William Adams (UK) Founder of Exeter's West of England Eye Infirmary.
  • Ignacio Barraquer (Spain, 1884-1965),invented in 1917 the first motorized vacuum instrument (erisophake) for intracapsular cataract extraction. Founder of the Barraquer Clinic (1941) and the Barraquer Institute (1947) in Barcelona, Spain.
  • Alan C. Bird (UK) pioneer in medical retina and ophthalmic genetics in the second half of the twentieth century. Based at Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Institute of Ophthalmology at University College London.
  • Sir Stewart Duke-Elder (UK) Author of System of Ophthalmology, an immensely influential mid-20th century multivolume compendium of ophthalmic history, embryology, comparative ophthalmology, refraction, ocular basic sciences, medical ophthalmology and therapeutics, but avoiding discussion of surgical techniques (which he viewed as ephemera). Consultant at Moorfields Eye Hospital and founder of the Institute of Ophthalmology (now an integral part of University College London)
  • Ramon Castroviejo (Spain) pioneer in corneal transplantation surgery.
  • Tsutomu Sato (Japan), pioneer in incisional refractive surgery, including techniques for astigmatism and the invention of radial keratotomyfor myopia.
  • Jules Gonin (Switzerland)"father of retinal detachment surgery"
  • Sir Harold Ridley (UK) may have been the first to successfully implant an artificial intraocular lens 1949, after observing that plastic fragments in the eyes of wartime pilots were well tolerated. He fought for decades against strong reactionary opinions to have the concept accepted as feasible and useful.
  • Charles Schepens (Belgium), "father of modern retinal surgery", developer of the Schepens indirect binocular ophthalmoscope whilst at Moorfields Eye Hospital, founder of the Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, USA. This premier research institute is associated with Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary.
  • Meyer-Schwickerath (Germany), "father of light(laser)surgery in ophthalmology".
  • Marshall M. Parks, "father of pediatric ophthalmology".
  • José Ignacio Barraquer (Spain, 1916-1998), "father of modern refractive surgery", developed in the 1960s lamellar techniques including keratomileusis and keratophakia, as well as the first microkeratome and corneal microlathe.
  • Joaquín Barraquer (Spain, 1927), discovered in 1958 enzymatic zonulolyisis facilitating intracapsular cataract extraction. Pioneer in intraocular lens implantation, corneal transplantation and eye banking.
  • J. Donald M. Gass, M.D., widely regarded as the "Father of Macular Diseases", was Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Emeritus at Vanderbilt University, and one of the world's most respected experts on diseases of the retina, macula and uvea. He was named one of the 10 most influential ophthalmologists of the 20th century by the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery in a poll of nearly 33,000 ophthalmologists around the world.
  • Tadeusz Krwawicz (Poland), developed in 1961 the first cryoprobe for intracapsular cataract extraction.
  • Svyatoslav Fyodorov (Russia) popularizer of radial keratotomy
  • Charles Kelman (United States) developed the ultrasound and mechanized irrigation/aspiration system for phacoemulsification, first allowing cataract extraction through a small incision.
  • P.Siva Reddy (India) holds the world record for the highest number of cataract operations by an individual doctor.
  • Morton F. Goldberg a leader of American ophthalmology, made many contributions in understanding and treatment of ocular genetics, retinal diseases, and ocular trauma. [7]
  • Robert Machemer (Germany, USA), "father of modern vitreoretinal surgery"[8]
  • Ioannis Pallikaris (Greece), performed the first laser assisted intrastromal keratomileusis or LASIK surgery.
  • Fred Hollows (New Zealand/Australia) pioneered programs in Nepal, Eritrea, and Vietnam, and among Australian aborigines, including the establishment of cheap laboratory production of intraocular lenses in Nepal and Eritrea.
  • P.Srirama Prasad (India) pioneered programs and operations for treating people with partial and complete blindness, and people suffering from cataract, including conduction of free eye check up camps and cheap medicines in Hyderabad, India.
  • Ian Constable (Australia) founded the Lions Eye Institute in Perth, Western Australia, the largest eye research institute in the southern hemisphere and home to 10 ophthalmologists.
  • Charles E. Iliff III (USA 1911-1997) renowned for his groundbreaking work in oculoplastics, cataract surgery, and corneal transplantation that contributed much to the standards of modern eye medicine. The Charles E. Iliff III, M.D. Professorship in Ophthalmology was created in his honor at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins University.
  • L. L. Zamenhof, Poland - Creator of the language Esperanto.
  • Bashar al-Assad is the Syrian President. He did his ophthalmology residency in a London hospital.

Dr. Jules C. Stein (April 26, 1896 – April 29, 1981) was an American musician, physician, and business leader. ... Rush Medical College (often referred to simply as Rush) is the medical school of Rush University, a private university in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Music Corporation of America was a United States based corporation in the music business. ... MCA Records was an American-based record company owned by MCA Inc. ... The National Eye Institute (NEI) is one of the US National Institutes of Health that was established in 1968. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... The Jules Stein Eye Institute, founded by MCA founder Jules Stein, functions as the department of ophthalmology for the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... William Horatio Bates (December 23, 1860 - July 10, 1931) was an American physician and ophthalmologist who developed what is now known as the Bates Method of natural vision improvement [1], a collection of techniques and exercises intended to improve vision. ... The Bates method of natural vision improvement is a program created by ophthalmologist William Horatio Bates, M.D., which aims to correct what Bates, and teachers of the Bates method, see as faulty vision habits through relaxation techniques, exercises and optional activities and games. ... Marie Colinet (Fabry) (ca. ... Wilhelm Fabry (also William Fabry, Guilelmus Fabricius Hildanus, or Fabricius von Hilden) (June 25, 1560 in Hilden-1634). ... Jacques Daviel (11 August 1696 -30 September 1762[1]) was a French ophthalmologist credited with originating the first significant advance in cataract surgery since couching was invented in ancient India. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Casanova redirects here. ... Albrecht von Gräfe (May 22, 1828 - July 20, 1870), German oculist, son of Karl Ferdinand von Gräfe, was born at Berlin. ... Allvar Gullstrand Allvar Gullstrand (June 5, 1862 in Landskrona – July 28, 1930 in Stockholm) was a Swedish ophthalmologist. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Franciscus Cornelis Donders Franciscus Cornelis Donders (Tilburg, May 27, 1818 - Utrecht, March 24, 1889) was a Dutch ophthalmologist and medical scientist who did pioneering work on animal and vegetable heat, among many other things. ... Herman Snellen (1834-1908) was a Dutch ophthalmologist who introduced the Snellen chart to study visual acuity (1862). ... Traditional Snellen chart. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt (April 18, 1812 - March 7, 1887) was an Austrian ophthalmologist who was born in Obergraupen, a village near Teplitz in Bohemia. ... Volodymyr Filatov (1875-1956) was an outstanding ophthalmologist and surgeon whose greatest discovery was a tissue therapy - a principally new medical treatment method. ... The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy is a large ophthalmology (eye) clinic at Frantsuzsky Boulevard 49/51 in Odessa, Ukraine. ... Sir William Adams (1783–1827) also known as Sir William Rawson after 1825. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Ignacio Barraquer (March 25, 1884 - May 13, 1965) was a Spanish ophthalmologist known for his contributions to the advancement of cataract surgery. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Tsutomu Sato refers to: Tsutomu Sato (politician) - politician Tsutomu Sato (ophthalmologist) - ophthalmologist Tsutomu Sato - commanding officer of Japanese battleship Fusō See also: Sato Category: ... Radial keratotomy (RK) is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia. ... --Gurubrahma 04:11, 6 January 2006 (UTC) Category: ... Sir (Nicholas) Harold (Lloyd) Ridley (10 July 1906, Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire – 25 May 2001, Salisbury, Wiltshire) was a British ophthalmologist who pioneered artificial intraocular lens transplant surgery for cataract patients. ... Charles L. Schepens (March 13, 1912 - April 6, 2006) was an influential American ophthalmologist regarded by many in the profession as the father of modern retinal surgery[1][2]. Early life: medical training and member of the French Resistance Schepens was born in Mouscron, Belgium in 1912 [1]. He initially... Marshall Miller Parks (1918 - July 25, 2005) was an American ophthalmologist known to many as the father of pediatric ophthalmology.[1] // Parks was born in Old Mission, Michigan to Ruth and Reuben Parks. ... José Ignacio Barraquer (January 24, 1916; Barcelona, Spain – February 13, 1998; Bogotá, Colombia) was an ophthalmologist known to many as the father of modern refractive surgery. Barraquer invented the cryolathe and microkeratome and developed the surgical procedures of keratomileusis and keratophakia. ... Keratomileusis is the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea performed by lifting up the front surface of the eye by forming a thin hinged flap under which the shape of the cornea is changed by using an excimer laser or other surgical device. ... A microkeratome is a precision surgical instrument with an oscillating blade designed for creating the corneal flap in LASIK or ALK surgery. ... A micro lathe is a machine tool used for the complex shaping of metal and other solid materials. ... Tadeusz Krwawicz (1910-1988) was a Polish pioneer in medicine. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (Святослав Николаевич Фёдоров), (August 8, 1927-June 2, 2000) Russian ophthalmologist, eye microsurgeon, creator of Radial keratotomy technique, professor, full member of the Russian... Radial keratotomy (RK) is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia. ... Charles D. Kelman (May 23, 1930 - June 1, 2004) was an ophthalmologist and a pioneer in cataract surgery. ... Phacoemulsification: Cataract surgery, by a temporal approach, using a phacoemulsification probe (in right hand) and chopper(in left hand), being done under operating microscope at a Navy medical center Phacoemulsification refers to modern cataract surgery in which the eyes internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece, and aspirated... Ioannis G. Pallikaris is a Greek ophthalmologist who in 1989 performed the first LASIK procedure on a human eye. ... Keratomileusis is the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea performed by lifting up the front surface of the eye by forming a thin hinged flap under which the shape of the cornea is changed by using an excimer laser or other surgical device. ... LASIK is the acronym for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, a type of refractive laser eye surgery performed by ophthalmologists for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. ... Fred Hollows Frederick Cossom (Fred) Hollows, AC (April 9, 1929 – February 10, 1993) was an ophthalmologist who became known for his work in restoring eyesight for countless thousands of people in Australia and many other countries. ... Ian Jeffrey Constable AO is an Australian ophthalmologist and the founder and director of the Lions Eye Institute in Perth, Western Australia. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... This article is about the language. ... Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born 11 September 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...

See also

Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... An eye care professional is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... Optometry (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is a health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, vision, visual system and vision information processing in humans. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Orthoptics (from the Greek words ortho meaning straight, and optikas meaning vision [1]) is the discipline dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of defective eye coordination, binocular vision, and functional amblyopia by non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical methods, e. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ophthalmology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2686 words)
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eye and brain.
The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word; ophthalmology literally means "The science of eyes." As a discipline it applies to animal eyes also, since the differences from human practice are surprisingly minor and are related mainly to differences in anatomy or prevalence, not differences in disease processes.
Ophthalmology was the first branch of medicine to offer board certification, now a standard practice among all specialties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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