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Encyclopedia > Operation Spring of Youth

Operation Spring of Youth took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973. Israeli Defence Force special forces units attacked several PLO targets in Beirut and Sidon, Lebanon. The operation had a shocking effect on the PLO. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... Special forces or special operations forces are relatively small military units raised and trained for special operations missions such as Special Reconnaissance (SR), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Direct Action (DA), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Foreign Internal Defense (FID). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , BayrÅ«t) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... Sidon, Zidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا á¹¢aydā is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ...

During the operation, three of the PLO leaders, surprised at home, were killed, along with other PLO personnel (reports of actual number killed vary from a dozen to 100). Several Lebanese security people and civilian neighbors were also killed. Two of the attackers were killed by the defending forces.

The Israeli forces arrived at the Lebanese beaches in Zodiac boats launched from missile ships offshore. Mossad agents awaited the forces on the beaches with cars rented the previous day, and then drove them to their targets and later back to the beaches for extraction. This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... Official seal of the Mossad ▶ (help· info) (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks) is an Israeli intelligence agency, commonly referred to as Mossad. ...

Main Target

The main target was a pair of seven-story buildings in Muslim west-Beirut, secured by armed guards, which served as headquarters and residence of the PLO leaders. The team attacking the target was mostly based on Sayeret Matkal elite commandos, led by then unit-commander Ehud Barak. (Barak later became IDF Chief of Staff and subsequently Prime Minister). The attacking team also included Yonathan Netanyahu, who became unit commander two years later and became known while leading the hostage rescue operation in Entebbe in which he died. The team approached the buildings disguised as couples (Barak was disguised as a brunette). In the building, the team killed three PLO leaders: Sayeret Matkal (Hebrew: סיירת מטכל - General Staff Reconnaissance unit) is the elite special forces unit of the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born February 12th, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz, then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Yonatan Yoni Netanyahu (March 13, 1946 - July 4, 1976) is an Israeli war hero. ... Entebbe Airport, Uganda, scene of Operation Entebbe Operation Entebbe took place on the night of July 3 and early morning of July 4, 1976. ...

  • Yussef El-Najjar (Abou Yussef) - a PLO veteran, previously head of the Lebanese Fatah branches, head of Fatah internal intelligence organization, and Operations Officer for Black September. His latest duties were head of the PLO's political department and one of Yasser Arafat's deputies (third in line of Fatah's leadership). His wife, who tried to protect him, was also killed.
  • Kamal Adwan - also a veteran Fatah leader. Responsible for terrorist activities in Israel via the Organization of the Western Sector and later Operations and Intelligence Officer of Black September, responsible for planning terrorist actions against Israeli targets internationally.
  • Kamal Nasser - PLO spokesman and member of the PLO Executive Committee.

During the operation, an Italian woman who resided in the building was also killed, as well as two Lebanese policemen. Barak was later given a citation for bravery for his conduct in this operation. All the attackers in this main operation returned safely. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... A Black September operative on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Arafat redirects here; for the hill east of Mecca, see Mount Arafat Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎) (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969... Writer; edited the militant newspaper Al-Jil al-Jadid (The New Era) in the 1960s; PLO spokesman in Beirut; killed by an Israeli raid in Beirut on April 10, 1973. ...

Secondary Targets

A separate nearby target was a multi-story building which housed activists of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The attacking team had 14 commandos, mainly paratroopers led by Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, who later on succeeded Barak as IDF Chief of Staff. The attacking team met strong resistance early on, and two of its soldiers were killed. Despite this resistance, the force was able to bomb the building. Lipkin-Shahak was also decorated for bravery for his conduct in this operation. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - al-jabhah al-sha`biyyah li-tahrÄ«r filastÄ«n) is a Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian political and military organization, founded in 1967. ... Amnon Lipkin-Shahak (Hebrew: אמנון ליפקין-שחק, born March 18th, 1944) was the chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces, and later Israeli Minister of Tourism and Transport. ...

Other targets were bombed after having been searched for papers and other intelligence materials. These targets were attacked by the Israeli Navy, especially Shayetet 13 commandos: Shayetet 13 ( שייטת 13 ) is the Israeli naval commando elite special forces unit. ...

  • The headquarters of the Fatah's Gaza sector and a workshop which assembled rockets and mines near the Beirut International Airport.
  • Another workshop in the north-eastern part of Beirut assembling rockets and mines.
  • PLO vehicle garage north of Sidon.

Terminal Overview Beirut International Airport is an airport located in Beirut, Lebanon. ...

External links

  • "Jewish Virtual Library": Detailed Israeli viewpoint and eyewitness accounts
  • isayeret.com - The Israeli Special Forces Database
  • "Journal of Counterterrorism & Security International": Includes background material on the 1972 Munich Olympic Massacre and Israel's hunt for its perpetrators.
  • "CBS News: An Eye For An Eye" Includes short testimonies by Barak and Adwan's daughter.
  • "Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem": History of IDF operations vs. Palestinians from a Palestinian viewpoint, including this operation.

  Results from FactBites:
2000 Budget Analysis: CJ Youth Auth 5460 (2241 words)
The Department of the Youth Authority is responsible for the protection of society from the criminal and delinquent behavior of young people (generally ages 12 to 24, average age 19).
This segment of the Youth Authority population--2 percent of the population in December 1999--is comprised of inmates from the Department of Corrections (CDC).
Youth Authority parole populations are expected to increase in the budget year to about 5,085 parolees, and will continue to increase to about 5,205 parolees by the end of 2003-04.
  More results at FactBites »



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