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Encyclopedia > Operation Rolling Thunder
Operation Rolling Thunder
Part of the Vietnam War

F-105 Thunderchiefs radar-bombing at direction of B-66 leader.
Date 2 March 19651 November 1968
Location Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Result Strategic Vietnamese victory
Belligerents
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam
Flag of North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Commanders
Joseph H. Moore,
William W. Momyer,
George S. Brown
Phung The Tai (Air Defense),
Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force)
Casualties and losses
United States:
~835 killed, captured, or missing
VNAF:
Unknown
~20,000 military,
~72,000 civilian

Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (928x1210, 200 KB) Flying under radar control with a B-66 Destroyer, Air Force F-105 Thunderchief pilots bomb a military target through low clouds over the southern panhandle of North Viet Nam. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, commonly known as the Thud by its crews, was a single-seat supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... The Douglas B-66 Destroyer was a Strategic Air Command light bomber based on the United States Navys A3D Skywarrior, and intended to replace the Douglas B-26 Invader. ... -1... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Vietnam. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... General William Wallace Momyer was commander of the U.S. Air Force Tactical Air Command. ... Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders unknown battalion commander Bui Dinh Dam John Paul Vann Strength 350 1,400 Casualties 18 dead 39 wounded 83 dead 108 wounded The Battle of Ap Bac was a small-scale action early in the Vietnam War that resulted in the first... Belligerents Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Tran Dinh Xu Franklin P. Eller Strength Estimated at 1,800[2] 4,300[3] Casualties and losses 32 confirmed killed[4] 201 killed (5 Americans killed) 192 wounded (8 Americans wounded) 68 missing (3 Americans missing). ... Combatants Viet Cong United States South Vietnam Casualties U.S casualties: 8 killed, 109 wounded and 20 aircraft destroyed or damaged. ... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Casualties 85 Dead 49 ARVN dead 5 American dead The Battle of Song Be was a major action between the NLF (Viet Cong) and ARVN, the South Vietnamese army. ... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Le Trong Tan Cao Van Vien, Charles W. Williams Strength 1,500 10,000 Casualties 700+ estimated KIA ARVN: 800+ killed U.S: 7 killed, 15 wounded and 13 missing The Battle of Dong Xoai was a battle that occurred during the... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders General Lewis W. Walt Strength 5,500 1,500 VC 1st Regiment Casualties 45 killed 203 wounded >614 killed 9 captured Operation Starlite was the first offensive military action conducted by a purely U.S. military unit during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Viet Cong Australia Commanders Unknown John Healy Casualties Unknown 6 wounded 2 missing presumed dead The Battle of Gang Toi was fought on November 8, 1965. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States Commanders Nguyen Huu An Thomas W. Brown Harold G. Moore (X-Ray) Robert McDade (Albany) Strength More than 4,000 (Albany and X-Ray) Over 1,000 (Albany and X-Ray) Casualties X-Ray: Est. ... Operation Hastings was an American military operation in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States South Vietnam Republic of Korea North Vietnam Viet Cong Casualties 288 killed 990 wounded 2232 killed Operation Masher was a combined US, ARVN, and ROKA that began on January 28, 1966. ... Combatants United States South Vietnam North Vietnam Strength 395 2,000 Casualties U.S: 8 killed, 12 wounded and 5 missing South Vietnam: 47 killed or missing Unknown (U.S estimates put the number at 800) The Battle of A Shau was waged in 1966 during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Strength 134 400+ Casualties 38 killed 71 wounded Unknown Vietnam War Ap Bac â€“ Binh Gia â€“ Pleiku â€“ Song Be â€“ Dong Xoai â€“ Starlite â€“ Gang Toi â€“ Ia Drang â€“ Hastings â€“ Masher/White Wing â€“ A Shau â€“ Xa Cam My â€“ Duc Co â€“ Long Tan â€“ Attleboro â€“ Cedar Falls â€“ Tra Binh Dong â€“ Bribie... Combatants North Vietnam South Korea Commanders Byung Soo Choi Casualties 134+ killed 7 killed 46 wounded In 1966, the Battle of Duc Co was a major engagement between the North Vietnamese 5th Battalion of the 88th Regiment and the South Korean 3rd Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Regiment. ... Combatants Australia, New Zealand, United States Viet Cong, North Vietnam Commanders Harry Smith Nguyen Thanh Hong Strength 108 1,500-2,650[1] Casualties 18 killed, 21 wounded Estimates range from about 50 killed, to 800 casualties total. ... Combatants United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders Major Guy S. Meloy Unknown Casualties 155 US killed 494 US wounded At least 1,106 killed Operation Attleboro was a search-and-destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. ... Operation Cedar Falls was conducted by the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam War on January 8 – January 26, 1967 to rout out Viet Cong base camps in the so-called Iron Triangle. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Korea Commanders Unknown commander Captain Jin-Kyung Chung Strength 2,400+ 294 Casualties 200+ killed and 2 captured 15 killed and 33 wounded The Battle of Tra Binh Dong was probably the most famous battle fought by the South Korean Marines during the Vietnam... Combatants Australia Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Operation Junction City was one of the largest airborne operations since Market Garden in the latter half of World War II, and one of the largest operations of the Vietnam conflict. ... Operation Union was a military operation that took place in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants NVA United States Casualties 947 killed 455 killed, 455 wounded The Battle of Hill 881 was a battle between soldiers of the North Vietnamese Army and U.S. Marines during the Vietnam War. ... Operation Union II was a military operation that took place in the Vietnam War. ... Belligerents United States National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Commanders Terry de la Mesa Allen, Jr. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Maj. ... Belligerents Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength ~120,000[1] ~323 - 595,000[2] Casualties and losses Phase I: 2,788 killed, 8... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders David E. Lownds (local), William C. Westmoreland (theater) Tran Quy Hai (local), Vo Nguyen Giap (theater) Strength 6,000 ~30,000 Casualties 730 killed in action, 2,642 wounded, 7 missing[2] Unknown; estimated between 10,000 and 15... Combatants South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders William Westmoreland Vo Nguyen Giap Strength  ? 35 Battlions Casualties  ?  ? The First Battle of Saigon fought during the Tet Offensive was the coordinated attack by the NVA and VC, by which they attacked South Vietnams Capital Saigon from all sides. ... Combatants South Viet Nam United States North Viet Nam Viet Cong Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Foster C. LaHue Tran Van Quang Strength Over 30,000 8,000, later 12,000 Casualties ARVN: 452 KIA; 2,123 WIA US: 216 KIA; 1,584 WIA[1] Total: 668 KIA; 3,707 WIA... Combatants North Vietnam United States Commanders Unknown Capt. ... Combatants United States Thailand Hmong guerillas North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Vang Pao Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 1,300+ 3,000+ Casualties 8 Americans dead 42 Thai and Hmong Unknown The Battle of Lima Site 85 was a battle of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States South Vietnam Australia Strength 10,000+ 1,760+ Casualties  ??? 270+ killed or missing 9 aircraft loss The Battle of Kham Duc was the struggle for the United States Army Special Forces camp located in Quang Tin province, South Vietnam. ... Operation Speedy Express was a United States military operation of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Marine Corps North Vietnamese Army Commanders Colonel Robert H. Barrow N/A Strength 5,000+ Casualties 130 killed, 932 wounded (USMC account) 1617 killed, unknown number wounded (USMC account) Operation Dewey Canyon was the last major offensive by the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. ... Tet 1969 refers to the attacks mounted by principally North Vietnamese forces in February 1969 in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. ... Belligerents United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Melvin Zais Unknown Strength estimated at 1,800 estimated at 1,500 Casualties and losses 70 killed, 372 wounded 630+ dead The Battle of Hamburger Hill was a battle of the Vietnam War which was fought between the United States and the... Combatants Viet Cong North Vietnam Australia Casualties 91 killed 1 killed, 8 wounded The Battle of Binh Ba was a battle between soldiers of the Australian Army and NVA and VC soldiers during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants South Vietnam United States Viet Cong Commanders Do Cao Tri â€ } Nguyen Van Minh Bui Thanh Danh Le Nam Phong Strength 2,000 20,000 Casualties 37 killed, 167 wounded, 74 missing Unknown (South Vietnam claimed 1,043 killed) The Battle of Snuol was a major battle of the Vietnam... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam United States Commanders Vo Nguyen Giap Chu Phong Doi Andre Lucas† Ben Harrison Strength 9 battalions 1 battalion Casualties 2400+ KIA 250~ KIA, 1,000+ WIA Wikisource has original text related to this article: After action report: Firebase Ripcord, 23 July 1970 The Battle of... Operation Tailwind was a covert incursion into southeastern Laos by a company-size element (Hatchet Force) of the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACSOG or SOG) on 11 September 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants Khmer Republic North Vietnam Commanders Brig. ... Combatants North Vietnam United States Commanders unknown Brig Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Hoang Xuan Lam Le Trong Tan (military) Le Quang Dao (political) Strength ARVN: 20,000 troops U.S.: 10,000 troops in support ~25,000 - ~35,000 troops Casualties ARVN: 8,483 killed 12,420 wounded 691 missing U... Combatants North Vietnam Khmer Republic Commanders Unknown Brigadier General Hou Hang Sin Strength VPA 9th Division 10 FANK Battalions Casualties Unknown Decimation of the FANK Battalions Operation Chenla II was launched on August 20, 1971 by the Cambodian military (or FANK) as an attempt to regain territories lost to the... Combatants South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Belligerents South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders I Corps: Hoang Xuan Lam (replaced by Ngo Quang Truong) II Corps: Ngo Dzu (replaced by Nguyen Van Toan) III Corps: Nguyen Van Minh Tri-Thien-Hue Region: Van Tien Dung B-2 Front: Tran Van Tra B-3 Front... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam Strength 30,000+ 8,000+ The First Battle of Quang Tri resulted in the first major victory for the North Vietnamese Army during the Nguyen Hue Offensive of 1972. ... Combatants South Vietnam, United States Viet Cong, North Vietnam Commanders Mark A. Smith â˜ Tran Van Tra Strength 1,000+ 40,000+ Casualties Unknown 10,000+ The Battle of Loc Ninh was a major battle fought during North Vietnams Nguyen Hue Campaign and lasted from April 4 to April 7... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Gen. ... Combatants South Vietnam North Vietnam Commanders Col. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam The Second Battle of Quang Tri began on June 28 and lasted until September 16, 1972, when the Army of the Republic of Vietnam defeated the North Vietnamese and recaptured most of the province. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army National Liberation Front Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung President Nguyen Van Thieu (Until April 5) Strength 300,000+ (est. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Vietnam Vietnam Peoples Army Commanders Maj. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Hoang Cam, Hoang The Thien Le Minh Dao Strength 40,000 6,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead and wounded ~2,036 dead and wounded The Battle of Xuan Loc also known as The last stand at Xuan Loc, was the last... Belligerents North Vietnam South Vietnam The Battle of Truong Sa was a naval battle that resulted in the capture of the South Vietnamese-held Truong Sa Islands by North Vietnamese forces on April 29, 1975. ... Belligerents Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Hoang Cam Le Duc Anh Nguyen Van Toan Nguyen Hop Doan Strength 100,000 [1] 30,000 [1] Casualties and losses Unknown Unknown The Fall of Saigon... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Operation Ranch Hand was a part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. ... Operation Pierce Arrow was a U.S. military operation during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Kingdom of Laos Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Pathet Lao (PL) Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and... For the American mail service, see Pony Express. ... During the Vietnam War, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson in February 1965 ordered a series of reprisal air strikes after a number of attacks on U.S. bases, particularly on a U.S. installation at Pleiku. ... Operation Steel Tiger was a covert US Air Force aerial interdiction effort targeted against North Vietnamese infiltration through southeastern Laos during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Operation Arc Light was the 1965 deployment of B-52 heavy bombers to bases in Guam. ... Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound Areas of Operations, 1965. ... Combatants United States Air Force North Vietnamese Air Force Commanders Robin Olds Unknown Strength 56 F-4C Phantom IIs (26 participated) 16 MiG-21 Fishbeds (11-14 engaged) Casualties None seven Mig-21s confirmed destroyed two MiG-21s probably destroyed Operation Bolo was a famous air battle fought in the... Text on this page is modified (with permission) from Paul N. Edwards, The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996). ... Combatants United States, Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Operation Commando Hunt was a covert Seventh/Thirteenth United States Air Force offensive initiative that took place during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Operation Menu was the codename of a covert U.S. Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge Operation Freedom Deal was a US Seventh Air Force interdiction and close air support campaign waged in Cambodia from 19 May 1970 until 15 August 1973, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders John W. Vogt, Jr. ... Combatants United States (U.S.) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders John W. Vogt, jr. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam During the 1960s the United States military worked hard to interdict the movement of men and materiel along the Ho Chi Minh trail. ... The Second Air Division came into being following the reorganisation of the 8th USAAF Bomber Command as the Eighth Air Force. ... The Seventh Air Force (7 AF) is a Numbered Air Force (NAF) under the Pacific Air Forces major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force. ... Naval redirects here. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... -1... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The four objectives of the operation, (which evolved over time) were: To bolster the sagging morale of the Saigon regime in the Republic of Vietnam; To convince North Vietnam to cease its support for the communist insurgency in South Vietnam; To destroy North Vietnam's transportation system, industrial base, and air defenses; and to interdict the flow of men and material into South Vietnam. Attainment of these objectives was made difficult by both the restraints imposed upon the U.S and its allies by Cold War exigencies and by the military aid and assistance received by North Vietnam from its communist allies, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The operation became the most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War period, indeed, it was the most difficult such campaign fought by the U.S. Air Force since the aerial bombardment of Nazi Germany during World War II. Thanks to the efforts of its allies, North Vietnam fielded a potent mixture of sophisticated air-to-air and ground-to-air weapons that created one of the most effective air defense environments ever faced by American military aviators. After one of the longest aerial campaigns ever conducted by any nation, Rolling Thunder was terminated as a strategic failure in late 1968 having achieved none of its objectives.[1] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Gradually escalating action

For more details on on the origins of American involvement in Vietnam, see Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

Chart showing the U.S. Navys interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American...

Background

In response to President Ngo Dinh Diem's abrogation of the 1956 reunification election and suppression of communists during the late 1950s, Hanoi had begun sending arms and materiel to the guerrillas of the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF), who were fighting an insurgency to topple the American-supported Saigon government.[2] To combat the NLF and to shore up the government in the south, the U.S. initially delivered monetary aid, military advisors, and supplies.[3] Between 1957 and 1963, the U.S. found itself committed, through its acceptance of the policy of containment and belief in the domino theory, to defending South Vietnam from what it saw as expansive communist aggression.[4]   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Viet Cong redirects here. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ...


U.S. policy was for a time dictated by its perception of improvement in the Saigon government.[5] No further commitment by the Americans would occur without tangible proof of the regime's survivability.[6] Events in Vietnam, however, outraced this policy. By the beginning of 1965, it was stood upon its head - without further American action the Saigon government could not survive.[7]


Questions then arose among the U.S. administration and military leadership as to the best method by which Hanoi (the perceived locus of the insurgency) could be dissuaded from its course of action. The answer seemed to lie in the application of air power. By 1964 most of the civilians surrounding President Lyndon B. Johnson shared the Joint Chiefs of Staff's collective faith in the efficacy of strategic bombing to one degree or another.[8] They reasoned that a small nation like North Vietnam, with a tiny industrial base that was just emerging after the First Indochina War, would be reluctant to risk its new-found economic viability to support the insurgency in the south.[9] Constantly affecting this decision-making process were fears of possible counter moves or outright intervention by the Soviet Union, the PRC, or both.[10] The civilians and the military were divided, however, on the manner of affecting Hanoi's will to support the southern insurgency. The civilians thought in terms of changing the regime's behavior while the military men were more concerned with breaking its will.[11] For the puzzle, see Tower of Hanoi. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4...


In August 1964, as a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, in which U.S. naval vessels claimed to have been attacked by North Vietnamese patrol boats, President Johnson ordered retaliatory air strikes (Operation Pierce Arrow) launched against the north.[12] This did not, however, satisfy the military chiefs, who demanded a wider and more aggressive campaign.[13] Chart showing the U.S. Navys interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American... Operation Pierce Arrow was a U.S. military operation during the Vietnam War. ...


Implementation

By the end of August, the Joint Chiefs had drawn up a list of 94 targets to be destroyed as part of a coordinated eight-week air campaign against North Vietnam's transportation network.[14] Bridges, rail yards, docks, barracks and supply dumps were all targeted. Johnson, however, feared that such a campaign might trigger a direct intervention by Chinese or Soviets, which might, in turn, cascade into a world war.[15] With McNamara's support, the president refused to endorse such an unrestricted bombing campaign.


Instead, the U.S. launched more "tit-for-tat" airstrikes in retaliation for a 7 February 1965 NLF attack at Pleiku (Operation Flaming Dart) and for a bomb attack against an American enlisted men's billet at Qui Nhon on the 10th (Operation Flaming Dart II). These small-scale operations were launched against the southern region of the country, where the bulk of North Vietnam's ground forces and supply dumps were located.[16] is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... During the Vietnam War, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson in February 1965 ordered a series of reprisal air strikes after a number of attacks on U.S. bases, particularly on a U.S. installation at Pleiku. ...


Surrendering to continued NLF advances and pressures from the Joint Chiefs, Johnson formally authorized a sustained bombing program, codenamed Rolling Thunder, which would not be tied to overt North Vietnamese actions.[17] Rolling Thunder called for an eight-week air campaign consistent with the restrictions that Johnson and Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara had imposed upon it. If the insurgency continued "with DRV support, strikes against the DRV would be extended with intensified efforts against targets north of the 19th parallel."[18] The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Robert McNamara in 1964 Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968. ...


It was believed that selective pressure, controlled by Washington, combined with diplomatic overtures, would prevail and compel Hanoi to end its aggression.[19] The military was still not satisfied, since, for the time being, the bombing campaign was to be limited to targets below the 19th parallel, each of which would have to be cleared individually by the president and McNamara.[20]


The first mission of the new operation was launched on 2 March against an ammunition storage area near Xom Bang. On the same day, 19 VNAF A-1 Skyraiders struck the Quang Khe Naval Base. The Americans were shocked when six of their aircraft were shot down during the mission.[21] Five of the downed crewmen were rescued, but it was a portent of things to come.[22]-1... The Douglas A-1 (formerly AD) Skyraider was a U.S. single-seat attack bomber of the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. ...


Over the north

Strategic persuasion

In keeping with the concept of "gradualism", in which threatening destruction would serve as a more influential signal of American determination than destruction itself, it was better to hold important targets "hostage" by bombing trivial ones. From the beginning of Rolling Thunder, Washington dictated which targets would be struck, the day and hour of the attack, the number and types of aircraft and the tonnages and types of ordnance utilized, and sometimes even the direction of the attack.[23] Airstrikes were strictly forbidden within 30 nautical miles (60 km) of Hanoi and within ten nautical miles (19 km) of the port of Haiphong. A thirty-mile buffer zone also extended along the length of the Chinese frontier. According to Air Force historian Earl Tilford: Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, HÇŽifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ...

Targeting bore little resemblance to reality in that the sequence of attacks was uncoordinated and the targets were approved randomly - even illogically. The North's airfields, which, according to any rational targeting policy, should have been hit first in the campaign, were also off-limits.[24]

Although some of these restrictions were later loosened or rescinded, Johnson (with McNamara's support) kept a tight rein on the campaign, which continuously infuriated the American military commanders, right-wing members of Congress, and even some within the administration itself.[25] One of the primary objectives of the operation, at least to the military, should have been the closure of Haiphong and other ports by aerial mining, thereby slowing or halting the flow of seaborne supplies entering the north. President Johnson refused to take such a provocative action, however, and such an operation was not implemented until 1972. There was also little consultation between Johnson and the military chiefs during the target selection process. Even the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Army General Earl G. Wheeler, was not present for most of the critical discussions of 1965 and participated only occasionally thereafter.[26]


The majority of strikes during Rolling Thunder were launched from four Air Bases in Thailand: Korat, Takhli, Udon Thani, and Ubon.[27] The aircraft would refuel from aerial tankers over Laos before flying on to their targets in the DRV. After attacking their targets (usually by dive-bombing) the strike forces would either fly directly back to Thailand or exit over the relatively safe waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. It was quickly decided that, in order to limit airspace conflicts between Air Force and Naval strike forces, North Vietnam was divided into six target regions called "Route Packages", each of which was assigned to either the Air Force or Navy and into which the other was forbidden to intrude. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... [[Image:]]Udon Thani (Thai: ) is a city in the north-east of Thailand (Isan). ... Ubon Ratchathani is both a city and a province in Thailand. ...


Navy strikes were launched from the aircraft carriers of Task Force 77, cruising off the North Vietnamese coast at Yankee Station. Naval aircraft, which had shorter ranges (and carried lighter bomb loads) than their Air Force counterparts, approached their targets from seaward with the majority of their strikes flown against coastal targets.[28] Task Force 77 is an aircraft carrier task force in the United States Navy, and was the Carrier Strike Force of the U.S. Seventh Fleet in several conflicts. ... Yankee Station was a point in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of Vietnam used by U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to launch raids in the Vietnam War. ...


On 3 April the Joint Chiefs convinced McNamara and Johnson to launch a four-week attack on North Vietnam's lines of communications, which would isolate that nation from its overland sources of supply in the PRC and the Soviet Union. About one-third of the north's imports came down the northeast railroad from the PRC, while the remaining two-thirds came by sea through Haiphong and other ports.[29] For the first time in the campaign, targets were to be chosen for their military, rather than their psychological significance.[30] During the four weeks, 26 bridges and seven ferries were destroyed.[31] Other targets included the extensive North Vietnamese radar system, barracks, and ammunition depots. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The panhandle of southern North Vietnam, however remained the primary locus of operations and total sorties flown there rose from 3,600 in April to 4,000 in May.[32] Slowly moving away from the destruction of fixed targets, "armed reconnaissance" missions, in which small formations of aircraft patrolled highways, railroads, and rivers, searching for targets of opportunity, were authorized. These missions increased from two to 200 sorties per week by the end of 1965.[33] Eventually, armed reconnaissance missions would constitute 75 percent of the total bombing effort, in part because the system through which fixed targets were requested, selected, and authorized was so complicated and unwieldy.[34]


Changing priorities and POL strikes

If Rolling Thunder was supposed to "send signals" to Hanoi to desist in its actions, it did not seem to be working. On 8 April, responding to requests for peace negotiations, North Vietnamese Premier Pham Van Dong stated that they could only begin when: the bombing was halted; the U.S. had removed all of its troops from the south; the Saigon government recognized the demands of the NLF; and it was agreed that the reunification of Vietnam would be settled by the Vietnamese themselves.[35] Ominously, on 3 April the North Vietnamese Air Force made its first appearance when American aircraft were attacked by Soviet-built MiG-15s. is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pham Van Dong (March 1, 1906 – April 29, 2000) was an associate of Ho Chi Minh. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ...


The entire complexion of the American effort was altered on 8 March 1965, when 3,500 U.S. Marines came ashore at Da Nang, ostensibly to defend the southern airfields committed to prosecuting Rolling Thunder.[36] The mission of the ground forces was expanded to combat operations and, from that point onward, the aerial campaign became a secondary operation, overwhelmed by troop deployments and the escalation of ground operations in South Vietnam.[37] Until the third week of April, Rolling Thunder had enjoyed at least equal status with air missions conducted in the south. After that time, strikes that interfered with requirements for the southern battlefield were either cut back or cancelled.[38] is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... This article is about the city of Da Nang. ...


By 24 December 1965, 170 U.S. aircraft had been lost during the campaign (85 Air Force, 94 Navy, and one Marine Corps). Eight VNAF aircraft had also been lost.[39] Air Force aircrews had flown 25,971 sorties and dropped 32,063 tons of bombs. Naval aviators had flown 28,168 sorties and dropped 11,144 tons. The VNAF had contributed 682 missions with unknown ordnance tonnages.[40] is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


U.S. reconnaissance discovered on 5 April 1966 that the North Vietnamese were constructing positions for what could only be surface-to-air missile (SAM) batteries. The Air Force and Navy then filed a joint appeal to Washington for permission to strike the sites, but they were refused since most of the sites were near the restricted urban areas.[41] It came as no surprise when, on 24 July, an F-105 was shot down by a SA-2 Guideline missile. Three days later, a one-time strike was authorized against the two offending missile sites. The Americans, however, fell for an elaborate trap when the sites turned out to be dummies surrounded by anti-aircraft artillery defenses. One American pilot described the action which followed as "looking like the end of the world."[42] Six of the strike craft were destroyed (two of the pilots were killed, one missing, two captured, and one rescued) during the debacle.[43] is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, commonly known as the Thud by its crews, was a single-seat supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... An S-75 missile on camoflaged launcher An S-75 missile in elevated position An North Vietnamese S-75 site An S-75 missile in transit A Fan Song radar (left) and what looks like a Low Blow to the right The SA-2 Guideline is the NATO reporting name...


On 29 June 1966, airstrikes against the north's petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) storage areas were authorized by Johnson. The American military had advocated such strikes since the inception of the operation, believing that to deny North Vietnam its POL would cause its military effort to grind to a halt. The strikes at first appeared successful, destroying tank farms near Hanoi and Haiphong and leading the CIA to estimate that 70 percent of North Vietnam's oil facilities had been destroyed for the loss of 43 aircraft.[44] The success proved only a short-term inconvenience for North Vietnam, however, since Hanoi had anticipated just such a campaign and had dispersed the majority of its POL stocks in 50-gallon drums across the length of the country. The POL attacks were halted on 4 September after U.S. intelligence admitted that there was "no evidence yet of any shortages of POL in North Vietnam."[45] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reactions

Problems

Rolling Thunder exposed many problems within the American military services committed to it and tended to exacerbate others. A key interservice issue (and one which was not solved until 1968) was the command and control arrangement in Southeast Asia. The Air Force's 2nd Air Division (replaced by the Seventh Air Force on 1 April 1966) was ostensibly responsible for aerial operations over North and South Vietnam. It was subordinate, however, to MACV and its commander, U.S. Army General William C. Westmoreland, who tended to see his problems centered in the south.[46] The U.S. Seventh/Thirteenth Air Force, based in Thailand (which carried out the majority of the Air Force's strikes in North Vietnam), had a dual command structure. It reported to the Seventh on operational matters and to the Thirteenth Air Force (whose headquarters was in the Philippines) for logistical and administrative concerns. These command and control complexities grew even more tangled with the division of the aerial effort into four competing operational areas (those in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Laos (both north and south).[47] is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV, pronounced as mac vee) was the United States command structure during the Vietnam War from 1962 until the wars end. ... General William Westmoreland William Childs Westmoreland (born March 26, 1914, Spartanburg County, South Carolina) is a retired United States General who commanded US military operations in the Vietnam War from 1964_68 and served as US Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972. ... The Seventh/Thirteenth Air Force was organized on 6 January 1966 and stationed at Udon Thani, Thailand. ...


The Navy's Task Force 77 took its orders via 7th Fleet from CINCPAC, a Navy admiral based in Honolulu, through his subordinate, the Air Force commander of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF).[48] Due to their influence, the Navy could not be persuaded to integrate its air operations over North Vietnam with those of the Air Force. General William Momyer, commander of the Seventh, had the impression that CINCPAC and PACAF wanted to keep the Thai-based aircraft out of his hands. "By denying Momyer, they were really denying Westmoreland and keeping air operations against the DRV under their control."[49] To complicate matters, the U.S. ambassadors to Thailand (Graham Martin) and Laos (William H. Sullivan) exerted undue influence over operational and command arrangements.[50] The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, South Korea and Japan. ... The United States Pacific Command operates from suburban Honolulu in south central Oahu at the Nimitz-MacArthur Pacific Command Center. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces Pacific The United States Pacific Air Forces (USPACAF or PACAF) is one of nine major U.S. Air Force commands and one of two located outside the continental United States, the other being U.S. Air Forces Europe. ... Graham Martin succeeded Ellsworth Bunker as U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam in 1973. ... The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1979. ...


This bizarre command structure went against the grain of the Air Force's single air manager concept, which dictated that one commander control and coordinate all aircraft within a combat theater.[51] The chain through which operational strike requests had to flow gave some indication of the growing overcomplexity of the campaign. Requests for airstrikes originated with the 2nd Air Division and Task Force 77 in Vietnam and then proceeded to CINCPAC, who in turn reported to his superiors, the Joint Chiefs, at the Pentagon. After input from the State Department and the CIA, the requests then proceeded to the White House, where the president and his "Tuesday Cabinet" made decisions on the strike requests on a weekly basis.[52] This article is about the United States military building. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Another problem exposed by Rolling Thunder was the unpreparedness of the Air Force for the operations it was undertaking. Its aircraft had been designed and its pilots trained for strategic operations against the Soviet Union - for nuclear, not conventional war.[53] The new campaign exposed years of neglect in conventional tactics, while aircraft capabilities and armament were ill-suited to the task at hand. The Air Force was also embarrassed by the fact that the Navy was better prepared. It possessed the only all-weather fighter-bomber in the U.S. inventory in the new A-6 Intruder and was also responsible for the development of the F-4 Phantom fighter-bomber, which became ubiquitous during the Vietnam Conflict.[54] The A-6 Intruder is a twin-engine, mid-wing attack aircraft built by Grumman Aerospace. ... The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ...


Once air-to-air combat began over North Vietnam, the Air Force was again found lacking. The mainstay missiles of the air war turned out to be the Navy-developed AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow, not its own AIM-4 Falcon.[55] The Air Force continuously opposed adapting to the conflict in Southeast Asia, since its leadership believed that it was an aberration that would be quickly resolved. It could then turn its attention (and its more modern weapons) against the greater threat posed by the Soviet Union. None in the Air Force high command foresaw that the conflict at hand could drag on for nearly a decade.[56] The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... A RIM-7 Sea Sparrow being launched from the USS Essex (LHD-2). ... The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force. ...


The Air Force did possess an aircraft which had an all-weather capability, radar-guided bombing equipment, and awesome destructive potential - the B-52 Stratofortress. The civilian administration, however, never considered utilizing the big bombers (whose operations remained under the control of the Strategic Air Command) very far north of the DMZ, believing that it was too overt an escalation.[57] Air Force Chief of Staff John P. McConnell also opposed sending the bombers into the air defense environment in the north and limited B-52 strikes to Route Package One.[58] B-52 redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... John P. McConnell - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Compounding these issues was the one-year rotation policy adopted by the Pentagon in Southeast Asia. Although the first aircrews arriving in-theater were highly experienced, the rapidly growing tempo and ever-expanding length of the operation demanded more personnel. This exacerbated a growing lack of experienced aircrews. This dilemma was further compounded by an Air Force policy which dictated universal pilot training while proscribing involuntary second combat tours, which combined, had the effect of rotating personnel to different aircraft.[59] Conversely, the Navy tended to maintain its aircrews within the same community for the duration of their careers, thereby retaining their expertise, but also incurring greater losses among experienced crews undergoing multiple combat tours.[60]


Last, but not least, was the weather within the operational theater. The cyclical monsoon patterns meant that the weather was deplorable for flight operations eight months of the year (from late September to early May) when rain and fog tended to conceal targets. Lack of adequate all-weather and night-bombing capability made it necessary for the majority of U.S. missions to be conducted during daylight hours, thereby easing the burden on the air defense forces of North Vietnam.


People's War in the air

Before Rolling Thunder even began the North Vietnamese leadership knew what was coming. It issued a February 1965 directive to the military and the population to "maintain communication and transportation and to expect the complete destruction of the entire country, including Hanoi and Haiphong."[61] The communist leadership declared "a people's war against the air war of destruction...each citizen is a soldier, each village, street, and plant a fortress on the anti-American battlefront."[62] All except those deemed "truly indispensable to the life of the capital" were evacuated to the countryside. By 1967, Hanoi's population had been reduced by half.[63]

North Vietnamese air defense weapons.
North Vietnamese air defense weapons.

Since gaining air superiority over U.S. forces was out of the question, the northern leadership decided to implement a policy of air deniability. At the beginning of the campaign, North Vietnam possessed approximately 1,500 anti-aircraft weapons, most of which were of the light 37 and 57mm variety. Within one year, however, the U.S. estimated that the number had grown to over 5,000 guns, including 85 and 100mm radar-directed weapons.[64] That estimate was later revised downward from a high of 7,000 in early 1967 to less than a thousand by 1972.[65] Regardless, during Rolling Thunder, 80 percent of U.S. aircraft losses were attributed to anti-aircraft fire.[66] V!% File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... V!% File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Backing up the guns were the fighter aircraft of the North Vietnamese Air Force, which originally consisted of only 53 MiG-15 and MiG-17 Fresco aircraft.[67] Though considered antiquated by the Americans when compared to their supersonic jets, the North Vietnamese turned their aircraft's weaknesses into strengths. They were fast enough for hit and run ambush operations and they were also maneuverable enough to shock the American fighter community by shooting down more advanced F-8 Crusaders and F-105 Thunderchiefs, which had to quickly develop new tactics. The newer missile-armed F-4 Phantom would become the American's primary dogfighting platform. The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ... MiG-17 at the Central Texas Airshow, USA, May 2003. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, commonly known as the Thud by its crews, was a single-seat supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ...


The simple appearance of MiGs could often accomplish their mission by causing American pilots to jettison their bomb loads as a defensive measure.[68] In 1966, the 15s and 19s were joined by more modern Soviet-built MiG-21 Fishbeds, which could fight on a more equal footing with the U.S. aircraft. By 1967, the North Vietnamese Air Force was maintaining an interceptor force of 100 aircraft, many of which were based on PRC airfields and out of reach of American air attack.[69] Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ...


To protect the northern economy, it was decentralized and large factories, located in the heavily-populated Red River Delta region, were broken up and scattered into caves and small villages throughout the countryside. In the more heavily-bombed southern panhandle, entire villages moved into underground tunnel complexes for the duration. Food shortages in North Vietnam became widespread, especially in the urban areas, as rice farmers went into the military or volunteered for service repairing bomb damage.[70] When the nation's transportation system came under attack, destroyed bridges were repaired or replaced by dirt fords, ferries, and underwater and pontoon bridges. The system proved to be durable, well built, easily repaired, and practically impossible to shut down.[71]


Perhaps North Vietnam's ultimate resource was its population, which was fired by nationalist zeal. During 1965, 97,000 North Vietnamese volunteered to work full time in repairing the damage inflicted by U.S. bombs. Another 370,000-500,000 worked part time.[72] When the nation's lines of communication came under attack, railroad supply trains and truck convoys were split into smaller elements which traveled only at night. The logistical effort was supported by citizens on sampans, driving carts, pushing wheelbarrows, or man-portering supplies on their backs to keep the war effort going. They were motivated by slogans like "Each kilogram of goods...is a bullet shot into the head of the American pirates."[73]


Biggest shooting gallery on Earth

SAMs and Wild Weasels

North Vietnam's deployment of SAMs forced American pilots to make hard choices: either approach targets at higher altitudes (to avoid anti-aircraft fire) and become prey to SAMs, or fly lower to avoid the missiles and become the target of anti-aircraft batteries. Due to altered tactics and the increased use of electronic radar jamming, the record of SAM kills decreased over time. The already dismal missile success rate fell from one kill for 30 launches to less than one kill for 50.[74] Those figures do, however, say a great deal about the efficiency of Rolling Thunder, since North Vietnam's SAM batteries never lacked sufficient stocks of missiles, regardless of efforts to interdict the supply system.


The nature of the gradual escalation had given Hanoi time to adapt to the situation. By 1967, North Vietnam had formed an estimated 25 SAM battalions (with six missile launchers each) which rotated among approximately 150 sites.[75] With the assistance of the Soviet Union, the North Vietnamese had also quickly integrated an early warning radar system of more than 200 facilities which covered the entire country, tracking incoming U.S. raids, and then coordinating SAMs, anti-aircraft batteries, and MiGs to attack them.[76] During 1967 U.S. losses totaled 248 aircraft (145 Air Force, 102 Navy, and one Marine Corps).[77]


To survive in this ever more lethal air defense zone, the U.S. had to adopt newer, more specialized tactics. Large-scale strikes, known as force packages in the Air Force and multi-carrier "Alpha strikes" by the Navy, were assigned numerous support aircraft to protect the fighter-bombers. First into the target areas were specialized Iron Hand flak suppression missions. These consisted of F-105 Wild Weasel hunter/killer teams configured with sophisticated electronic equipment to detect and locate the emissions associated with SAM guidance and control radars. An alpha strike is a sudden, all-out attack with no consideration for defense or conserving reserves, in the context of a game (typically a war game, card game, or video game. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, commonly known as the Thud by its crews, was a single-seat supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... An F-4G carrying the tools of the trade, from nearest to farthest, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-65 Maverick, ALQ-119 ECM pod, AGM-78 Standard ARM and AGM-45 Shrike, circa 1981. ...


The Wild Weasel also carried electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment to protect themselves. They directed flak suppression strikes and carried AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles (another Navy development), which homed in on the radar systems of the SAMs. The SA-2 had greater range than the Shrike, but if the Shrike was launched and the radar operator stayed on the air, the American missile would home in on the signal and destroy the radar source. A sophisticated cat and mouse game then ensued between North Vietnamese radar operators and the Wild Weasel pilots. The Navy also utilized aircraft in a similar role, but did not create a specialized unit like the Wild Weasels to conduct SAM suppression. Next came the bomb-ladened strike aircraft protected by escort fighters (Combat Air Patrol or MIGCAP) and electronic jamming aircraft to degrade enemy radar. New ECM devices had been hurriedly deployed to protect aircraft from missile attacks, but they remained subject to frequent breakdowns because of climate conditions in Southeast Asia. Also included in the missions were KC-135 aerial tankers and Search and Rescue (SAR) helicopters, which were, in turn, protected by propeller-driven A-1 escorts. Inspecting an AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Attack Pod Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are a subsection of electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to fool radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. ... AGM-45 Shrike is an anti-radiation missile designed to home in on hostile antiaircraft radars. ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft. ...


From mid-1966 until the end of 1967, President Johnson continued to dole out sensitive targets one by one to the generals while simultaneously trying to placate the doves in Congress and within his own administration with periodic cutbacks and half-hearted peace initiatives.[78] In the end, this erratic course satisfied no one and did little to alter the course of the conflict.[79]


The nature of the targets and the risks involved in striking (and re-striking) them began to take a toll. Chief of Naval Operations David McDonald reported to his co-chiefs after a trip to South Vietnam in September 1966, that Rolling Thunder aircrews were angered with the targeting process and that they faulted the campaign due to "guidelines requiring repetitive air programs that seemed more than anything else to benefit enemy gunners."[80] During 1967, the second full year of Rolling Thunder operations, 362 U.S. aircraft had been lost over North Vietnam. (208 Air Force, 142 Navy, and 12 Marine Corps).[81] The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... ADM David Lamar McDonald, USN, was an admiral of the United States Navy, who served as the 17th Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Aug. ...


MiGs and interdiction

Rolling Thunder reached the last stage of its operational evolution during 1967 and 1968. The chief purpose of the American air effort in the higher Route Packages of North Vietnam was slowly transformed into that of interdicting the flow of supplies and materiel and the destruction of those segments of the north's infrastructure that supported its military effort. Although most U.S. aircraft losses continued to be inflicted by anti-aircraft fire, U.S. Air Force F-105s and Navy A-4 Skyhawks increasingly encountered SAMs and MiGs. North Vietnamese fighters also became a particular problem because of the lack of radar coverage in the Red River Delta region, which allowed the MiGs to surprise the strike forces. Airborne early warning aircraft had difficulty detecting the fighters at low altitudes and the aircraft themselves were difficult to see visually.[82] While F-105s did score 27 air-to-air victories, the overall exchange ratio was near parity. In January 1967, the Americans sprang a surprise on the MiGs when they launched Operation Bolo. F-4 Phantoms, using the same radio call signs, direction of approach, altitude, and speed as a typical flight of bomb-ladened F-105s, lured the MiGs toward what they thought would be easy prey. The result was seven MiGs shot down within 12 minutes.[83] The A-4 Skyhawk was an American attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ... Combatants United States Air Force North Vietnamese Air Force Commanders Robin Olds Unknown Strength 56 F-4C Phantom IIs (26 participated) 16 MiG-21 Fishbeds (11-14 engaged) Casualties None seven Mig-21s confirmed destroyed two MiG-21s probably destroyed Operation Bolo was a famous air battle fought in the...


Later in the year, the U.S. launched its most intense and sustained attempt to force North Vietnam into peace negotiations. Almost all of the targets on the Joint Chief's list had been authorized for attack, including airfields that had been previously off-limits.[84] Only central Hanoi, Haiphong, and the PRC border area remained prohibited from attack. A major effort was made to isolate the urban areas by downing bridges and attacking LOCs. Also struck were the Thai Nguyen steel complex, thermal and electrical power plants, ship and rail repair facilities, and warehouses. North Vietnamese MiGs entered the battle en masse as their capital was threatened and kill ratios fell to one U.S. aircraft lost for every two MiGs.[85] During 1968, MiGs accounted for 22 percent of the 184 American planes (75 Air Force, 59 Navy, and five Marine Corps) lost over the north.[86] As a result, operations against the last of North Vietnam's airfields, previously off-limits to attack, were authorized.


Despite the best interdiction efforts of Rolling Thunder, however, the NLF and PAVN launched their largest offensive thus far in the conflict on 30 January 1968, striking throughout South Vietnam during the lunar new year holiday. The Tet Offensive concluded as a military disaster for North Vietnam and its NLF allies, but it also adversely affected U.S. public opinion, which in turn affected the will of Washington.[87] Fortunately for North Vietnam, many U.S. bombing advocates (including Air Force Chief of Staff McConnell) did not want to risk the one aircraft capable of delivering a lot of bombs in bad weather - the B-52. Without them, there was little that could be done over the north in response to Tet, since bad weather minimized fighter operations until the beginning of April.[88] is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength ~120,000[1] ~323 - 595,000[2] Casualties and losses Phase I: 2,788 killed, 8...


End of the line

Opposition

For more details on the positions of the secretary of defense, see Robert S. McNamara.
For more details on the negotiations, see Paris Peace Talks.

By spring 1967, Robert McNamara and other civilians in the administration had become convinced that both Rolling Thunder and the ground war in South Vietnam were not working.[89] The bombing campaign had fallen far short of its goals and the disenchanted continuously opposed the Joint Chief's recommendations for an increased tempo of bombing and the loosening of target restrictions.[90] The generals found themselves on the horns of a dilemma of their own making. They continuously claimed that the campaign was working, yet they also had to continuously demand greater latitude in order to make the campaign succeed.[91] The limited goals entailed in American foreign policy and the military's goal of total victory were simply not reconcilable. The great conundrum had then become how to defeat North Vietnam without defeating North Vietnam.[92] Robert McNamara in 1964 Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968. ... ...


On 9 August 1967 the Senate Armed Services Committee opened hearings on the bombing campaign. Complaints from the armed services had sparked the interest of some of the most vocal hawks on Capitol Hill.[93] The military chiefs testified before the committee, complaining about the gradual nature of the air war and its civilian-imposed restrictions. It was obvious that McNamara, the only civilian subpoenaed and the last to testify before the committee, was to be the scapegoat.[94] The Secretary of Defense marshaled his objections to an indiscriminate air war and adeptly rebutted the charges of the military chiefs.[95] He bluntly admitted that there was "no basis to believe that any bombing campaign...would by itself force Ho Chi Minh's regime into submission, short, that is, of the virtual annihilation of North Vietnam and its people."[96] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ...


It had now become clear to President Johnson that McNamara had become a liability to the administration.[97] In February 1968, McNamara resigned his position and was replaced by Clark Clifford, who was chosen because of his personal friendship with Johnson and his previous opposition to McNamara's suggestions that the number of troops in the South Vietnam be stabilized and that Rolling Thunder be ended.[98] McNamara's position, however was almost immediately taken up by Secretary of State Dean Rusk, (until then an ardent advocate of the bombing campaign). Rusk proposed limiting the campaign to the panhandle of North Vietnam without preconditions and awaiting Hanoi's reaction.[99] Within months Clifford too began to adopt the views of the man he had replaced, gradually becoming convinced that the U.S. had to withdraw from an open-ended commitment to the conflict.[100] Disappointed by perceived political defeats at home and hoping that Hanoi would enter into negotiations, President Johnson announced on 31 March 1968, that all bombing north of the 19th parallel would cease.[101] As a result of that decision, into the area between the 17th and 19th parallels, the Air Force and Navy began to pour all the firepower that they had formerly spread throughout North Vietnam. The Air Force doubled the number of sorties sent into Route Package One to more than 6,000 per month with the campaign concentrated on interdiction "choke points", road closing, and truck hunting.[102] Once again, the military commanders were faced a familiar dilemma: having opposed the bombing cutback, they then decided that the new policy had a lot of merit, especially when considering the alternative of no bombing at all.[103] The North Vietnamese responded by doubling the number of anti-aircraft batteries in the panhandle, but most of their SAM batteries remained deployed around Hanoi and Haiphong. Clark McAdams Clifford (December 25, 1906 – October 10, 1998) was a highly influential American lawyer who served Presidents Truman, Kennedy, Johnson and Carter, serving as Secretary of Defense for Johnson. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hanoi, which had continuously stipulated that it would not conduct negotiations while the bombing continued, finally agreed to meet with the Americans for preliminary talks in Paris. As a result, President Johnson declared that a complete bombing halt over North Vietnam would go into effect on 1 November 1968, just prior to the U.S. presidential election. Although the bombing halt was to be linked to progress in the peace talks, the Joint Chiefs were skeptical that the administration would reopen the bombing campaign under any circumstances.[104] They were correct. This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Conclusions

Between March 1965 and November 1968, aircraft of the U.S. Air Force had flown 153,784 attack sorties against North Vietnam, while the Navy and Marine Corps had added another 152,399.[105] On 31 December 1967, the Department of Defense announced that 864,000 tons of American bombs had been dropped on North Vietnam during Rolling Thunder, compared with 653,000 tons dropped during the entire Korean Conflict and 503,000 tons in the Pacific theater during the Second World War.[106] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The CIA estimated on 1 January 1968 that damage inflicted in the north totaled $370 million in physical destruction, including $164 million worth of damage to capital assets (such as factories, bridges, and power plants). The agency also estimated that approximately 1,000 casualties had been inflicted on the North Vietnamese population per week, or approximately 90,000 for the 44-month period, 72,000 of whom were civilians.[107] Due to combat and operational circumstances, 506 U.S. Air Force, 397 Navy, and 19 Marine Corps aircraft were lost over or near North Vietnam.[108][109] During the operation, of the 745 crewmen shot down, the U.S. Air Force recorded 145 rescued, 255 killed, 222 captured (23 of whom died in captivity), and 123 missing.[110] Figures on U.S. Navy and Marine Corps casualties were harder to come by. During the 44-month time frame, 454 Naval aviators were killed, captured, or missing during combined operations over North Vietnam and Laos.[111] The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rolling Thunder had begun as a campaign of psychological and strategic persuasion, but it changed very quickly to interdiction, a tactical mission.[112] Its ultimate failure had two sources, both of which lay with the civilian and military policy-makers in Washington: First, neither group could ever conceive that the North Vietnamese would endure under the punishment that they would unleash upon it. The civilians, moreover, did not understand airpower well enough to know that their policies might be crippling it; Second, the American military leadership failed to initially propose and develop, or later to adapt, an appropriate strategy for the conflict at hand.[113]


Along the way, Rolling Thunder also fell prey to the same dysfunctional managerial attitude as did the rest of the American military effort in Southeast Asia. The process of the campaign became an end unto itself, with sortie generation as the standard by which progress was measured.[114] Sortie rates and the number of bombs dropped, however, equaled efficiency, not effectiveness.[115] Moreover, North Vietnam's ability to turn its weaknesses into strengths, the personal sacrifices borne stoically by its population, and the iron determination of its government made it a formidable enemy. Fortunately for North Vietnam, its military effort was not sustained solely by its domestic industry, but rather by substantial support from China and the Soviets. If enough of the supplies necessary to maintain its operations could be imported and distributed (by whatever means), that nation could not (and would not) be coerced into the capitulation of its goals.


Legacy

The U.S fighter community was shocked with the news that elderly subsonic fighters were inflicting losses against the F-105 Thunderchief, the fastest and most sophisticated strike fighter then in the Air Force inventory. One result was a drastic rethinking of air combat and aircraft design which had been based around delivery of nuclear weapons in Europe and missile interception. As a result the F-4 Phantom became the primary U.S. air superiority fighter for both services in the latter days of the war. The Air Force's F-4E was fitted with maneuvering slats and internal gun, while the Navy cancelled an expensive new fighter design in favor of a plane that would be more, rather than less effective, in a short-range dogfight than the Phantom. Analysis of the campaign resulted in the creation of new pilot training programs, such as the famous TOPGUN, utilizing F-5 Tigers and A-4 Skyhawks to simulate the threat of small subsonic and supersonic MiG fighters. The U.S. also started the design of a new generation of fighters that were optimized for visual-range dogfights. Although the first of these "teen" fighters would not enter service soon enough to cover America's withdrawal from Vietnam, they would dominate future air battles and served into the 21st century. TOPGUN is the code name and common name of the U.S. Navy Strike Fighter Tactics Instructor (SFTI) course. ... The F-5 Freedom Fighter (or TigerII) is a fighter aircraft, designed and built by Northrop in the USA, beginning in 1962. ... Dissimilar air combat training was introduced into air combat training after Vietnam combat experience. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ Since "protective reaction" air strikes were conducted between November 1968 and April 1972 within North Vietnam under the moniker Rolling Thunder, it can be claimed that the campaign was the longest ever conducted by any nation. Earl H. Tilford, Setup. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1991, p. 153.
  2. ^ Stanley Karnow, Vietnam. New York: Viking, 1983, pps. 237-239.
  3. ^ Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support. Washington DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1983, pps. 275-373.
  4. ^ In its public defense of its policies, the State Department argued that South Vietnam was "fighting for its life against a brutal campaign of terror and armed attack inspired, directed, supplied, and controlled by the communist regime in Hanoi. U.S. Department of State, Aggression from the North. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965, p. 60.
  5. ^ The coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem had unleashed a maelstrom of political unrest and communist victories. Coup followed coup in Saigon as ARVN generals vied for power. There were seven governments in Saigon in 1964, three between 16 August and 3 September alone. Robert M. Gillespie, The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Escalation of the Vietnam Conflict, 1964-1965. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Clemson University, 1994, p. 63.
  6. ^ Senator Mike Gravel, ed., The Pentagon Papers. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971, vol. 3, pps. 17-20.
  7. ^ George M. Kahin, Intervention. New York: Knopf, 1986, p. 272.
  8. ^ Tilford, p. 92. See also Gillespie, pps. 64-69.
  9. ^ Tilford, p. 92.
  10. ^ Lyndon B. Johnson, The Vantage Point. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1971, pps. 66-67.
  11. ^ Gillespie, p. 70.
  12. ^ The most accurate description of the incidents is Edwin E. Moise, Tonkin Gulf.
  13. ^ Mark Clodfelter, The Limits of Airpower New York: Free Press, 1989, p. 47.
  14. ^ Jacob Van Staaveren, Gradual Failure. Washington DC: Air Force Museums and History Program, 2002, p. 46. See also Tilford, p. 93.
  15. ^ Gillespie, p. 71.
  16. ^ H.R. McMaster, Dereliction of Duty. New York: Harper Collins, 1997, 218-222.
  17. ^ Although some within the administration believed that the campaign would be costly, and that it might not work, they reasoned that it was "an acceptable risk, especially when considered against the alternative of introducing American combat troops." Morocco, p. 40. For the Secretary of Defense's thoughts on the planning and implementation of the air campaign see Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect. New York: Times Books, 1992, pps. 171-177.
  18. ^ McMaster, p. 226.
  19. ^ Col. John Schlight, A War Too Long. Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1996, p. 46.
  20. ^ John Morocco, Thunder from Above. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1984, p. 56. The daily target selection meetings were soon replaced by weekly sessions and finally by the creation of bi-weekly "force packages."
  21. ^ Jacob Van Staaveren, Gradual Failure. Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 2002, p. 86.
  22. ^ Morocco, p. 54.
  23. ^ Morocco, p. 55.
  24. ^ Tilford, p. 109.
  25. ^ Morocco, p. 57.
  26. ^ Wayne Thompson, To Hanoi and Back. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute Press, 2002, p. 80.
  27. ^ Only one South Vietnam-based squadron (based at Da Nang) participated in the DRV missions.
  28. ^ This also helped account for the lower number of aircraft and pilot losses suffered by the Navy. Fighters had only to defend a 90 degree arc in front of the strike force, SAM exposure was more limited, and coastal targets made the shorter distances of search and rescue operations more conducive to success.
  29. ^ Thompson, p. 26.
  30. ^ Morocco, p. 58.
  31. ^ Morocco, p. 61.
  32. ^ Morocco, p. 63.
  33. ^ Morocco, p. 63.
  34. ^ Tilford, p. 108.
  35. ^ Morocco, p. 62.
  36. ^ Karnow, p. 415.
  37. ^ NSAM 328, 6 April 1965. Neil Sheehan, et al. The Pentagon Papers. New York: Ballentine, 1971, pps. 442-443. See also Tilford, p. 115.
  38. ^ Schilght, Air War in South Vietnam. p. 33.
  39. ^ Chris Hobson, Vietnam Air Losses. Hinkley UK: Midland Press, 2001, pgs. 15-166. These losses include not only combat shootdowns, but those due to accidents, mechanical failure, and unknown causes.
  40. ^ Van Staaveren, p. 316.
  41. ^ Morocco, p. 107.
  42. ^ Morocco, p. 109.
  43. ^ Morocco, p. 109.
  44. ^ Morocco, p. 130
  45. ^ Morocco, p. 131.
  46. ^ Thompson, p. 14.
  47. ^ Schlight, Air War in South Vietnam, p. 24.
  48. ^ Thompson, p. 18.
  49. ^ Thompson, p. 15. This policy was ultimately unsuccessful. In November 1965, bombing in the area abutting the DMZ (Route Package One) was handed over to Westmoreland as part of the "extended battlefield." Schlight, A War Too Long, p. 48.
  50. ^ Thompson, p. 15.
  51. ^ See Operation Niagara
  52. ^ Van Staaveren, pps. 72-76. The meetings were usually attended by the president, McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk, and the president's special assistant for national security affairs, McGeorge Bundy
  53. ^ Tilford, p. 113.
  54. ^ The Air Force's unpreparedness was further revealed by its lack of adequate aerial reconnaissance aircraft (eg. 0-1 and 0-2 observation aircraft used for crucial Forward Air Control missions over South Vietnam, which it originally had to borrow from the Army) and tactical fighter-bombers (eg. Korean Conflict-era A-1 Skyraiders, which it had to obtain from the Navy). The F-4 Phantom that the Air Force fielded was not equipped with a gun since it was it expected to conduct air-to-air combat operations solely with missiles. General Momyer had long opposed putting a gun on the F-4 and was convinced to do so only after air-to-air engagements in 1966. The first Air Force version equipped with an internal gunsystem only appeared in 1968.Thompson, p. 64.
  55. ^ Thompson, p. 91.
  56. ^ Tilford, p. 113.
  57. ^ Morocco, p. 85.
  58. ^ Schlight, A War Too Long, p. 48. This policy compounded already existing tensions between airmen and their Army and Navy counterparts. The airmen were already upset that Westmoreland was ordering the greatest strategic bomber ever built into a ground support role, but then to have a naval officer (CINCPAC) pick their targets was simply unbearable. William P. Head, War Above the Clouds. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 2002, p. 23.
  59. ^ Marshall L. Michel Clashes: Air Combat Over North Vietnam 1965-1972. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997, pg 163. An experienced F-4 pilot could end up flying FAC missions in an O-2 Skymaster during a subsequent tour whereas an SAC or Military Airlift Command pilot could end up flying the F-4 Phantom.
  60. ^ Michel, p. 168
  61. ^ Van Staaveren, p. 83.
  62. ^ Morocco, p. 96.
  63. ^ Morocco, p. 137.
  64. ^ Morocco, p. 102.
  65. ^ Thompson, p. 40. The 1972 figure might also reflect the redeployment of anti-aircraft battalions after the end of Rolling Thunder to the defense of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos. See Operation Commando Hunt.
  66. ^ Thompson, p. 311.
  67. ^ Morocco, p. 102.
  68. ^ Thompson, p. 35. During the last four months of 1966, 192 American aircraft were intercepted by MiGs. Of these, 107 (56 percent) were forced to jettison their bombs . Morocco, p. 142.
  69. ^ Morocco, p. 148.
  70. ^ Morocco, pps. 135-139.
  71. ^ Tilford, p. 112.
  72. ^ Morocco, p. 98.
  73. ^ Morocco, p. 100.
  74. ^ Thompson, p. 50.
  75. ^ Thompson, p. 40. Average time for the displacement of a SAM battery was four hours. Two more hours produced an operational site.
  76. ^ Thompson, p. 41.
  77. ^ Hobson, pgs. 15-166.
  78. ^ The most complete treatment of the search for peace is Allen E. Goodman, The Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War.
  79. ^ Van Staaveren, p. 147.
  80. ^ Van Staaveren, p. 187.
  81. ^ Hobson, pgs 15-166.
  82. ^ Thompson, p. 17.
  83. ^ Schlight, A War Too Long, p. 52.
  84. ^ Morocco, p. 159.
  85. ^ Morocco, p. 159.
  86. ^ Hobson, 15-166. See also Morocco, p. 159.
  87. ^ Contrary to opinion, the U.S. public still supported the American effort in South Vietnam. It was disturbed by the magnitude of the offensive only in that its military and civilian leadership had constantly reassured them that American goals were being achieved and that there was "a light at the end of the tunnel." Tet merely served notice to the administration that the public wanted either victory or an end to the open-ended commitment of American resources and manpower. Clark Dougan, et al Nineteen Sixty-Eight. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1983, pps. 68-70.
  88. ^ Thompson, pps. 124-125.
  89. ^ McNamara, pps. 265-271.
  90. ^ McNamara, pps. 275-277. See also Morocco, pps. 153-154.
  91. ^ Tilford, p. 120. The military men could not back down. Unless given the opportunity to demonstrate the full potential of their services, they feared the loss of future roles and diminished budgets. Morocco, p. 153
  92. ^ Tilford, p. 138.
  93. ^ Morocco, p. 154.
  94. ^ McNamara, pps. 284-291.
  95. ^ Thompson, pps. 81-82.
  96. ^ Morocco, p. 156.
  97. ^ Karnow, p. 454.
  98. ^ Tilford, pps. 149-150.
  99. ^ Thompson, p. 135-136.
  100. ^ Morocco, p. 183. See also Thompson, pps. 136-139.
  101. ^ Morocco, pps. 183-184.
  102. ^ Thompson, p. 145.
  103. ^ Thompson, p. 141.
  104. ^ Thompson, p. 151.
  105. ^ Thompson, p. 303.
  106. ^ Berger, Carl, ed., The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia. Washington DC: Office of Air Force History, 1977, p. 366.
  107. ^ Texas Tech University, Vietnam Virtual Archive, Appraisal of the Bombing of North Vietnam (through 1 January 1968), p. 32.
  108. ^ Hobson, pgs. 15-116.
  109. ^ Schlight, A War Too Long, p.53
  110. ^ Schlight, A War too Long, p. 53.
  111. ^ Marolda, p. 82.
  112. ^ Tilford, p. 106.
  113. ^ Tilford, p. 155.
  114. ^ Tilford, p. 132.
  115. ^ Head, p. 37.

  «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Operation Niagara was a US Seventh Air Force close air support campaign carried out from January through March 1968, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... McGeorge Bundy (1967) McGeorge Mac Bundy (March 30, 1919–September 16, 1996) was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961–1966, and was president of the Ford Foundation from 1966–1979. ... A forward air controller (FAC) is a qualified individual who, from a forward position on the ground or in the air, directs the action of military aircraft engaged in close air support of land forces. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The O-2 Skymaster (also known as the Oscar Deuce or The Duck) is a military version of the Cessna 337 Super Skymaster. ... oooo lalala The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the neighboring kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. ... Combatants United States, Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Operation Commando Hunt was a covert Seventh/Thirteenth United States Air Force offensive initiative that took place during the Vietnam Conflict. ...

Sources

Published government documents

  • Berger, Carl, ed, The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973. Washington DC: Office of Air Force History, 1977.
  • Corum, Col. Delbert, et al and Maj. Paul Burbage, et al, The Tale of Two Bridges and The Battle for the Skies over North Vietnam, 1964-1972. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1976.
  • Department of State, Aggression from the North: The Record of North Vietnam's Campaign to Conquer South Vietnam. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965.
  • Head, William P. War Above the Clouds: B-52 Operations During the Second Indochina War and the Effects of the Air War on Theory and Doctrine. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 2002.
  • Marolda, Edward J. By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia. Washington DC: Naval Historical Center, 1994.
  • Schlight, Col. John, A War Too Long: The USAF in Southeast Asia, 1961-1975. Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1996.
  • Schlight, Col. John, The War in South Vietnam: The Years of the Offensive, 1965-1968. Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1999.
  • Spector, Ronald H. The United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support, 1941-1960. Washington DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1983.
  • Thompson, Wayne, To Hanoi and Back: The U.S. Air Force and North Vietnam, 1966-1973. Smithsonian Institute Press, 2002.
  • Tilford, Earl H. Setup: What the Air Force Did in Vietnam and Why. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 1991.
  • Van Staaveren, Jacob, Gradual Failure: The Air War Over North Vietnam, 1965-1966. Washington DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 2002.
  • Declassified CIA documents concerning Operation Rolling Thunder

Document collections

  • Gravel, Senator Mike, ed., The Pentagon Papers: The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking on Vietnam 5 vols. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.
  • Sheehan, Neil, Hedrick Smith, E.W. Kenworthy, & Fox Butterfield, The Pentagon Papers as Published by the New York Times. New York: Ballentine, 1971.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Biographies & memoirs

  • McNamara, Robert S. with Brian VanDeMark, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York: Times Books, 1995.
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. The Vantage Point: Perspective on the Presidency, 1963-1969. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1971.

Secondary sources

  • Clodfelter, Mark, The Limits of Airpower: The American Bombing of Vietnam. New York: Free Press, 1989.
  • Dougan, Clark, Stephen Weiss, et al., Nineteen Sixty-Eight. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1983.
  • Gillespie, Robert M. The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Escalation of the Vietnam Conflict, 1964-1965. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Clemson University, 1994.
  • Goodman, Allen E., The Search for A Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War. New York: Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Kahin, George M. Intervention: How America Became Involved in Vietnam. New York: Knopf, 1986.
  • Hobson, Chris, Vietnam Air Losses: U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps Fixed-Wing Aircraft Losses in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973. Hinkley UK: Midlands Press, 2001.
  • McMaster, H.R. Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Lies That Led to Vietnam. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
  • Moise Edwin E., Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
  • Morocco, John Thunder from Above: Air War, 1941-1968. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1984.
  • Nichols, John B. On Yankee Station: The Naval Air War over Vietnam. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 2001.
  • Smith, John T. Rolling Thunder: The Strategic Bombing Campaign, North Vietnam, 1965-1968. Kensington Publishing Group, 1987.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rolling Thunder® - New Jersey Chapter III - About (1239 words)
Rolling Thunder members are active year-round promoting legislation to increase veteran benefits and resolve the POW/MIA issue from all wars, and their generosity of time, food, and clothing to veterans and their local communities is continuous throughout the year.
Rolling Thunder was incorporated as a class 501 C-4 non-profit organization in 1995, and is headquartered in New Jersey.
Rolling Thunder passionately follows the Army Ranger Creed that vows: "I will never leave a fallen comrade to fall into the hands of the enemy..." Rolling Thunder will continue to grow and gain strength as long as even one person remains unaccounted for.
Operation Rolling Thunder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1790 words)
Operation Rolling Thunder (also known as the "Rolling Thunder Program", in terminology of the McNamara Department of Defense) was the code name for a U.S. military campaign during the Vietnam War, the bombing of North Vietnam by air units of the U.S. Seventh Air Force, Task Force 77, and the South Vietnamese Air Force.
Rolling Thunder was the first of three sustained bombing campaigns against North Vietnam, followed in 1972 by Operation Linebacker and Operation Linebacker II.
Objectives of the operation were to destroy the will of the North Vietnamese to fight, to destroy their industrial base and air defenses (including SAMs), and to stop the flow of men and supplies down the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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