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Encyclopedia > Operation Weserübung

Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germany's assault on Scandinavia during World War II. The name translates as "Weser Exercise", the Weser being a German river. It was the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ...


In the early morning of April 9, 1940Wesertag ("Weser Day") — Germany invaded Denmark and Norway, ostensibly as a defensive maneuver against a planned (and openly discussed) Franco-British occupation of those countries; upon arrival envoys of the invading Germans informed both countries' governments that the Wehrmacht had come to "protect the countries' neutrality" against Franco-British aggression. Big differences in geography, location and climate between the two countries made the actual invasions very dissimilar. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Wehrmacht was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


The invasion fleet's nominal landing time — Weserzeit ("Weser Hour") — was set to 05:15 AM German time, equivalent to 04:15 Norwegian time.

Contents

Background

Starting in the spring of 1939, the British admiralty began to view Scandinavia as a potential theater of war in a future conflict with Germany. The British government was reluctant to engage in another land conflict on the European continent that they believed would be a repeat of World War I. So they began studying a blockade strategy in an attempt to weaken Germany indirectly. The German industrial complex was heavily dependent on the import of iron ore from the Swedish mining district. Much of this ore was shipped through the northern Norwegian port of Narvik. Control of the coast of Norway would also serve to tighten a blockade against Germany. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Missing image Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ...


In October of 1939 the chief of the German navy, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, discussed with Hitler the danger that British bases in Norway would pose, and the possibility of Germany seizing these bases before Britain would. The navy argued that possession of Norway would allow control of the nearby seas and serve as a staging base for future operations against Britain. However, at this time the other branches of the Wehrmacht were not interested, and Hitler had just issued a directive stating the main effort would be spent on a land offensive through the Low Countries. Erich Raeder. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). ...


Toward the end of November, Winston Churchill, as a new member of the British War Cabinet, proposed the mining of Norwegian waters. This would force the ore transports to travel through the open waters of the North Sea, where the British Royal Navy could interdict them. However this proposal was turned down by the dovish Neville Chamberlain and Lord Halifax, due to fear of an adverse reaction among neutral nations such as the United States. After the start of the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in November had changed the diplomatic situation, Churchill again proposed his mining scheme but was once more denied. The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded as... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869–9 November 1940) was a British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937–1940. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... Winter war Conflict World War II Date November 30, 1939 - March 12, 1940 Place Finland Result pyrrhic Soviet victory The Winter War (also known as the Soviet-Finnish War or the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the...


In December, Britain and France began serious planning for sending aid to Finland. Their plan called for a force to be landed at Narvik in northern Norway, the main harbor for Swedish iron ore exports, and to advance across Sweden to reach Finland. Conveniently, this plan would also allow the allied forces to occupy the Swedish iron ore mining district. This plan received the support of both Chamberlain and Halifax. They were counting on the cooperation of Norway, which would alleviate some of the legal issues. However, stern warnings issued to both Norway and Sweden resulted in strongly negative reactions in both countries. Planning for the expedition continued, but the justification for this act was removed when Finland sued for peace in March.


Planning

Convinced of the threat posed by the allies to the iron ore supply, Hitler ordered the German high forces command (OKW) to begin preliminary planning for an invasion of Norway on December 14, 1939. The preliminary plan was named Studie Nord. This initial plan only called for one army division. The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command) was part of the command structure of the Nazi armed forces during World War II. In theory, it served as the military general staff for Adolf Hitlers Third Reich, coordinating the efforts of the German Army...


Between January 14th and 19th the Kriegsmarine formed an expanded version of this plan. They decided upon two key factors. The first was that surprise was essential to reduce the threat of Norwegian resistance (and British intervention). The second was a decision to use the faster German warships, rather than merchant ships, as troop transports for the assault. This would allow all objectives to be occupied simultaneously, as the transport ships only had limited range. This new plan would call for a full army corps, including a mountain division, airborne division, a motorized rifle brigade, and two infantry divisions. The objectives of this force were as follows:

The plan also called for the rapid capture of the kings of Denmark and Norway in the hopes that this would trigger a rapid surrender. County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... County Hordaland Landscape Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Finnmark (Finnmárku in Sami) is a county in the extreme north of Norway, bordering Troms. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... County Troms Landscape Municipality NO-1902 Administrative centre Tromsø Mayor (2004) Herman Kristoffersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,566 km² 2,519 km² 0. ... County Sør-Trøndelag Landscape Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (A) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ...


On February 21, 1940, command of the operation was placed in the hands of General Falkenhorst. Falkenhorst had fought in Finland during World War I and therefore was familiar with arctic warfare. However, he was only to have command of the ground forces, despite Hitler's desire to have a unified command. Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, (January 17, 1885 - June 18, 1968), German General that planned the attack on Denmark and Norway in 1940, Weserübung. ... Missing image Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


The final plan was code-named Operation Weserübung ("Exercise on the Weser") on January 27, 1940. It would be under the command of XXI Group, and include the 3rd mountain division, and five infantry divisions, none of these last having been tested in battle. The initial echelon would consist of three divisions for the assault, with the rest to follow up in the next wave. Three companies of parachuters would be used to seize airfields. The decision to also send the 2nd mountain division was made later. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Initially the plan was to invade Norway and to gain control of Danish airfields by diplomatic means. However, Hitler issued a new directive on March 1 that called for the invasion of both Norway and Denmark. This was the result of the insistance by the Luftwaffe for the need to take fighter bases and sites for air-warning stations. The XXXI Corps was formed for the invasion of Denmark, consisting of two infantry divisions and the 11th motorized brigade. The entire operation would be supported by the X Air Corps, consisting of some 1,000 aircraft of various types.


Preliminaries

In February the British destroyer HMS Cossack boarded the German transport ship Altmark while in Norwegian waters, thereby violating Norwegian neutrality, freeing 300 captive British sailors held also in violation of Norwegian neutrality (the Altmark was obliged to released them as soon as it entered neutral territory, but claimed that no prisoners were on board). Hitler viewed this as a clear sign that Britain would be willing to violate Norwegian neutrality, and so became even more strongly committed to the invasion plan. HMS Cossack (L-03/F-03/G-03) was a Tribal-class destroyer which became famous for the boarding of the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters, and the associated rescue of sailors originally captured by the Admiral Graf Spee. ... The Altmark was a German tanker / unarmed supply vessel, best known for her support of the Admiral Graf Spee and later involvement in the Altmark Incident. ...


On March 12, Britain decided to send an expeditionary force to Norway just as the Winter War was winding down. The expeditionary force began boarding on March 13, but was recalled and the operation cancelled with the end of the Winter War. Instead the British cabinet voted to procede with the mining operation in Norwegian waters, followed by troop landings. Winter war Conflict World War II Date November 30, 1939 - March 12, 1940 Place Finland Result pyrrhic Soviet victory The Winter War (also known as the Soviet-Finnish War or the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the...


The first German ships set sail for the invasion on April 3, and on April 8 a British destroyer began laying the first mines in Norwegian waters. On April 9 the German invasion was underway. This article is about the warship. ...


Invasion of Denmark

Strategically, Denmark was relatively unimportant to Germany, except as a staging area for operations in Norway, and of course as a border nation to Germany which would have to be controlled in some way. The country is small and relatively flat, ideal territory for German army operations, and Denmark's small army had little hope of success in armed resistance. Nevertheless, in the early morning hours some Danish regiments engaged the German army, suffering a few dozen dead.


Faced with the explicit threat of the Luftwaffe bombing the civilian population of Copenhagen, The Danish government capitulated almost instantly in exchange for retaining political independence in domestic matters, which resulted in the uniquely lenient Occupation of Denmark, particularly until the summer of 1943, and also postponing the arrest and deportation of Danish Jews until nearly all of them were warned and on their way to refuge in Sweden. In the end, fewer than 500 Danish Jews were deported, and fewer than 50 of them lost their lives. The Luftwaffe (literally, air weapon, pronounced looft-vaaf-feh) is the air force of Germany. ... City nickname: none Location in Denmark Area  - Total  - Water 526 km² xxx km² xx% Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density 502,204 1,116,979 954/km&sup2 [including water] xxx/km&sup2 [land only] Time zone Eastern: UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 55°43 N 12°34 W Copenhagen (Danish: K... The Schalburgerkorps, a Danish SS units, headquarters in Copenhagen, after 1943 Germanys occupation of Denmark was commenced by Operation Weserübung April 9, 1940, and lasted until the German forces were withdrawn at the end of World War II following their surrender to British and Soviet forces. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Invasion of Norway

Main article: Operation Weserübung Order of Battle The German operation for the invasion of Denmark and Norway in April, 1940 was code-named Weserübung, or Exercise Weser. Opposing the invasion were the partially mobilized Norwegian military, and an allied expeditionary force composed of British, French, and Polish formations. ...

Enlarge
The German landing sites during the initial phase of Operation Weserübung.

Norway was important to Germany for two primary reasons: as a base for naval units, including U-boats, to harass Allied shipping in the North Atlantic, and to secure shipments of iron-ore from Sweden through the Norwegian port of Narvik. The long northern coastline was an excellent place to launch U-boat operations into the North Atlantic in order to strangle British commerce. Germany was dependent on iron ore from Sweden and was worried, with justification, that the Allies would attempt to disrupt those shipments, 90% of which originated from Narvik. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The Swedish iron ore was an important theme in the World War II debate. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ...


The invasion of Norway was given to the Army Corps XXI under General Nikolaus von Falkenhorst and consisted of the following main units: General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ... Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, (January 17, 1885 - June 18, 1968), German General that planned the attack on Denmark and Norway in 1940, Weserübung. ...

The initial invasion force was transported in several groups by Deutsche Kriegsmarine ships: The German 163rd Infantry Division was raised in November 1939. ... The 169th Division was a German military unit during World War II. The division was formed in 1939. ... The German 3rd Mountain Division was raised from the Austrian 5th and 7th Divisions. ... The Kriegsmarine or War Navy was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi reign. ...

  1. Battlecruisers (or fast battleships) Scharnhorst, Gneisenau as distant cover, plus 10 destroyers with 2,000 mountaineering troops under General Eduard Dietl to Narvik;
  2. Heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper and 4 destroyers with 1,700 troops to Trondheim;
  3. Light cruisers Köln and Königsberg, artillery training ship Bremse, transport Karl Peters, 3 torpedo boats and 5 motor torpedo boats with 1,900 troops to Bergen;
  4. Light cruiser Karlsruhe, 3 torpedo boats, 7 motor torpedo boats with 1,100 troops to Kristiansand;
  5. Heavy cruiser Blücher, heavy cruiser (formerly pocket battleship) Lützow, light cruiser Emden, 3 torpedo boats and 8 minesweepers with 2,000 troops to Oslo;
  6. 4 minesweepers with 150 troops to Egersund.


A reasonably complete concise description of the invasion of Norway would entail the following (yet to be fleshed out from the outline): HMS Invincible, one of Britains first battlecruisers Battlecruisers (short for battleship-cruisers) were large warships of the early 20th century. ... Scharnhorst was a 31,500 ton Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named to commemorate the World War I armoured cruiser SMS Scharnhorst, which was in turn named after the Prussian general Gerhard von Scharnhorst. ... Gneisenau was a 31,100 ton Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named to commemorate the World War I armoured cruiser SMS Gneisenau, which was in turn named after the Prussian general August von Gneisenau. ... Lieutenant General Eduard Dietl commanded the parts of the German 3rd Mountain Division that participated in the German invasion of Norway on April 9 and 10, 1940. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... The German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper fought as part of the German Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was named after Admiral Fritz Ritter von Hipper, commander of the German reconnaissance forces during the Battle of Jutland in 1916. ... County Sør-Trøndelag Landscape Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (A) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... County Hordaland Landscape Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Kristiansand (earlier Christianssand) is a city and municipality, and the capital of the county of Vest-Agder, Norway. ... The German heavy cruiser Blücher ¹ was the German Kriegsmarines newest ship at the outbreak of World War II. The Blücher is most notable for being sunk on April 9, 1940, less than three years after her launch, on the first day of the invasion of Norway (Operation Weserübung). ... This article is about a battleship as a type of warship. ... Deutschland (Germany), later re-named Lützow, was the first German large armoured ship built after World War I. Its keel was laid down in February 1929, at the Deustche Werke shipyard in Kiel; it was launched in May 1931. ... The German light cruiser DKM Emden was the only ship of its class. ... A minesweeper is a military ship designed to locate and destroy naval mines placed in the sea by enemies. ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Egersund is a town in the municipality of Eigersund in the county of Rogaland, Norway. ...

  • In an act of poetic justice, fate had the German heavy cruiser Blücher sunk in the Oslofjord April 9, 1940, by ancient German Krupp guns (named Moses and Aron, of 280 mm calibre, installed at Oscarsborg Fortress in May 1893) and equally ancient torpedoes:
    • German ships sailed up the fjord leading to Oslo, reaching the Drøbak Narrows (Drøbaksundet). In the early morning of April 9, the gunners at Oscarsborg Fortress fired on the leading ship, the Blücher, which had been illuminated by spotlights at about 0515hrs. Within two hours the ship, unable to manoeuvre in the narrow fjord, was sunk with at least 1,000 men. The now obvious threat from the fortress delayed the rest of the naval invasion group long enough for the Royal family and Parliament to be evacuated, along with the national treasury. The result was that Norway never surrendered to the Germans, leaving the Quisling government illegitimate and permitting Norway to participate as an ally in the war, rather than as a conquered nation.
  • German airborne troops landed at Oslo airport Fornebu, Kristiansand airport Kjevik, and Stavanger airport Sola — the latter constituting the first paratrooper (Fallschirmjäger) attack in history; coincidentally, among the Luftwaffe pilots landing at Kjevik was Reinhard Heydrich.
  • Quisling's radio-effected coup d'etatanother first.
  • Partly thanks to the sinking of the Blücher in the Olso Fjord narrows, the Royal family and Parliament (including government) evaded the German invasion force; King Haakon refused to lay down arms; Clash at Midtskogen; bombs at Nybergsund; Royal family, Parliament, and national gold reserves moved northward ahead of the Germans.
  • Cities/towns Bergen, Stavanger, Egersund, Kristiansand S, Arendal, Horten, Trondheim and Narvik attacked and occupied within 24 h.
  • First and Second Naval Battle of Narvik (Royal Navy vs Kriegsmarine).
  • Heroic stand by Norwegian coastal defense ships Norge and Eidsvoll at Narvik.
  • The German force took Narvik and landed the 2,000 mountain infantry, but a British naval counterattack by the old battleship Warspite and a flotilla of destroyers over several days succeeded in sinking all 10 German destroyers once they ran out of diesel fuel and ammunition. The British succeeded in occupying Narvik (with the German mountain troopers retreating into the hills around the town), but subsequently withdrew when Norway capitulated.
  • Devastating bombing of towns Åndalsnes, Molde, Kristiansund N, Steinkjer, Namsos, Bodø — some of them tactically bombed, some terror-bombed.
  • Main German land campaign northwards from Oslo with superior equipment; Norwegian soldiers with turn-of-the-century weapons, along with some British and French troops, stop invaders for a time before yielding — first land combat action between British Army and Wehrmacht in WWII.
  • Land battles at Narvik: Norwegian and Allied (British, French, Polish) success — first tactical victory against the Wehrmacht in WWII — and the following unfortunate withdrawal of the Allied forces (mentioned below); Fighting at Gratangen
  • The "last stand": Hegra Fortress (Fort Ingstadkleiven) resisted the siege until May 5 -- of Allied propaganda importance, like Narvik.
  • King Haakon, Crown Prince Olav, and parliament left from Tromsø 7 June (aboard British cruiser HMS Devonshire, bound for UK) to represent Norway in exile (King returned to Oslo exact same date 5 yrs later); Crown Princess Märtha and children, denied asylum in her native Sweden, later left from Petsamo, Finland, to live in exile in the USA.
  • Norway capitulated on June 10, 1940, two months after Wesertag.

In the far north, Norwegian, French, Polish and British troops fought against the Germans over the control of the Norwegian winter harbour Narvik, important for the export of Swedish iron ore. The Germans evacuated on May 28, but due to the detoriating situation on the European continent, the allied troops were evacuated in Operation Alphabet — and the Germans recaptured Narvik on June 9, by then deserted also by the civilians. The Krupp family is a prominent 400-year-old German family from Essen, famous for their steel production and manufacture of ammunition and armaments. ... Drøbak in Norway is the centre of the municipality of Frogn, in Akershus county. ... Oscarsborg festning is a coastal fortress in the Oslofjord, close to the small city of Drøbak. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (July 18, 1887–October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian politician and officer, commonly known as one of World War IIs most infamous traitors. ... Fornebu (archaic form Fornebo) is a peninsular area in the suburban municipality of Bærum in Norway, close to the countrys capital Oslo. ... Stavanger Airport is located in the municipality of Sola, Norway, near Stavanger. ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... Categories: Military stubs | German airborne units | Airborne | Infantry ... The Luftwaffe (literally, air weapon, pronounced looft-vaaf-feh) is the air force of Germany. ... Reinhard Heydrich Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (sometimes incorrectly spelled as Reinhardt, March 7, 1904 – June 4, 1942) was an Obergruppenführer in the Nazi German paramilitary corps—the SS led by Heinrich Himmler. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was the most infamous traitor in the history of Norway. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... King Haakon VII of Norway, Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (August 3, 1872–September 21, 1957) was the first King of Norway after the dissolution of the personal union with Sweden in 1905. ... County Hordaland Landscape Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... County Rogaland Landscape Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (2004) Leif Johan Sevland (H) Official language form Bokmål Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ... Egersund is a town in the municipality of Eigersund in the county of Rogaland, Norway. ... Kristiansand (earlier Christianssand) is a city and municipality, and the capital of the county of Vest-Agder, Norway. ... Arendal (N 58 27, E 8 56) is a town in the county of Aust-Agder, Norway. ... Horten is a town and municipality in the county of Vestfold, Norway, located along the Oslofjord. ... County Sør-Trøndelag Landscape Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (A) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... County Akershus Landscape Romerike Municipality NO-0237 Administrative centre Sundet Mayor (2005) Arild Sandahl (Ap) Official language form Bokmål Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 222 457 km² 385 km² 0. ... HMS Warspite was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the Royal Navy. ... Rauma is a municipality in the county of Møre og Romsdal, Norway. ... Molde is a city and municipality in the county of Møre og Romsdal, Norway. ... Kristiansund, officially rewarded township status in 1742, is a town and municipality on the northwestern coast of Norway, in the Nordmøre district of county Møre og Romsdal. ... Steinkjer is a municipality and town in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, located at the top of the Trondheimsfjord, in the Beitstadfjord fjord inlet. ... Namsos is a municipality and town in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. ... County Nordland Landscape Salten Municipality NO-1804 Administrative centre Bodø Mayor (2005) Odd-Tore Fygle (Ap) Official language form Bokmål Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 62 1,392 km² 1,308 km² 0. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British military. ... The municipality Gratangen in the county of Troms, Norway, has 1,316 inhabitants as of January 1, 2002. ... A small mountain-fortress in Hegra, Stjørdal, Norway. ... Olav V (July 2, 1903 - January 17, 1991) reigned as King of Norway from 1957 to 1991. ... HMS Devonshire was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy, that served in World War II. Devonshire was laid down by HM Dockyard at Devonport in Plymouth on 16 March 1926, launched on 22 October 1927 and completed on 18 March 1929. ... Märtha and Olav on the cover of Time on the occasion of their wedding Märtha, Crown Princess of Norway, Princess of Sweden (1901–1954), full name, Märtha Sofia Lovisa Dagmar Thyra, married her cousin Crown Prince Olav of Norway (later King Olav V) on March 21, 1929, and so became... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... The Swedish iron ore was an important theme in the World War II debate. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Operation Alphabet was the evacuation, authorized on May 24, 1940, of British troops from the harbour of Narvik in northernmost Norway marking the success of Nazi Germanys Operation Weserübung of April 6 and the end of the British campaign in Norway during World War II. The evacuation was completed... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...


Encirclement of Sweden and Finland

Iron ore is extracted in and , and brought by rail to the harbours of and .(Borders as of 1920–1940.)
Iron ore is extracted in Kiruna and Malmberget, and brought by rail to the harbours of Luleå and Narvik.
(Borders as of 1920–1940.)

Operation Weserübung did not include a military assault on (likewise neutral) Sweden — there was no need. By holding Norway, the Danish straits and most of the shores of the Baltic Sea, the Third Reich encircled Sweden from the North, the West and the South — and in the East, there was the Soviet Union, the successor of Sweden's and Finland's arch-enemy Russia, on friendly terms with Hitler under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Based on Brion Vibbers map of Europe. ... Kiruna (from (Sami) Giron, (white) grouse) is a town and Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... Categories: Sweden geography stubs ... Luleå (  listen?, ) is a city and municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... Narvik is a town in the county of Nordland, Norway. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Eastern Europe and Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and...


Sweden's and Finland's trade was totally controlled by the Kriegsmarine. As a consequence, Germany put pressure on neutral Sweden to permit transit of military goods and soldiers on leave. On June 18 an agreement was reached: soldiers were to travel unarmed and not be part of unit movements. A total of 2,140,000 German soldiers, and over 100,000 German military railway carriages, crossed Sweden until this traffic was officially suspended on August 20, 1943. The matter of German troop transfer through Sweden and Finland was an important theme in Allied propaganda during World War II, and remains after the war one of the more controversial aspects of modern Scandinavian history beside Finlands co-belligerence with Nazi Germany in the Continuation War, and the... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


In August 1940, Finland agreed to grant access to her territory for the Wehrmacht. Initially for transit of troops and military equipment to and from northernmost Norway, but soon also for minor bases along the transit road, that eventually would grow in preparation of Operation Barbarossa. The matter of German troop transfer through Sweden and Finland was an important theme in Allied propaganda during World War II, and remains after the war one of the more controversial aspects of modern Scandinavian history beside Finlands co-belligerence with Nazi Germany in the Continuation War, and the... Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. ...


See also

The German operation for the invasion of Denmark and Norway in April, 1940 was code-named Weserübung, or Exercise Weser. Opposing the invasion were the partially mobilized Norwegian military, and an allied expeditionary force composed of British, French, and Polish formations. ... The Schalburgerkorps, a Danish SS units, headquarters in Copenhagen, after 1943 Germanys occupation of Denmark was commenced by Operation Weserübung April 9, 1940, and lasted until the German forces were withdrawn at the end of World War II following their surrender to British and Soviet forces. ... The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... During World War II the Norwegian resistance movement (both civilian resistance and some units of armed resistance, notably the Milorg and the Company Linge) became very active after German attempts to install a puppet government under Vidkun Quisling. ... Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was the most infamous traitor in the history of Norway. ... Operation Juno was a German naval offensive late in the Norwegian Campaign. ... Operation Wilfred was a British scheme to mine the waters between Norway and her islands in order to prevent German convoys fom using the neutral waters to transport high grade Swedish iron ore. ...

External links

  • A detailed article about the German invasion of Denmark (http://www.milhist.dk/besattelsen/9april/9april.html)
  • A short introduction to the German invasion of Norway (http://www.nuav.net/weserubung2.html)
  • Norway 1940: A detailed description of the chain of events (http://hem.fyristorg.com/robertm/norge/)
  • The Royal Navy: Norwegian invasion and campaign (http://www.naval-history.net/WW2194004.htm#nor)
  • Directive for "Fall Weserübung" (http://www.adolfhitler.ws/lib/proc/direct10.html)
  • HyperWar: The Campaign in Norway (http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/UK/UK-NWE-Norway/index.html#contents)
  • Halford Mackinder's Necessary War - Article detailing Hitler's decision to invade Norway (http://iraqwar.mirror-world.ru/article/43079)



 
 

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