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Encyclopedia > Operation Shakti

Operation Shakti refers to the second round of nuclear tests conducted by India on May 11 and May 13, 1998. It was popularly referred to as "The Buddha smiles again." In contrast with their first test, Operation Smiling Buddha, this series of tests were of purportedly militarized nuclear devices, including a hydrogen bomb. A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The so-called Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ...

The plutonium used to build the nuclear weapons is thought to have been produced in India. India has a number of nuclear reactors: General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...

  • The research CIRUS reactor, which was used to manufacture the plutonium for Operation Smiling Buddha
  • Two licensed CANDU reactors, which are safeguarded by UN observers
  • A number of un-safeguarded Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors
  • The Dhruva reactor, designed in India, built to produce plutonium for India's nuclear weapons program

The CANDU design runs on unenriched uranium and can be refuelled while operating, which makes it well suited to plutonium production. As a result, the Canadian government has been accused of irresponsibility in providing India with such reactors. In fact, after Operation Smiling Buddha, Canada ceased exporting nuclear materials and technology to India; the two licensed CANDU reactors in India began operation in 1972, before India had conducted any nuclear tests. In addition, international observers have determined that the plutonium for Operation Shakti was not diverted from the licensed CANDU reactors ([1]). CIRUS (Canadian-Indian-U.S.) reactor. ... The CANDU reactor is a pressurized-heavy water, natural-uranium power reactor designed in the 1960s by a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario as well as several private industry participants. ... Main articles: League of Nations & History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... The CANDU reactor is a pressurized-heavy water,(PHWR) natural uranium (i. ... Dhruva in Hindu mythology was the prince blessed to eternal existence and glory as the Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra in Sanskrit) by Lord Vishnu. ... The so-called Smiling Buddha was the first test fission explosion by India on May 18, 1974. ...

The name Shakti refers to a Hindu deity, and also translates literally to 'power'. This article is in need of attention. ...

See also

// The Beginning As early as June 26, 1946, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Indias soon to be Prime Minister announced As long as the world is constituted as it is, every country will have to devise and use the latest devices for its protection. ... Weapons of mass destruction By Type Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare Nuclear weapon history Nuclear weapon design Nuclear explosion Nuclear testing See...

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  Results from FactBites:
HLL - Citizen Lever - Project Shakti (435 words)
Shakti is a pioneering effort in creating livelihoods for rural women, organised in Self-Help Groups (SHGs), and improving living standards in rural India.
Shakti provides critically needed additional income to these women and their families, by equipping and training them to become an extended arm of the company's operation.
Shakti is thus creating opportunities for rural women to live in improved conditions and with dignity, while improving the overall standard of living in their families.
Shakti bhog Organization - Brand Name, Milled Products (480 words)
Shakti Bhog is a well known brand in milled product category and like other manufacturing organizations its main functions are production and marketing of its products and Shakti Bhog has evolved with time around these with highly centralized coordination and control pattern as evident in most of the functionally structured organizations.
Shakti Bhog's structural description starts with Board of directors and Managing Directors they are the key player in the overall performances of the organization, they coordinate and control each department directly or with the help of personnel assigned to perform those functions.
Shakti Bhog do not have any separate advertising department and all the decisions regarding advertising such as media selection and concept formulation of ads etc. is decided by the managing directors with the advice of general manager but last decision is that of managing director which prevails.
  More results at FactBites »



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