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Encyclopedia > Operation Storm
This article is about a 1995 Croatian army operation. For a Polish Second World War partisan operation, see Operation Tempest.
Operation Storm
Part of the Croatian War of Independence
Bosnian War

Map of Operation Storm
Date August 4August 7, 1995
Location Croatia
Result Total Croatian victory
Decisive Bosnian victory
End of Serb Republic of Krajina
End of Republic of Western Bosnia
End of Croatian War of Independence
Belligerents
Flag of Croatia Croatia (HV)
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH)
Flag of the Republic of Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK)
Flag of Republika Srpska Republika Srpska (VRS)
Commanders
Zvonimir Červenko (HV)
Atif Dudakovic (ABiH)
Mile Mrkšić (VSK)
Strength
175,000 soldiers,
365 tanks,
500 artillery pieces,
50 rocket launchers,
50 aircraft and helicopters
40,000 soldiers,
150 tanks,
350 artillery pieces,
20 rocket launchers,
10 helicopters
Casualties and losses
174 soldiers killed,
1,430 wounded
(1) 700 soldiers and 677 civilians killed, 5,000 POW, 90,000 refugees (Croatian sources)
(2) 742 soldiers killed,
at least 1,196 civilians killed (Serbian sources)
250,000 refugees

Operation Storm (Croatian and Serbian Latin: Operacija Oluja, Serbian Cyrillic: Oпeрaциja Oлуja) was the code name given to a large-scale military operation carried out by Croatian Armed Forces, in conjunction with the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, to retake the Krajina region, which had been controlled by separatist Serbs since early 1991. The operation proper took 36 hours. [1].For continuation of this military operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina see Operation Mistral. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... The Croatian Armed Forces (Croatian: Hrvatske oružane snage, HOS) was the armed force of the Independent State of Croatia which were formed in 1944 with the uniting of the Croatian Home Guard and the UstaÅ¡es forces. ... Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support...


The operation was described as the largest European land offensive since World War II,[2] It began shortly before dawn on August 4, 1995 and ended in decisive victory for the Croatian forces four days later. These forces had been trained by a U.S.-based firm, Military Professional Resources Incorporated (MPRI), which provides both training and senior staff services.[3] Its engagement was approved by the U.S. government.[4]


The operation was believed by the most influential politicians at the time to be the only way to make a basis for the Dayton Peace Agreement which ended the war in the Balkans. Former President Bill Clinton wrote in his memoirs that he believed the Serbs could only be brought to the negotiating table if they sustained major losses on the ground.[5] The Dayton Agreement or Dayton Accords is the name given to the agreement at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio to end the war in the former Yugoslavia that had gone on for the previous three years, in particular the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Balkan redirects here. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Former US peace negotiator Richard Holbrooke said "he realised how much the Croatian offensive in the Krajina profoundly changed the nature of the Balkan game and thus this diplomatic offensive."..[6] Retired four-star General Wesley Clark, Director, Strategic Plans and Policy (J5) for the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and later Supreme Allied Commander Europe simply called it a turning point.[citation needed] Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (born April 24, 1941) is an American diplomat, magazine editor, author, Peace Corps official, and investment banker. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... The NATO structure is divided into two commands, one for operations and one for transformation. ...


After the Srebrenica Genocide, there were concerns over the reoccurance of the massacre in the Bihac pocket area, where the population of Bosniaks was four times larger then in Srebrenica and which was surrounded by Bosnian Serb and Croatian Serb forces. The Srebrenica genocide occured in July of 1995, which resulted in the killing of more than eight thousand Bosniak men and boys, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica by the Serb army of general Ratko Mladić and the Serbian army from Yugoslavia. ... Bihać is a town on the Una river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, center of the Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present...


However the operation forced approximately 200,000 to 250,000 [7] Serbs to flee to Serb-held parts of Bosnia and Serbia.


Former European Union Special Envoy to the Former Yugoslavia Carl Bildt called it "the most efficient ethnic cleansing we've seen in the Balkans."[8] but on other side Yasushi Akashi UN Secretary-General's Personal Representative has demanded that Croatian forces open roads so that Serbs from Krajina can leave Croatia [1] .Three Croatian generals, Ante Gotovina, Ivan Čermak and Mladen Markač, alleged to have been involved in the planning and execution of Operation Storm, have been indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and are now standing trial in the Hague on charges of operating a joint criminal enterprise for the purpose of permanently removing the Serb population from the Krajina by force and of crimes against humanity [9]   (born July 15, 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat, currently serving as Minister for Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt. ... Yasushi Akashi (born January 19, 1931 in Hinai, Akita Prefecture) is a Japanese diplomat and United Nations administrator. ... Ante Gotovina Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955, Island of PaÅ¡man, Yugoslavia, now Croatia) is a former lieutenant general (general pukovnik) of the Croatian Army who served in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


The Croatian government maintained the operation was justified on the grounds that a sovereign state has the right to be in control of its own territory.


In Croatia, August 5 is celebrated as a national holiday, Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day, while in Serbia it is marked by commemorations for those who were killed and exiled. [2] is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day (Croatian: Dan pobjede i domovinske zahvalnosti) ia a public holiday in Croatia which is held as a memorial to that countrys War of Independence. ...

Contents

Background

The 1990 revolt of the Croatian Serbs had its center in the predominantly Serb-populated Krajina region and eastern Croatia where Croats were in relative majority.[10][11] The Serbs declared their separation from Croatia by proclaiming a Republic of Serbian Krajina (which remained internationally unrecognized) and initiated an armed conflict, supported by the Yugoslav People's Army, against Croatian police and civilians. Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


An campaign of ethnic cleansing was then started by Serb forces against Croatian civilians in the areas under their control and most of non-Serbs were expelled by early 1993. few Croats that remained in the Krajina region were expelled by Serbian forces after 22 January 1993 Croatian offensive. [12] For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


In January 1992, a ceasefire agreement was signed by Presidents Franjo Tuđman of Croatia and Slobodan Milošević of Serbia to suspend fighting between the two sides. During the next three years, Croatian military operations in the Krajina were mostly limited to small attacks while Serbs military operations concentrated on shelling nearby Croatian towns[13] of which the most internationally notable was the Zagreb rocket attack during May, 1995[14][15]. One notable Croatian military operation druing this time was Operation Medak Pocket of September 1993, during which Croatian forces overran a small area in the mountainous region of Lika but caused an international incident in the process when Croatian forces allegedly committed war crimes against local Serb civilians. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ... Combatants Croatia UNPROFOR: - Canadian PPCLI - French armour units Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Rahim Ademi Colonel Jim Calvin Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery 875 members of the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)  ? Casualties... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


The HV (Hrvatska vojska) played a more active role in western Bosnia, acting in concert with the Bosnian Croat HVO to combat Bosnian Serb forces. This had several advantages for the Croatians: it helped to prop up the Bosnian Croat statelet, it gave Croatian army commanders valuable combat experience and it put the Croatians in a good strategic position to threaten the Croatian Serbs' supply lines in Bosnia. This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ...


Timeline

Build-up to Operation Storm

Map of the territorial division of the Srpske vojske Krajine (SVK), 1995.
Map of the territorial division of the Srpske vojske Krajine (SVK), 1995.
Map of Operation Storm
Map of Operation Storm

By 1995, the military effectiveness of the Croatian and Bosnian Serbs had eroded considerably.[citation needed] Both had effectively been disowned by Belgrade, having refused Milošević's attempts to push them into settling the conflict.[citation needed] A proposed peace plan, called Z-4 plan which would give Serbs autonomy inside Croatia, which was not accepted.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x1273, 354 KB)Map of Operation Storm, 1995 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (896x1273, 354 KB)Map of Operation Storm, 1995 From Balkan Battlegrounds, 2002 This image is a work of a Central Intelligence Agency employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Serbs in Krajina

Aldough a military action was expected Milan Martic, the Krajina Serbian leader, and his staff refused the Z-4 plan in hope to reunite with the Bosnian Serbs(lead by Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic) and Serbia.[17] . Radovan Karadžić Radovan Karadžić (born June 19, 1945) is a Bosnian Serb politician, poet, psychiatrist and accused war criminal. ... Ratko Mladić Mladić (centre of the screen) is a fugitive from the ICTY and faces charges from prosecutor Carla del Ponte (giving the talk). ...


The Serbs in Krajina were unable to maintain or resupply their forces.[clarify] Morale and efficiency were low, and many of the Serb troops were poorly trained. They were also seriously undermined by internal political conflicts [18]


Serbs in Croatia

The Croatian Serb army, the VSK, was also significantly undermanned. Their front extended 600 km, and their area of control extended 100 km to the rear, along the Bihać pocket in Bosnia. To cover this front and defend the rear, it had 55,000 soldiers. Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ...


16,000 of the VSK's troops were stationed in eastern Slavonia, leaving only a theoretical maximum 39,000 to defend the main part of the RSK. In reality, only 30,000 of the theoretical 55,000 were capable of being fully mobilized.[clarify] Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ...


Forces opposed to Serbs

By contrast, the Croatian and Bosnian armies (the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina) had greatly strengthened their forces. They had re-equipped with modern weaponry — despite the arms embargoes in force — and had obtained military training with the support of the United States.{ Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


They also had strategic advantages, with much shorter lines of communication than their enemies. These advantages were demonstrated in Western Slavonia in May 1995, when the Croatian Army rapidly overran a Serb-held area in Operation Flash. Serb forces retaliated by attacking the capital Zagreb with Orkan missiles from the Krajina; killing 7 and wounding over 150 civilians. Western Slavonia is a geographical region of Croatia called Slavonia. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ...


Operations in July-August 1995

In July 1995, the Croatian and Bosnian armies collaborated to capture the crucial western Bosnian towns of Glamoč, and Bosansko Grahovo, along with Livno's western villages. This cut vital Croatian Serb supply lines and effectively meant that the Croatian Serb capital of Knin was surrounded on three sides. The Krajina Serbs joined the Bosnian Serbs (aided by Fikret Abdić's Bosniak rebels) in an offensive aimed at eliminating the Bihać pocket which was surrounded since 1992 and holding over 40,000 Bosnian refugees. International community feared a repeat of a Srebrenica massacre there. Glamoč Glamoč is a town and municipality of the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosansko Grahovo is a town and municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Federation Canton 10 Land area 994 km² Population (2003 census) 32,454 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 34 Mayor Luka ÄŒelan (HDZ) Website http://www. ... Knin Knin (Croatia) Knin (Serbian: Книн, Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin) is a historical town in the Å ibenik-Knin county of Croatia, located near the source of the river Krka at , in the Dalmatian hinterland, on the railroad Zagreb–Split. ... Fikret Abdić (born September 29, 1939) is a Bosnian politician and businessman, mainly known for his role in the Bosnian War and his opposition to the government of Alija Izetbegović in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8...


During the last week of July and the first few days of August 1995, the Croatian Army undertook a massive military build-up along the front lines in the Krajina and western Slavonia. The Croatian Serbs recognised the weakness of their position and appealed to Belgrade for military support, but were rebuffed, with the Serbian state-run media condemning the Croatian Serb leadership for its "militarism".[citation needed]


Effect of NATO Actions

Another important and perhaps not as widely recognized issue was the role of NATO in the operation.[clarify] Prior to the Operation, they were actively involved in tracking General Gotovina's movements and that of his army. NATO forces assisted in clearing Serb blockades and with logistical and communications issues. This occurred as a result of their wish to push the Serbs to the negotiating table, in Dayton, Ohio. See a discussion of NATO and United States operational problems. Within the context of government and military affairs, intelligence is intended to help decisionmakers, and all levels, make informed decisions. ...


Negotiations

Before the beginning of the operation, both sides were present at peace talks in Switzerland on August 3rd, 1995. Croatia's stance was for Serbs to agree to reintegration into Croatia, which they refused, even though military action was expected.


In a special proclamation, the president of Croatia, Franjo Tuđman called for the Serb population which had not taken part in the war to remain in their homes and that their rights would be respected.[3][4] Croatian Army representatives also declared that they would leave corridors open for civilians wishing to flee to Bosnia. Throughout the Operation, the Army held regular news conferences, displaying maps of operations on the ground. A member of Liberal Democratic Party Taizo Sugimura in an apology news conference in Japan A news conference or press conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions. ...


August 4, 1995

At 0500 on August 4, around 150,000 Croatian Army troops attacked at about 30 separate points along a 300 km front.[clarify] The Croatian 4th and 7th Guards Brigades broke through the lines of the Serb forces and advanced deep toward capital. Much of the Krajina Serb leadership had already left for Serbia and Bosnia.


Main attacks

The main part of the operation was conducted by Croatian Guard Brigades which has attacked at many different points which would effectively split the RSK in few separate areas. For the opening phase of the operation, other units simply held the front, but would later surround and force surrender of remaining pockets of resistance.


In the main operation, the First Croatian Guard Brigade attacked toward Saborsko and Plitvice Lakes, with its objective being a linkup with Bosnia and Herzegovina troops attacked Krajina from the Bihać pocket. Saborsko is a village and municipality in Karlovac county, Croatia. ... Plitvice lakes The Plitvice Lakes ([plitvi], Croatian: Plitvička Jezera) are a national park in Croatia, situated at , in the Plitvice Lakes municipality, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ...


Simultaneously, the Second Croatian Guard Brigade attacked with a primary objective of capturing Glina and Petrinja, followed with a linkup with troops in the Žirovac area. During first day of fighting around Petrinja has Croatian forces has been defeated and commander of Second Croatian Guard Brigade has been sacked and changed with Petar Stipetić. Glina is a commune in the south-east of Ilfov county, Romania. ... Image of Petrinja municipality within Sisak-Moslavina County Petrinja is a city in central Croatia near Sisak in the historic region of Banovina. ...


Fourth and seventh Croatian Guard Brigades attacked from Bosnia and Herzegovina territory toward the capital Knin of Krajina. Knin Knin (Croatia) Knin (Serbian: Книн, Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin) is a historical town in the Šibenik-Knin county of Croatia, located near the source of the river Krka at , in the Dalmatian hinterland, on the railroad Zagreb–Split. ...


The bulk of the Greatest part of Ninth Croatian Guard Brigade attacked toward Ljubovo and Udbina, but smaller part attacked from Velebit mountain toward Sveti Rok (taken on August 4) and Gračac. An important event during first day of fighting was cutting the road Knin-Slunj and in that way preventing the 21 Kordun Corps from supporting Krajina forces in Lika or Knin. Initially, resistance was strong - especially in the Kordun, Petrinja and Lika regions - but following the first day, resistance collapsed and the bulk of the RSK army retreated. Udbina is small town in the Lika region of Croatia. ... Gračac is a small town in the southern part of Lika, Croatia. ... The Kordun region is a part of central Croatia at the bottom of the Petrova gora mountain range, which extends along the river Korana and forms part of the border region to Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image of Petrinja municipality within Sisak-Moslavina County Petrinja is a city in central Croatia near Sisak in the historic region of Banovina. ... Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the PljeÅ¡evica mountain from the northeast. ...

August 4th order by the Serb Supreme Defence Council ordering evacuation of civilians from the main areas of RSK.
August 4th order by the Serb Supreme Defence Council ordering evacuation of civilians from the main areas of RSK.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (560 × 616 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)This picture is a scan of an important historic document made in 1995. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (560 × 616 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)This picture is a scan of an important historic document made in 1995. ...

Decision to evacuate civilians

The Krajina Serb Supreme Defence Council met under president Milan Martić to discuss the situation. A decision was reached at 16:45 to "start evacuating the population unfit for military service", which resulted in the majority of the civilian population fleeing for Bosnia.[19] Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ...


Suppression of air defense by NATO

On the same day, "Two U. S. Navy EA-6Bs and two U. S. Navy F/A-18Cs", patrolling Croatian and Bosnian airspace as part of Operation Deny Flight to enforce no-fly zones, attacked two Serb surface-to-air missile radar sites near Knin and Udbina. The attack, using AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missiles, were "in self-defence after the aircraft electronic warning devices indicated they were being targeted by anti-aircraft missiles." [20] The EA-6B Prowler is the United States Navys and the United States Marine Corpss primary electronic warfare aircraft. ... The Boeing (formerly McDonnell Douglas) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... Enforcement of the Bosnian no-fly zone, beginning 12 April 1993 and ending 20 December 1995. ... A no-fly zone is a territory over which aircraft (or unauthorized aircraft) are not permitted to fly. ... The AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is an air-to-surface tactical missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions associated with surface-to-air missile radar systems. ... HARM on a US Navy F-18C Three ALARMs on an RAF Tornado GR4 An anti-radiation missile is a missile which is designed to detect and home in on the emissions of an enemy radar installation. ...


August 5, 1995

On August 5th, Knin and most of the Dalmatian hinterland were captured by Croatian forces, with only sporadic resistance encountered from the VSK. The towns of Gračac, Ljubovo, Žitnić, Vrlika, Kijevo, Dubica, Drniš and Benkovac were also captured. Serb forces launched artillery attacks on Dubrovnik in the far south and Vinkovci in the far east of Croatia, without any specific military purpose.[21] Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Gračac is a small town in the southern part of Lika, Croatia. ... Vrlika (Croatia) Vrlika is a small town and a municipality in inland Dalmatia, Croatia. ... Kijevo is a small village in the Dalmatian hinterland, southeast of Knin in the Å ibenik-Knin county. ... Bosanska Dubica or Dubica (Serbian: Босанскa Дубицa/Bosanska Dubica, Bosnian: Bosanska Dubica/Босанскa Дубицa, Croatian: Bosanska Dubica), is a town in Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... DrniÅ¡ is a town in Croatia, located in inland Dalmatia at halfway between Å ibenik and Knin. ... Benkovac (Croatia) Benkovac is a town and municipality in the interior of Zadar county, Croatia. ... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... [[Image: Vinkovci (Croatia) |250px|none|]] Coordinates: Country  Croatia County Vukovar-Srijem Government  - Mayor Mladen Karlić (HDZ) Elevation 90 m (295. ...


The 5th Corps of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina started a counteroffensive, attacked the VSK from the rear and crossing the border in multiple places near in north-western Bosnia and linking up with the Croatian army near the Plitvice Lakes, well inside Croatia. Large refugee columns formed in many parts of Croatian Serb territory, so virtually the entire Serb population fled into Bosnia along the evacuation corridors established by the Croatian military on UN demand. [22] Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Plitvice lakes The Plitvice Lakes ([plitvi], Croatian: Plitvička Jezera) are a national park in Croatia, situated at , in the Plitvice Lakes municipality, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


August 6, 1995

On August 6, the Croatian 1st Guards Brigade and allied units of the Bosnian Army's 5th Corps continued to advance into Krajina Serb territory near Slunj (north of Plitvice) and reached the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. The towns of Petrinja, Kostajnica, Obrovac, Korenica, Slunj, Bruvno, Vrhovine, Plaški, Cetingrad, Plitvice and Glina were all captured during the course of the day. Strong resistance was only encountered in the town of Glina (south of Sisak). The Croatian-held town of Karlovac was subjected to retaliatory shelling by the VSK, and Bosnian Serb aircraft attacked a chemical plant in the town of Kutina. President Tuđman staged a triumphal entry into Knin, where the Croatian flag was raised above the fortress that dominates the old town. is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Croatias First Mechanized Guard Brigade (Croatian: Prva Mehanizirana Gardijska Brigada) - named The Tigers - is the most elite and best equipped military brigade of the Croatian Army (Croatian: Hrvatska Vojska). ... Jordan Bicanic has founded the city of Slunj in early middle ages. ... Categories: Croatian geography stubs | National parks of Croatia | UN World Heritage Sites ... Image of Petrinja municipality within Sisak-Moslavina County Petrinja is a city in central Croatia near Sisak in the historic region of Banovina. ... Hrvatska Kostajnica, often just Kostajnica, is a small town in central Croatia, population 1,993, with total municipality population of 2. ... Obrovac is a town located in northern Dalmatia, in the Zadar county of Croatia. ... Korenica is a village in Lika, Croatia, located in the municipality of Plitvice Lakes, on the road between Plitvice and Udbina. ... Jordan Bicanic has founded the city of Slunj in early middle ages. ... Vrhovine is a town and a municipality in Lika-Senj County, Croatia. ... PlaÅ¡ki is town and municipality in Karlovac county, Croatia. ... Cetingrad is a municipality in Karlovac county, Croatia near Croatias border with Bosnia. ... Categories: Croatian geography stubs | National parks of Croatia | UN World Heritage Sites ... Glina is a commune in the south-east of Ilfov county, Romania. ... Sisak on the map of Croatia Sisak (German: Sissek, Hungarian: Sziszek, Italian: Siscia) is a city in central Croatia. ... Karlovac (Croatia) Karlovac municipality within Karlovac county Karlovac Karlovac (German: Karlstadt or Carlstadt, Hungarian: Károlyváros and sometimes in Croatian, Marinograd) is a city and municipality in central Croatia. ... Kutina is a small city in central Croatia, the largest settlement in the hilly region of Moslavina, in the Sisak-Moslavina county. ... Knin Knin (Croatia) Knin (Serbian: Книн, Latin and medieval Hungarian: Tinin) is a historical town in the Å ibenik-Knin county of Croatia, located near the source of the river Krka at , in the Dalmatian hinterland, on the railroad Zagreb–Split. ...


August 7, 1995

Fighting continued on August 7 but at a much lower intensity than on the previous days. Two Serb aircraft were shot down near Daruvar and Pakrac, and the towns of Turanj and Dvor na Uni were captured. Croatian and Bosnian army units linked up at Zirovać, to the east of the Bihać pocket. The Bosnian town of Velika Kladuša, which had been the "capital" of the self-proclaimed breakaway Republic of Western Bosnia (Bosniak forces of Fikret Abdić), was captured by Bosnian forces. In the evening, Croatian Defence Minister Gojko Šušak declared the end to major combat operations, as most of the border with Bosnia was controlled by the Croatian Army and only mopping-up actions remained to be completed.[citation needed] is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Daruvar (German: Daruwar, Hungarian: Daruvár, Latin: Aqua Balissae) is a town in central Croatia, population 9,815 (2001), total municipality population 13,243 (2001). ... Coat of arms Pakrac is a town in Slavonia, Croatia. ... Dvor is a town and a municipality in Sisak-Moslavina County, Croatia. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 176 km² Population (1991 census) 52,908 Population density 300/sq kilomile Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Admil Mulalić (DNZ) Website http://www. ... Western Bosnia map Map of Yugoslavia during war, showing the location of Western Bosnia The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (Bosnian, Croatian or Serbian: Autonomna Pokrajina Zapadna Bosna, Аутономна Покрајина Западна Босна) was a de facto independent entity that existed in the territory of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as... Fikret Abdić (born September 29, 1939) is a Bosnian politician and businessman, mainly known for his role in the Bosnian War and his opposition to the government of Alija Izetbegović in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Gojko Å uÅ¡ak (April 16, 1945 – May 3, 1998) was Croatian Minister of Defence from 1991 to 1998 and President Franjo TuÄ‘mans closest associate and confidant. ...


August 8, 1995 onwards

The last mopping-up actions took place on August 8 with the unopposed capture of Gornji Lapac, Donji Lapac and Vojnić. On August 9, the surrounded VSK's 21st Corps (Kordun) surrendered en masse to the Croatian Army[citation needed] near Vojnić[dubious ]. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Donji Lapac (Croatia) Donji Lapac is a small town and municipality in Lika-Senj county, Croatia. ... Vojnić is a municipality in Karlovac county, Croatia. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kordun region is a part of central Croatia at the bottom of the Petrova gora mountain range, which extends along the river Korana and forms part of the border region to Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Vojnić is a municipality in Karlovac county, Croatia. ...


By this time, virtually the entire Serb population of the Krajina was on the move, crossing into Serb-controlled territory in Bosnia. The exodus was complicated by the presence of armed Krajina Serb soldiers among the civilian refugees. A large refugee column that was moving on the Glina-Dvor road during August 1995 suffered casualties on two occasions: one report mentions Croatian army shelling of the column, and another mentions tanks of the Serbian 2nd Tank Brigade making their way through the road without regard to civilians. Glina is a commune in the south-east of Ilfov county, Romania. ... Dvor is a town and a municipality in Sisak-Moslavina County, Croatia. ...


The Croatian government claimed that around 90,000 Serb civilians had fled:

Upon instructions from my Government I have the honour to address you concerning a letter circulated as a document of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities

E/CN.4/Sub.2/1995/45, dated 11 August 1995[23]

Serbian sources claimed that there were as many as 250,000 refugees. The United Nations put the figure at 150,000-200,000. The BBC reports the number to be 200,000 ([5] and [6]) UN redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


On August 21, Croatian Army reported that 196 Croatian soldiers had been killed in the offensive, 15 missing and 1,430 wounded while Serbian loses were 560 soldiers killed. is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the VSK was known to be less capable than the Croatian Army,[citation needed] its lack of serious resistance proved a surprise to many observers. The Croatian Army had reportedly expected at least a week's fighting. However, other than the fighting around Glina, the Krajina Serb military response proved little more than symbolic in most places. The VSK largely collapsed, many of its soldiers deserting and joining the civilian exodus and others carrying their weapons into Bosnia. Around 5,000 were said to have surrendered and handed in their weapons to Croatian and UN forces.


Operation Storm did not target the Serb-inhabited area of Eastern Slavonia, along the border with Serbia, which was the easternmost end of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (though geographically disconnected from the other Serb-held areas of Croatia). Although there were fears of a direct military confrontation between Croatia and Serbia in Eastern Slavonia, large-scale armed conflict was not resumed in that region. Eastern Slavonia is the eastern area of Slavonia, northern Croatia. ...


Aftermath

Military and political

In the days immediately following Operation Storm, Croatian Army and Ministry of the Interior (MUP) units conducted a series of follow-up operations in the Krajina region. The majority of the Croatian Army forces withdrew from the area in August 1995, but military operations continued until November 1995.[citation needed] Some of these operations constituted sweeps to flush out a number of remaining Serb forces in the area[citation needed][dubious ], particularly in the north of the Croatian Krajina. After the operation, joint Croatian and Bosnian forces would continue the offensive in western Bosnia, advancing towards Bosnian Serb capital Banja Luka. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ...


Operation Storm lifted the siege of Bihać. Bosnian general Atif Dudaković (commander of the Bihać 5th Corps) said that Operation Storm was an answer to the Split agreement signed by presidents Tudjman and Izetbegovic that pledged aid to the besieged pocket.[24] Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... Atif Dudaković (Born December 2, 1953 in Bosanska Dubica, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is a former general in the Bosnian army, commanding the armys 5th Corps before becoming the general commander of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina army. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, philosopher, and politician, president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1990 to 1996 and member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2000, and author of several books, most notably Islam Between East and West. ...


Neither Serbian President Slobodan Milošević nor the Serb-dominated Yugoslav Army came to the aid of the Krajina Serbs during the offensive. Although Milošević condemned the Croatian military assault, the Serbian government-controlled press also attacked the Krajina Serb leaders, claiming they were unfit to hold office.[25]


Operation Storm was seen as a total reversal of the military balance of power in the region. Along with NATO's bombing campaign in Bosnia (Operation Deliberate Force), Operation Storm and its follow-up offensives in western Bosnia were seen as vital contributing factors to peace talks resuming, that would result with the Dayton Agreement a few months later. “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


In a highly publicized event, Croatia organized a Freedom Train; running from Zagreb to Knin as a symbol of a free and unified Croatia, since until Operations Flash and Storm, the country was effectively split into four segments with little or no land communication.[citation needed] Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ...


In 2005, Prime Minister of Croatia Ivo Sanader said, "Storm is a brilliant historical military and police operation that we can be proud of, the operation which liberated central parts of the occupied Croatia." Furthermore, he stated that if a sovereign country is occupied, it has the right to liberate its territory. Ivo Sanader [] (born June 8, 1953 in Split) is the current Prime Thief of Croatia (President of the Government). ...


War crimes

Croatian forces also conducted widespread actions against Serb civilians and property which were later condemned by prosecutors at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).[citation needed] It was reported that Croatian forces undertook an extensive campaign of looting and destroying Krajina Serb property.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


According to the Croatian Helsinki Committee,[clarify] 677 Serb civilians were killed in the operation. Serbian sources put the number at 2500.[citation needed]


The ICTY Chief Prosecutor alleges that the Croatian forces operated in "'arson squads' using inflammable fuels, incendiary bullets and explosives… [leaving] some towns and numerous villages completely destroyed."[citation needed] The intention of this campaign, according to the Prosecutor, was to make it impossible for the Krajina Serb population to return.


Further, the prosecution charged that hundreds of Krajina Serbs were murdered or disappeared in the wake of Operation Storm. A few notable cases included the killing of five (possibly six) Serb civilians in the hamlet of Grubori in the Plavno valley north of Knin on August 25, and the killings of 18 Serb civilians in the villages of Varivode, Gosici and two other hamlets in the former Sector South in the September of 1995. There were also numerous individual killings or killings of several people from the same household.


By November 1995 the UN peacekeeping force in Croatia, UNCRO, published its estimates of 128 confirmed civilians killed in the operation and destruction of over 73% of all objects in Knin's region[citation needed]. The United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation, commonly known as UNCRO is a completed UN Mission. ...


Across the entire region, Serbs were displaced en masse. In Knin, the Croatian Army rounded up and detained all the male inhabitants of fighting age, releasing them after a week.[26] In the town of Obrovac, on the other hand, the entire population had already left during the first day of the operation.[citation needed] When Croatian Radiotelevision reporters entered the town soon afterwards they found a single old man. Many of those people packed whatever they could and went on the road together with their families. Obrovac is a town located in northern Dalmatia, in the Zadar county of Croatia. ... Croatian Radiotelevision or Hrvatska radiotelevizija (HRT) is the Croatian public broadcasting company. ...


Out of the 122 Serbian Orthodox churches in the area, 17 were damaged, but only one was completely destroyed.[citation needed]According to a claim in the September 1995 communiqué from the Permanent Mission of Croatia to the U.N., most of the damage to the Orthodox churches occurred prior to the Serbian retreat.[27][unreliable source?] Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


In the years following Operation Storm, Croatian authorities have uncovered over 3,000 bodies, presumed by the authorities to be murdered Croatians, in mass graves in the former Krajina territory, buried since the Serb ethnic cleansing campaign in 1991.[28][not in citation given]


Refugees

Most Serbs fleeing the Krajina region went to Banja Luka or to Serbia proper. The majority of them were resettled in the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and a smaller number were in predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in southern Serbia. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


In the first days after the offensive, Serbia accepted arriving refugees, but, starting between August 12 and 13, the authorities conscripted able-bodied men who had recently arrived from the Krajina area and sent them to Serb-controlled territory in Bosnia and eastern Slavonia, assigned to Serbian armed forces there.[29] On August 12th, Serbia also announced that men of military age would no longer be allowed to cross from Bosnian Serb-controlled territory into Serbia proper, claiming that it had accepted 107,000 refugees from Krajina since August 4.


Some of the RSK refugees were declared illegal migrants by FRY authorities and many were deported. Some were reportedly turned over by the police to paramilitary units of Željko Ražnatović, a.k.a. Arkan, in the latter's base in the village of Erdut in eastern Slavonia and reported being mistreated by Arkan's men. Reportedly, conscripted refugees taken to eastern Slavonia had been beaten and humiliated in public because they "surrendered Krajina to the enemy."[30] Željko Ražnatović (Serbian: Жељко Ражнатовић), widely known as Arkan (Аркан), (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), was a Serbian paramilitary leader accused on numerous accounts of war crimes committed during Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s. ...


The large influx of refugees raised local tensions and Vojvodina's sizable Croatian minority was harassed. Liberal opposition leaders in Vojvodina and Croatian government representatives in Belgrade, asserted that between 800 and 1,000 Croats left Vojvodina during August 1995 due to eviction and intimidations from Krajina refugees and local extremists.[31][clarify] [32][clarify]


In The Guardian, Johathan Steele wrote: "I remember being stunned at how quickly victims can turn into villains. In the town of Gibarac just inside the border of Serbia, I watched newly arrived Serb refugees being helped to find shelter by local relatives who went into homes and evicted Croatian families."[33][verification needed] For other uses, see Guardian. ...


Approximately 50,000 refugees remained in Bosnian Serb territory (largely in the Banja Luka area). In retaliation for their displacement, some refugees - with the assistance of Serbian paramilitary groups - forcibly evicted Croats and Muslims from their homes in the area. Other abuses - including execution and disappearance of non-Serbs - also intensified in the Bosanska Krajina area after the August 1995 offensive in Croatia. Local and regional Bosnian Serb authorities encouraged the expulsion of Croats and Muslims from the region, particularly in September and October 1995.[34]


In the weeks following the operation, over 1,000 Bosnian Croat families were expelled and many were tortured and killed as revenge.[35][unreliable source?] Killings of non-Serbs took place in Bosnia (Banja Luka, Prijedor, Bosanski Novi, and Bosanska Dubica) in September and October, in part to make room for Serb refugees who fled after Operation Storm. Croats reportedly were particular targets for revenge. U.N. and other international observers collected numerous accounts of killings and other atrocities. Only about 3,000 Croats remained in Banja Luka after the war out of 29,000 that had lived there.[36] Banja Luka or Banjaluka (Cyrillic: Бања Лука, pronounced ) is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina after Sarajevo and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity. ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Republika Srpska entity. ... ... Bosanska Dubica, Kozarska Dubica, or simply Dubica (called Bosanska Dubica by Bosnians, Козарска Дубицa by Serbians, and once again Bosanska Dubica by Croatians) is a town located in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Approximately 300,000 Croatian Serbs were displaced during the entire war, only a third of which (or about 117,000) are officially registered as having returned as of 2005. According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 200,000 Croatian refugees, mostly Croatian Serbs, are still displaced in neighbouring countries and elsewhere. Many Croatian Serbs cannot return because they have lost their tenancy rights and under threats of intimidation. Croatian Serbs continue to be the victim of discrimination in access to employment and with regard to other economic and social rights. Some cases of violence and harassment against Croatian Serbs continue to be reported.[37] Some of the Croatian Serbs will not return out of fear of being charged for war crimes, as the Croatian police has secret war crime suspect lists; Croatia passed an Amnesty law for anyone who had not taken an active part in the war.[citation needed] The return of refugees is further complicated by the fact that many Croats and Bosniaks (some expelled from Bosnia) have taken residence in their vacated houses. Another reason for the non-return of refugees is the fact that areas that were under Croatian Serb control during the 1991-95 period were economically ruined (unemployment in RSK was 92%). Since that time, Croatia has started a series of projects aimed at rebuilding these areas and jump-starting the economy (including special tax exemptions), but unemployment is still high. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The primary Serb political party in Croatia, SDSS supports the current Croatian government and has made speeding up the return of refugees its main priority. The Croatian government has passed a number of laws aimed at enabling easier return to refugees. The Independent Democratic Serbian Party (Samostalna demokratska srpska stranka, SDSS – Cyrillic: Самостална демократска српска странка) is a political party of Serbs living in Croatia. ...


Later events

Following the death of President Tuđman in 1999, the Croatian authorities began to undertake investigations of the activities of Croatian forces in the wake of Operation Storm. According to Croatia's Ministry of Justice, state prosecutors filed around 3,000 lawsuits against a total of 811 people for crimes allegedly committed during and after the operation.[citation needed] Several dozen people were convicted to jail sentences (up to 20 years according to Croatian law). Amnesty International has criticized the Croatian courts for inadequately investigating the war crimes allegations and failing to protect evidence as well as encouraging impunity for human rights violations.[citation needed] Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


The ICTY issued indictments against three senior Croatian commanders, Colonel General Ivan Čermak, Colonel General Mladen Markač and Brigadier (later General) Ante Gotovina. The three indictees were said to have had personal and command responsibility for war crimes carried out against Krajina Serb civilians. It was later disclosed by the ICTY prosecutor, Louise Arbour, that had he not died when he did, Croatia's President Tuđman would probably also have been indicted. Ante Gotovina Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955, Island of PaÅ¡man, Yugoslavia, now Croatia) is a former lieutenant general (general pukovnik) of the Croatian Army who served in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Louise Arbour (born February 10, 1947 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is the current UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and a former Supreme Court of Canada Justice. ...


Čermak and Markač were handed over to the ICTY, but Gotovina fled. He was widely believed to be at liberty in Croatia or the Croat-inhabited parts of Bosnia, where many view him as a hero, and his continued freedom was attributed to covert help from — or at least a "blind eye" turned by — the Croatian authorities; which proved to be false. The US Government offered a $5 million reward for the capture of Ante Gotovina and he became one of the ICTY's most wanted men. The issue was a major stumbling block for Croatia's international relations. Its application to join the European Union was rebuffed in March 2005 due to the Croatian government's perceived complicity in Gotovina's continued evasion of the ICTY.


On December 8, 2005, Gotovina was captured by Spanish police in a hotel on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. His passport revealed he had been hiding all over the world, including Haiti and Russia.[citation needed] He was transferred to Madrid for court proceedings before extradition to the ICTY at The Hague. The ICTY later joined the proceedings against the three generals into a single case, which is due to start in 2007.[update needed] is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Tenerife Tenerife in the Canary Islands chain. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Hague redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Battle figures

According to a Croatian source:[citation needed][who?]


Croatian forces and allies

Croatian Army (HV): Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ...

  • 150,000 strong
    • 80,000 soldiers in brigades, 70,000 in home guard regiments (domobranske pukovnije)
    • 2nd echelon, 50,000
    • 3rd echelon, 25 brigades
  • 280 T-55 and 80 M-84 tanks
  • 800 heavy artillery pieces
  • 45-50 rocket launchers
  • 18 MiG-21 "Fishbed" fighter jets
  • 5 Mi-8 "Hip" transport helicopters
  • 12 Mi-24D "Hind" attack helicopters

Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH): The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... Crest of Army of The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

  • 5th Corps (Bihać pocket forces - five Mountain Infantry brigades)
  • 25,000 soldiers est.
  • 15 T-55 tanks
  • 80 heavy artillery pieces

Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area 900 km2 Population (est. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ...

Serbian forces and allies

Army of the Republic of Serbian Krajina (VRSK)

  • 40,000 strong
    • 20,000 1st echelon
    • 10,000 2nd echelon
    • 10,000 3rd echelon
  • 30 M-84 and 2 T-72 MBT's
  • 200? T-55 + some T-34/85 tanks
  • 160 APC's and IFV's (M-60P, M-80A, BTR-50, BRDM-2 and BOV APC)
  • 560 artillery pieces
  • 28 Multi-rocket launchers (M-63 Plamen, M-77 Oganj and M-87 Orkan)
  • 18 Soko Gazelle and Mi-8 helicopters
  • 360 air defence weapons (SA-2, SA-7, SA-9, ZSU-57-2, BOV-3, Bofors L/70)
  • 22 aircraft (G-2 Galeb, J-21 Jastreb, J-20 Kraguj and Utva 66)

Army of the Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940, at the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. ... APC is an abbreviation of: General A Perfect Circle, rock band Advanced process control Air Pollution Control in municipal solid waste incineration plants Angled Physical Contact Fiber Optic Connector Antipop Consortium, an alternative hip-hop group Armoured personnel carrier Armour-piercing capped shot and shell Automatic Passenger Counter Automatic Performance... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ... The BTR-50 was a Soviet amphibious armoured personnel carrier based on the PT-76 tank chassis. ... BRDM-2 is pulling Andropovs coffin in Red Square The BRDM-2 (Boyevaya Razvedyvatelnaya Dozornaya Mashina, Боевая Разведывательная Дозорная Машина, literally Combat Reconnaissance/Patrol Vehicle †) is an Armoured personnel carrier used by Russia and the former Soviet Union. ... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... M-63 Plamen M-63 Plamen S preparing to fire. ... The M77 Ogajn is a LVRS made in Yugoslavia. ... The Gazelle is a French-designed helicopter, created by the company Sud Aviation, that later became Aérospatiale, and later still Eurocopter. ... Russian Mi-8 Hip The Mil Mi-8 (NATO reporting name Hip) is a large transport helicopter that can also act as a gunship. ... An S-75 missile on camoflaged launcher An S-75 missile in elevated position An North Vietnamese S-75 site An S-75 missile in transit A Fan Song radar (left) and what looks like a Low Blow to the right The SA-2 Guideline is the NATO reporting name... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher The 9K32 Strela-2 (Russian 9К32 стрела-2 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared... A 9K31 transporter erector launcher. ... A ZSU-57-2 SPAAG. Photo by GulfLINK. The ZSU-57-2 (Zenitnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka) is a lightly armoured, self propelled Soviet air defence cannon ( SPAAG). ... Production History Variants BOV-VP - basic APC BOV-SN - ambulance BOV-M - police version BOV-1 / Polo M83 (Croatia) - anti-tank version 6xAT-3 missiles BOV-3 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun with 3 x 20mm cannons, 4 crew BOV-30 - Self-Propelled Anti-aircraft gun simular to BOV-3... Soko Galeb cc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Soko J-20 (P-2) Kraguj is specially designed for low-altitude missions against day and night visible ground targets in a broad area. ... Utva (English wild duck) is an aircraft factory (Serbian fabrika aviona) located in Pančevo, near Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (ex-Yugoslavia), first founded in 1937 in Zemun, known of its light sporting and training aircraft. ... Coat of Arms of Western Bosnia Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia existed in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1993 and 1995 as a result of secessionist politics during the Bosnian War. ...

  • 10,000 strong (?)

See also

Croatian War of Independence Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif...


Bosanska Posavina


Operation Flash Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb...


Operation Summer '95 Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support...


Operation Tiger: Attack on Western Bosnia by loyalist forces. Exercise Tiger was the code name for an eight-day practice run for D-Day, on April 28, 1944, at a beach in Slapton (Slapton Sands), South Devon. ...


Operation Mistral Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support...


Operation Deliberate Force “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "Croatia: Impunity for Abuses Committed during "OPERATION STORM" and the denial of the Right of Refugees to return to the Krajinka", Human Rights Watch 8 (13 (D)), August 1996, <http://www.hrw.org/reports/1996/Croatia.htm> 
  2. ^ Sisk, Robert (1995-08-05), "Two Navy Planes Fire on Serb Missile Sites", New York Daily News, <http://www.fortunecity.com/meltingpot/greenside/761/168krajina95.html>. Retrieved on 13 April 2008 
  3. ^ Adams, Thomas K. (Summer 1999), "The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflict", Parameters (United States Army War College): 103-16, <http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/99summer/adams.htm> 
  4. ^ Smith, Eugene B. (Winter, 2002), "The new condottieri and US policy: The Privatization of Conflict and its implications”", Parameters (United States Army War College): 5-6, <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IBR/is_4_32/ai_95447364/pg_5>. Retrieved on 13 April 2008 
  5. ^ Bill Clinton, Voice of America Croatian, <http://voanews.com/croatian/archive/2004-06/a-2004-06-22-11-1.cfm?renderforprint=1&textonly=1&&TEXTMODE=1&CFID=41216627&CFTOKEN=92342436> 
  6. ^ Richard Holbrooke, Richard Holbrooke's book To End a War, <http://www.amazon.ca/End-War-Richard-Holbrooke/dp/0375753605> 
  7. ^ Amnesty International (2005-08-04), Croatia: Operation "Storm" - still no justice ten years on, <http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engeur640022005>. Retrieved on 12 June 2007 
  8. ^ Pearl, Daniel (2002), At Home in the World: Collected Writings from The Wall Street Journal, Simon and Schuster, p. 224, ISBN 074324415X, <http://books.google.com/books?id=BInS_EkHIUsC&printsec=frontcover>. Retrieved on 13 April 2008 
  9. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (2008-03-12), Amended Joinder Indictment, Gotovina, Čermak and Markač, Case Number IT-06-90, <http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/got-coramdjoind080312e.pdf>. Retrieved on 14 April 2008 
  10. ^ ICTY census UNPA Sector East, <http://www.un.org/icty/indictment/english/mil-ii011008e.htm> 
  11. ^ Human Rights Watch Croatia, <http://www.hrw.org/reports/1997/croatia/Croatia-02.htm> 
  12. ^ Human Right Watch 1993
  13. ^ United Nations Economic and Social Council, SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE TERRITORY OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, Section K, Point 161, <http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/2848af408d01ec0ac1256609004e770b/5793c2d636a30ac9802566710057034c?OpenDocument> 
  14. ^ Institute For War and Peace Reporting, Milosevic Allegedly Angered by Zagreb Shelling, <http://www.iwpr.net/?p=tri&s=f&o=259864&apc_state=henitri2006> 
  15. ^ Press release: THE TRIBUNAL ISSUES AN INTERNATIONAL ARREST WARRANT AGAINST MILAN MARTIC, 8 March 1996, <http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/p042-e.htm> 
  16. ^ Serb Leaders Proposals for Autonomy, <http://www.ecmi.de/jemie/download/Focus3-2003_Caspersen.pdf> 
  17. ^ ICTY against Milan Martic, <http://www.un.org/icty/transe54/030626IT.htm> 
  18. ^ Vreme News Digest of 13 March 1995
  19. ^ ICTY 080312ED, ICTY vs Ante Gotovina, <http://www.un.org/icty/transe90/080312ED.htm> 
  20. ^ NATO Regional Headquarters, Allied Forces Southern Europe, Operation Deny Flight, <http://www.afsouth.nato.int/operations/denyflight/DenyFlight> 
  21. ^ 'ARE THE CROATS ABOUT TO END THE THREAT TO DUBROVNIK'. OMRI Daily Digest I,II, No. 160. Open Media Research Institute (1995-08-17). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
  22. ^ 'HRVATSKA VLADA JAMCI SIGURAN PROLAZ ZA IZBJEGLICE IZ BIVSEG'. HRT (1995-08-06). Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  23. ^ Neven Madey (15 August 1995). "Letter from the Chargé d'affaires, a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Croatia (HTML). United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  24. ^ 'We needed Operation Storm as much as Croatia did'. interview with General Atif Dudakovic. Bosnian Institute (2006-09-11). Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  25. ^ Michael. "Serbia Demands International Action", The Independent, 1995-09-05. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 
  26. ^ Ratko Gajica of SDSS on Nedjeljom u dva, in 2005.
  27. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Anatomy_of_Deceit
  28. ^ Crown Home Page
  29. ^ Judah, Tim. "Able-Bodied Refugees Are Forced Back to the Fight", The Daily Telegraph, 1995-09-18. 
  30. ^ "Spotlight Report No. 20: Violations of Refugees Rights in Serbia and Montenegro", Humanitarian Law Center/Humanitarian Law Fund, p. 11. 
  31. ^ "Helsinki interview with Ivo Kujundzic, Counsellor for Humanitarian Affairs, and Davor Vidis, Spokesperson, Office of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, Belgrade, Serbia", Human Rights Watch, September 11, 1995 
  32. ^ "Helsinki interview with Nenad Canak, President of the Social Democratic League of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia", Human Rights Watch, August 31, 1995 
  33. ^ Steele, Jonathan. "unknown title", The Guardian, 1999-06-14. 
  34. ^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, "Northwestern Bosnia: Human Rights Abuses during a Cease-Fire and Peace Negotiations," (A Human Rights Watch Short Report, vol. 8, no. 1, February 1996)
  35. ^ Neven Madey (1995-08-14). Letter from Croatian Government Chargé d'affaires. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  36. ^ Gordana Katana (2003-06-20). Bosnia: Papal Boost for Banja Luka. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  37. ^ Amnesty International. (2005-08-04) Croatia: Operation "Storm" - still no justice ten years on. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.

The United States Army War College is a U. S. Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, specifically in the historic Carlisle Barracks. ... The United States Army War College is a U. S. Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, specifically in the historic Carlisle Barracks. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bosnian Institute is an organization principally devoted to providing information on, and promoting the common good of, Bosnia_Herzegovina. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Independent Democratic Serbian Party (Samostalna demokratska srpska stranka, SDSS – Cyrillic: Самостална демократска српска странка) is a political party of Serbs living in Croatia. ... Nedjeljom u dva (Sundays at two oclock in English) is Croatian television talk show aired every Sunday at 14:00 CET on Croatian Radiotelevision channel 1. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...

References

  • RSK, Vrhovni savjet odbrane, Knin, 4. avgust 1995., 16.45 časova, Broj 2-3113-1/95. The faximile of this document was published in: Rade Bulat "Srbi nepoželjni u Hrvatskoj", Naš glas (Zagreb), br. 8.-9., septembar 1995., p. 90.-96. (the faximile is on the page 93.).
    Vrhovni savjet odbrane RSK (The Supreme Council of Defense of Republic of Serb Krajina) brought a decision 4. August 1995 in 16.45. This decision was signed by Milan Martić and later verified in Glavni štab SVK (Headquarters of Republic of Serb Krajina Army) in 17.20.
  • RSK, Republički štab Civilne zaštite, Broj: Pov. 01-82/95., Knin, 02.08.1995., HDA, Dokumentacija RSK, kut. 265
    This is the document of Republic headquarters of Civil Protection of RSK. In this document it was ordered to all subordinated headquarters of RSK to immediately give all reports about preparations for the evacuation, sheltering and taking care of evacuated civilians ("evakuacija, sklanjanje i zbrinjavanje") (the deadline for the report was 3. August 1995 in 19 h).
  • RSK, Republički štab Civilne zaštite, Broj: Pov. 01-83/95., Knin, 02.08.1995., Pripreme za evakuaciju materijalnih, kulturnih i drugih dobara (The preparations for the evacuation of material, cultural and other goods), HDA, Dokumentacija RSK, kut. 265
    This was the next order from the Republican HQ of Civil Protection.
    It was referred to all Municipal Headquarters of Civil Protection. In that document was ordered to all subordinated HQ's to implement the preparation of evacuation of all material and all mobile cultural goods, archives, evidentions and materials that are highly confidential/top secret, money, lists of valuable stuff (?)("vrednosni popisi") and referring documentations.
  • Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu" , Beograd 2003. , p. 93.-94.
  • Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu" , Bad Vilbel 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179.
  • Marko Vrcelj, "Rat za Srpsku Krajinu 1991-95" , Beograd 2002., p. 212.-222.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
The shelling of Knin by the Croatian Army in August 1995: A police operation or a non-international armed conflict? (4001 words)
Operation Storm was not a separate incident, but was part of a series of ongoing military operations carried out by the Croatian Army.
During Operation Storm, the Croatian Army prevented UN personnel from assisting wounded Serb civilians (the “Knin hospital incident”).26 Thus people who were not directly involved in military operations became targets of the Croatian Army, in violation of Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions.
Therefore, even if Operation Storm was merely an internal police operation, it would still be within the competence of the Prosecutor to initiate an independent investigation on the basis of evidence gathered from “any source” (in the words of the ICTY Statute).
- GAO Report (4895 words)
First, the effectiveness of air power in Desert Storm was inhibited by the aircraft sensors' inherent limitations in identifying and acquiring targets and by DOD's failure to gather intelligence on the existence or location of certain critical targets and its inability to collect and disseminate timely battle damage assessments (BDA).
We strongly acknowledge the need to maintain a rigorous operational test and evaluation capability to ensure that commanders, planners, and operators are aware of both the strengths and weaknesses of existing and new weapon systems under a variety of combat conditions.
For example, we found in Desert Storm that multiple strikes and weapon systems were used against the same targets; more munitions were delivered than peacetime test capabilities would indicate as necessary; determinations of whether target objectives were met were frequently unknown; and when objectives were met, the specific system responsible could not be determined.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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