FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Operation Praying Mantis
Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts.
Enlarge
Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts.

Operation Praying Mantis was the April 18, 1988 action waged by U.S. naval forces in retaliation for the Iranian mining of an American warship by the Iran Ajr. Image File history File links An aerial view of the Iranian frigate IS Alvand (71) burning on 18 April 1988 after being attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58). ... Image File history File links An aerial view of the Iranian frigate IS Alvand (71) burning on 18 April 1988 after being attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58). ... The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after retaliatory strikes by U.S. Navy ships and aircraft on April 18, 1988. ... --> USS (FFG-58) is one of the final vessels in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. ... Story The Iranian ship found laying mines that was bombed, boarded, and scuttled by the United States Navy and U.S. Navy SEALs on September 21, 1987 in Operation Prime Chance of the Iran-Iraq war. ...


The April 14 mining nearly sank the guided missile frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts, which was sailing in the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Earnest Will, the 1987-88 convoy missions in which U.S. warships escorted reflagged Kuwaiti oil tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... --> USS (FFG-58) is one of the final vessels in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Mess Management Specialist 2nd Class Williams Hendrickson scans for mines from the bow of the U.S. Navy guided missile frigate USS Nicolas (FFG-47) during an Earnest Will convoy mission. ...


After the mining, U.S. Navy divers recovered other mines in the area. The serial numbers matched those of mines seized along with the Iran Ajr the previous September. Story The Iranian ship found laying mines that was bombed, boarded, and scuttled by the United States Navy and U.S. Navy SEALs on September 21, 1987 in Operation Prime Chance of the Iran-Iraq war. ...


By the time the Roberts was towed to Dubai on April 15, battered but saved with no loss of life, U.S. planning for the retaliatory operation had already begun in Washington and in the Middle East. Flag Coordinates , Government Emirate Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Geographical characteristics Area     City 4,114 km² Demographics Population     City (2006) 1,570,779     Density   293. ...


The battle, the largest between surface forces since World War II, sank two Iranian warships and as many as six armed speedboats.


The attack by the U.S. helped pressure Iran to agree to a ceasefire with Iraq later that summer, ending the eight-year conflict between the Persian Gulf neighbors.

Contents


The battle

On April 18, 1988, the Americans responded with several groups of surface warships, plus airplanes from the carrier USS Enterprise. The action began with coordinated strikes by two surface groups. One group, consisting of two destroyers and the amphibious transport dock USS Trenton, attacked the Sassan oil platform while the other, which included a guided missile cruiser and two frigates, attacked the Sirri oil platform. U.S. Marines from Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 2-88 fast-roped onto the Sassan platform, gathered intelligence, and set explosives to disable it. April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The eighth USS Enterprise (CVN-65) was the worlds first nuclear aircraft carrier and the seventh U.S. Navy ship of the name. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer (French: contre-torpilleur, German: Zerstörer, Spanish: destructor, Italian: cacciatorpediniere) is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers... The dock of HMS Albion An amphibious transport dock (also called a landing platform dock or LPD) is a warship that embarks, transports, and lands elements of a landing force for expeditionary warfare missions. ... USS Trenton (LPD-14), the lead ship of her class of amphibious transport dock, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the capital of New Jersey. ... The USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ...


Iran responded by dispatching Boghammar speedboats to attack various targets in the Persian Gulf, including an American-flagged supply ship and a Panamanian-flagged ship. After these attacks, A-6E Intruder aircraft from VA-95 were vectored in on the speedboats by an American frigate. The two aircraft, piloted by Lieutenant Commander James Engler and Lieutenant Paul Webb dropped Rockeye cluster bombs on the speedboats, sinking one and damaging several others. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Grumman A-6 Intruder is a twin-engine, mid-wing attack aircraft manufactured by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Corporation. ... A GBU-99, foreground, along with an AGM-12B and an AGM-12C. The CBU-99 and CBU-100 are nearly identical. ... Honest John missile warhead cutaway, showing M139 Sarin bomblets (photo circa 1960) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


Action continued to escalate. Joshan, an Iranian Combattante II Kaman-class fast attack craft, challenged USS Wainwright (CG-28) and her surface group, firing a Harpoon missile at them. The American ships responded to the challenge by firing six Standard missiles and one Harpoon at Joshan, destroying it. Fighting continued when the Iranian frigate Sahand departed Bandar Abbas and challenged elements of an American surface group. She was observed by two VA-95 A-6Es while they were flying surface combat air patrol for USS Joseph Strauss (DDG-16). The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after retaliatory strikes by U.S. Navy ships and aircraft on April 18, 1988. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran | Coastal cities ... USS Joseph Strauss (DDG-16), named for Rear Admiral Joseph Strauss USN (1861–1948), was a Charles F. Adams class guided missile armed destroyer of the United States Navy. ...

Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) burning on April 18, 1988 after being attacked
Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) burning on April 18, 1988 after being attacked

Sahand launched missiles at the A-6Es, and the Intruders replied with launches of two Harpoons and four laser-guided Skipper bombs. This was followed by a Harpoon firing from Joseph Strauss. The weapons delivered against Sahand were successful. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2561x1869, 1104 KB) Summary The Iranian frigate IS SAHAND (74) burns after being attacked by aircraft of Carrier Air Wing II from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS ENTERPRISE (CVN-65) in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2561x1869, 1104 KB) Summary The Iranian frigate IS SAHAND (74) burns after being attacked by aircraft of Carrier Air Wing II from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS ENTERPRISE (CVN-65) in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate... The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after retaliatory strikes by U.S. Navy ships and aircraft on April 18, 1988. ... The AGM-84 Harpoon is a U.S. all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship cruise missile system, originally developed by McDonnell Douglas, with development and manufacturing now taken over by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. ... The AGM-123 Skipper is a missile developed by the United States of America. ...


Fires blazing on her decks eventually reached her magazines, resulting in an explosion that led to her sinking. Despite the loss of Sahand, one of Iran's most modern ships, the Iranian navy continued to fight. A sister ship, Sabalan, departed her port for operations in the Persian Gulf. She fired on several A-6Es from VA-95 with a surface-to-air missile. One of the Intruders piloted by Lieutenant Commander James Engler responded with a laser-guided bomb that scored a direct hit on Sabalan and stopped her dead in the water. The Iranian frigate was taken in tow by an Iranian tug with the stern partially submerged. VA-95's aircraft, as ordered, did not continue the attack. LCDR Engler was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross by Admiral Crowe, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for these combat actions against the Sabalan and the Iranian gunboats. The Iranian frigate Sabalan, a British made Vosper Mark 5-class frigate, was commissioned in June, 1972 as one of four Mark 5-class frigates delivered to Iran. ...


By the end of the operation elements of the American fleet had damaged Iranian naval and intelligence facilities on two inoperable oil platforms in the Persian Gulf, and sank at least six armed Iranian speedboats. Sabalan was repaired in 1989 and has since been upgraded, and is still in service with the Iranian navy. In short, Iran lost one major warship and a smaller gunboat. Damage to the oil platforms was eventually repaired and they are now back in service. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Categories: Stub | Boat types ...


The U.S. side took only two casualties: the aircrew of a Marine Corps AH-1T Sea Cobra gunship. The Cobra, attached to the USS Trenton, was flying reconnaissance from the Wainwright and crashed sometime after dark about 15 miles southwest of Abu Musa island. The bodies of Capt. Stephen C. Leslie, 30, of New Bern, N.C., and Capt. Kenneth W. Hill, 33, of Thomasville, N.C., were recovered by Navy divers in May, and the wreckage of the helicopter was raised later that month. Navy officials said it showed no sign of battle damage, though the aircraft could have crashed while trying to evade Iranian fire. AH-1W SuperCobra The AH-1 Cobra, called the Huey Cobra, Cobra, Sea Cobra, or Snake, is an attack helicopter, designed by Bell Helicopter Textron. ... Abu Musa or Gap-Sabzu (in Persian ابوموسی) is an island in the eastern Persian Gulf that now belongs to Iran. ...


Operation Praying Mantis is one of five American naval engagements cited by United States Naval Academy Prof. Craig L. Symonds in his book Decision at Sea (2005) as being decisive in establishing U.S. naval superiority. The others were the Battle of Lake Erie (1813), the Battle of Hampton Roads (1862), the Battle of Manila Bay (1898), and the Battle of Midway (1942). The United States Naval Academy (USNA) is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps and is located in Annapolis, Maryland. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Robert Heriot Barclay Oliver Hazard Perry Strength 6 warships 9 small warships Casualties 41 dead 94 wounded 6 ships captured 27 dead 96 wounded 1 ship lost The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... The Battle of Manila Bay took place on 1 May 1898 during the Spanish-American War. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier and 1 destroyer...


U.S. naval order of battle

Surface Action Group Bravo

  • USS Merrill (DD-976) - destroyer
  • USS Lynde McCormick (DDG-8) - guided missile destroyer
  • USS Trenton (LPD-14) - amphibious transport dock
  • Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 2-88

Surface Action Group Charlie USS Merrill, named for Rear Admiral Anson Stanton Merrill USN (1890-1961), was a Spruance class destroyer laid down by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula in Mississippi. ... USS Lynde McCormick (DDG-8) was a -class destroyer in the United States Navy. ... USS Trenton (LPD-14), the lead ship of her class of amphibious transport dock, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the capital of New Jersey. ... The Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) is a term used by the United States Marine Corps to describe the principal organization for all missions across the range of military operations. ...

  • USS Wainwright (DLG/CG-28) - guided missile cruiser
  • USS Bagley (FF-1069) - frigate
  • USS Simpson (FFG-56) - guided missile frigate
  • SEAL platoon

Surface Action Group Delta USS Bagley (FF-1069) was the 18th ship in the Knox-class frigate. ... USS Simpson (FFG-56) is an Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate of the United States Navy, named for Rear Admiral Rodger W. Simpson. ... The United States Navy Sea, Air and Land (SEAL) forces are the elite Special Operations Forces of the U.S. Navy, employed in unconventional warfare, foreign internal defence, direct action, Counter-Terrorism, and special reconnaissance operations. ...

  • USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) - guided missile frigate
  • USS O'Brien (DD-975) - destroyer
  • USS Joseph Strauss (DDG-16) - guided missile destroyer

Air support USS Jack Williams (FFG-24), sixteenth ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Pharmacists Mate Second Class Jack Williams (died 1945). ... USS OBrien (DD-975) is a Spruance class destroyer built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula in Mississippi. ... USS Joseph Strauss (DDG-16), named for Rear Admiral Joseph Strauss USN (1861–1948), was a Charles F. Adams class guided missile armed destroyer of the United States Navy. ...

The eighth USS Enterprise (CVN-65) was the worlds first nuclear aircraft carrier and the seventh U.S. Navy ship of the name. ...

See also

Operation Prime Chance (August 1987-June 1989) was a U.S. Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S.-flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran-Iraq War. ... Mess Management Specialist 2nd Class Williams Hendrickson scans for mines from the bow of the U.S. Navy guided missile frigate USS Nicolas (FFG-47) during an Earnest Will convoy mission. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

Further reading

  • Huchthausen, Peter (2004). America's Splendid Little Wars: A Short History of U.S. Engagements from the Fall of Saigon to Baghdad. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-200465-0.
  • Palmer, Michael (2003). On Course to Desert Storm. University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 1-4102-0495-2.
  • Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5.
  • Sweetman, Jack (1998). Great American Naval Battles. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-794-5.
  • Symonds, Craig L. (2005). Decision at Sea: Five Naval Battles that Shaped American History. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517145-4.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Praying Mantis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1038 words)
Operation Praying Mantis was the April 18, 1988 action waged by U.S. naval forces in retaliation for the Iranian mining of an American warship by the Iran Ajr.
By the end of the operation elements of the American fleet had damaged Iranian naval and intelligence facilities on two inoperable oil platforms in the Persian Gulf, and sank at least six armed Iranian speedboats.
Operation Praying Mantis is one of five American naval engagements cited by United States Naval Academy Prof.
I Persian Gulf War, 1980-1988 (4384 words)
Although the combat operations during the First Persian Gulf War were “officially” started on the afternoon of September 22, 1980, intensive fighting along the central sector of the Iraqi-Iranian border erupted already on September 4, and until today, Iraqis consider this date as the starting point of the war.
In that sense, the American Operation Praying Mantis, undertaken on April 18 1988 simultaneously with the Iraqi offensive, which liberated the Faw Peninsula from Iranian occupation, not only badly mauled the Iranian Navy, but also made it clear to the leadership in Tehran that the conflict had to be ended sooner rather than later.
Praying Mantis almost broke the back of the Iranian Navy, decreased its capability to escort convoys of oil tankers between the Khark Island and the Hormuz, and almost crushed the superiority it had enjoyed in the war against Iraq so far.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m