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Encyclopedia > Operation Spanner

Operation Spanner was the name of an operation carried out by police in Manchester in the United Kingdom in 1987. kk This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Background

The police had obtained a video which they believed depicted acts of sadistic torture, and they launched a murder investigation, convinced that the people in the video were being tortured before being killed. This resulted in raids on a number of properties, and a number of arrests. Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has...


The apparent "victims" were alive and well, and soon told the police that they were participating in private homosexual BDSM activities. Although all of those seen in the videos stated that they were willing participants in the activities depicted on the videos, the police and Crown Prosecution Service insisted on pressing charges. Sixteen men were charged with various offences, including "assault occasioning actual bodily harm" (ABH). Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... A collar is a common symbol in BDSM. Female bottom in bondage with leather monoglove BDSM is any of a number of related patterns of human sexual behavior. ... The Crown Prosecution Service, or CPS, is a non-ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for public prosecutions of people charged with criminal offences in England and Wales. ... Actual Bodily Harm (often abbreviated to ABH) is a type of criminal assault defined under English law. ...


Heavily influenced by the nineteenth century boxing case of R v. Coney, the trial judge ruled that consent was not a valid defence to ABH, and the defendants pleaded guilty. The case was appealed first to the High Court, then to the House of Lords. In March 1993, the appeal was dismissed (R v Brown (1993) 2 All ER 75) by 3-2 majority of the Lords, with Lord Templeman in particular declaring that: Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... R v. ... In the criminal law, consent may be an excuse and prevent the defendant from incurring liability for what was done. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

"In principle there is a difference between violence which is incidental and violence which is inflicted for the indulgence of cruelty. The violence of sadomasochistic encounters involves the indulgence of cruelty by sadists and the degradation of victims. Such violence is injurious to the participants and unpredictably dangerous. I am not prepared to invent a defence of consent for sadomasochistic encounters which breed and glorify cruelty [...]. Society is entitled and bound to protect itself against a cult of violence. Pleasure derived from the infliction of pain is an evil thing. Cruelty is uncivilized."

An attempt to overturn the convictions in the European Court of Human Rights in 1997 failed (see Laskey, Jaggard and Brown v. United Kingdom). European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Laskey, Jaggard and Brown v United Kingdom is a case that was argued before the European Court of Human Rights in January of 1999, which ruled that no violation of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights occurred. ...


The legal rationale for the decisions were broadly speaking as follows:

  1. (UK courts) A person does not have the legal ability to consent to receive an act which will seriously harm them, such as branding or other intense activities of a sadomasochistic nature.
  2. (European Courts) Whilst a person has a general right of free will, a state may as a matter of public policy restrict that in certain cases, for example for the general public good and for the protection of morals. The present case was judged by the European Court to have fallen within the sovereign scope of the UK Government's right to determine its legality, and human rights legislation would not overrule this.

The fallout from the Spanner case led to the setting up of the Countdown on Spanner (now SM Pride) and Spanner Trust organizations. Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... The Spanner Trust is a United Kingdom organization set up to campaign for the right for adults to take part in consensual BDSM activities without fear of prosecution. ...


As a result of the Spanner case, the Law Commission is currently investigating the status of consensual sadomasochistic acts in the law of England and Wales. The Law Commission is an independent body set up by Parliament in 1965 to keep the law of England and Wales under review and recommend necessary reforms. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


In the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill 2007, the Government cited the Spanner case (Brown [1994] 1 AC 212) as justification for criminalising images of consensual acts, as part of its proposed criminalisation of possession of "extreme pornography".[1] Extreme Pornography is a term introduced by the UK Government to refer to pornography depicting acts of serious violence, necrophilia or bestiality. ...


Sources

External links

Further reading

  • Weait, Matthew 'Fleshing it Out' in Bentley, L. and Flynn, L. Law and the Senses (London: Pluto Press, 1996)
  • Athanassoulis N. The Role of Consent in Sado-masochistic Practices. Res Publica.2002;8(2):141-155.

See also


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Spanner's Galaxy was a title much in the vein of that series, though I was always surprised that DC went for new books like these instead of reviving Adam Strange or Captain Comet during this time when the popularity of comics was once again on the upswing.
Spanner fell in one of the jelly pens when two of his alien friends demonstrated how to "castle", disappearing and leaving a pair of Kaborians in their place.
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U.S. Patent: 6028753 - Method and apparatus for interrupting a current carrying path in a multiphase circuit - February ... (5890 words)
Spanners 72 are similarly urged upwardly by springs 80, pressing movable contacts 74 into abutment with stationary contacts 68 and 70 to complete a current carrying path through each power phase section 20.
The slight inertia of spanner 72 allows the spanner to move extremely rapidly from its conducting position, resulting in very rapid expansion of the arcs between the movable and stationary contacts, tending to extinguish the arcs.
In addition to aiding in driving spanner 72 from its conducting position and rapidly limiting let-through energy, arcs generated during movement of movable contacts 74 from stationary contacts 68 and 70 heat gases within interrupter 10 and thereby aid in retaining spanners in interrupted positions separated from their stationary contacts.
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