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Encyclopedia > Operation Power Pack
Operation Power Pack
Date April 28, 1965September, 1966
Location Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Casus
belli
Military revolt
Fear of the PRD as Communists
Result Decisive US victory.
Ceasefire called.
Juan Bosch excluded from Presidency.
Election of Joaquín Balaguer.
Combatants
Flag of the United States United States
(IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force
(CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center
(SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service
Flag of the Dominican Republic Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists
PRD irregulars
Commanders
Lyndon B. Johnson
Gen. Robert York
General Elías Wessín y Wessín
Col. Francisco Caamaño
Strength
42,420 US Marines
82nd Airborne Division
2,200 (IAPF) Personnel
5,000
Casualties
13 US soldiers dead,
200+ wounded
20+ (IAPF) Personnel
500+ guerrillas died
100 captured; 3000+ civilians killed

Operation Power Pack was the United States military intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965. The Marines landed on April 28 and were later supported by elements of the Army’s 82nd Airborne Division. The intervention ended in September 1966. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Juan Bosch y Gaviño Juan Emilio Bosch y Gaviño (30 June 1909, La Vega – 1 November 2001, Santo Domingo) was the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic after the assassination of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in 1961. ... Joaquín Balaguer Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo (September 1, 1906 – July 14, 2002) was the President of the Dominican Republic from 1960 to 1962, from 1966 to 1978, and again from 1986 to 1996. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Col. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... From 1776 to 2007, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Background

After a period of political instability following the assassination of long-time Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo in 1961, candidate Juan Bosch, a founder of the anti-Trujilloist Dominican Revolutionary Party, was elected President in December, 1962 and inaugurated in February 1963. His left-leaning policies, including land redistribution and the nationalization of certain foreign holdings, led to a military coup seven months later by a right-wing faction of the military led by General Elías Wessín y Wessín. Wessín y Wessín controlled the Centro de Entrenamiento de las Fuerzas Armadas (Armed Forces Training Center or "CEFA"), an elite group of about 2000 highly trained infantry. Stationed at the San Isidro Air Base, it was unlike the regular army units: it was supplied with tanks, recoilless rifles and artillery, as well as its own attack aircraft. It was a quasi-independent organization, originally established by Ramfis Trujillo, the son of the former dictator and was formed to protect the government and keep watch over the national guard, navy and air force. Wessín y Wessín had stated: "The Communist doctrine, Marxist-Leninist, Castroite, or whatever it is called, is now outlawed."[1] This article is about Rafael L. Trujillo, former president of the Dominican Republic. ... Juan Bosch y Gaviño Juan Emilio Bosch y Gaviño (30 June 1909, La Vega – 1 November 2001, Santo Domingo) was the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic after the assassination of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in 1961. ... The Dominican Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano, or PRD) is one of the main political parties of the Dominican Republic. ... Lieutenant General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Martínez (5 June 1929 - 27 December 1969 in Madrid, Spain), better known as Ramfis Trujillo, was the son of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina and María Martínez. ...


Subsequently, power was turned over to a civilian triumvirate. The new leaders quickly abolished the constitution, declaring it "nonexistent."


The two years that followed were filled with strikes and conflicts. On 24 April 1965, a group of young officers within the armed forces, led by Colonel Francisco Caamaño, rose up against the triumvirate. This action was accelerated when the Chief of Staff of the Dominican armed forces, General Marcos Rivera, attempted to arrest four army "conspirators," but was himself arrested instead. The pro-Bosch rebels, known as "Constitutionalists" for their focus on restoring the constitutionally elected president, took to the streets, swiftly seizing the national palace and the government radio and television stations in the capital, Santo Domingo and demanding Bosch's return. Francisco Caamaño was one of the leader for the Constitutionalists. Rafael Molina Ureña was installed as provisional president. In the days that followed, Constitutionalists clashed with internal security agents and the right-wing military elements of the CEFA. Col. ... Juan Bosch y Gaviño Juan Emilio Bosch y Gaviño (30 June 1909, La Vega – 1 November 2001, Santo Domingo) was the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic after the assassination of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in 1961. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... Col. ...


The Constitutionalists handed out firearms in an unsupervised and uncontrolled manner, resulting in the creation of unruly armed gangs, known loosely as "Los Tigueres", and arbitrary violence. Both sides were heavily armed and civilians were caught in the crossfire. Washington began immediate preparations for the evacuation of its citizens and other foreign nationals who might wish to leave the Dominican Republic.


The extent of participation by "communists or castroites", including the Dominican 14th of June Revolutionary group, has been disputed. This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...


US Invasion

Initial US military action was limited to the evacuation by United States Marines of U.S. and other civilians from the city of Santo Domingo. A landing zone was established at the Hotel Embajador in central Santo Domingo for this purpose. United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ...


The pro-government forces, called Loyalists, failed to regain control of Santo Domingo, and a demoralized CEFA retreated to its base at San Isidro on the east side of the Ozama River. General Wessín y Wessín and the last leader of the deposed governing regime, Donald Reid - best know as "El Americano" (The American), both requested U.S. intervention. The Ozama River (Spanish: Rio Ozama) in the Dominican Republic can trace its source to the Loma Siete Cabezas in the Sierra de Yamasá close to Villa Altagracia. ...


U.S. President Lyndon Johnson, convinced of the defeat of the Loyalist forces and fearing the creation of "a second Cuba"[2] on America's doorstep, ordered U.S. forces to restore order. Citing as an official reason for the invasion the need to protect the lives of foreigners, none of whom had been killed or wounded, a fleet of 41 vessels was sent to blockade the island, and an invasion was launched by Marines and elements of the United States Army's 82nd Airborne Division. Also, around 75 members of E company of the 7th Special Forces Group were deployed. Ultimately, 42,000 soldiers and Marines were ordered to the Dominican Republic. The United States along with the Organization of American States (OAS) formed an inter-American military force to assist in the intervention in the Dominican Republic. Later, the Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF) was formally established on May 23. In addition to the United States military presence, the following troops were sent by each country; Brazil 1130, Honduras 250, Paraguay 184, Nicaragua 160, Costa Rica 21 military police, and El Salvador 3 staff officers. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ...


By May 14, the Americans resorted to a ruse: established a "safety corridor" connecting the San Isidro Air Base and the Duarte Bridge to the Embajador Hotel and United States Embassy in the center of Santo Domingo, essentially sealing off the Constitutionalist area of Santo Domingo. Road blocks were established and patrols ran continuously. Some 6,500 people from many nations were evacuated to safety. In addition, the US forces airlifted in large relief supplies for Dominican nationals. The fighting continued until 31 August 1965 when a truce was declared. Most American troops left shortly afterwards as policing and peacekeeping operations were turned over to Brazilian troops, but some U.S. military presence remained until September 1966. It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1966, former President Joaquín Balaguer (Trujillo's 4th puppet president) was elected over Juan Bosch--with the overt support of the US government. Bosch would never regain power. Relative political stability followed as the initially oppressive yet highly politically crafty Balaguer would go on to dominate Dominican politics for twenty-two years. Joaquín Balaguer Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo (September 1, 1906 – July 14, 2002) was the President of the Dominican Republic from 1960 to 1962, from 1966 to 1978, and again from 1986 to 1996. ... Juan Bosch y Gaviño Juan Emilio Bosch y Gaviño (30 June 1909, La Vega – 1 November 2001, Santo Domingo) was the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic after the assassination of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in 1961. ...


Casualties

Military

  • A total of 13 American soldiers died during the operation, mostly by sniper fire by the PRD. Over 200 were wounded.[citation needed]
  • A total of 20 (IAPF) Personnel were killed.[citation needed]

Dominican

  • U.S.[3] and Dominican[citation needed] sources both maintain that at least 3,000 civilians were killed.

Notable participants

Mitchell Livingston WerBell III, (b. ... Jim Kimsey (James V. Kimsey) was the co-founder, CEO, and first chairman of internet service provider America Online (AOL). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ Draper, Theodore: The Dominican Crisis, Commentary Magazine Vol. 40 • December 1965 • No. 6
  2. ^ Stephen G. Rabe, The Johnson Doctrine, Presidential Studies Quarterly 36
  3. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/yates/yates.asp

See also

The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern five-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ...

External links

  • 82nd Airborne History Page - Operation Power Pack: A "Road" Test for the 82nd Airborne Division
  • Warnock, A. Timothy. Dominican Crisis: Operation POWER PACK. Short of War: Major USA Contingency Operations edited by A. Timothy Warnock. Air Force History and Museums Program, 2000. pp 63-74.
  • Dominican Republic PSYOP, reportage from SGM Herbert A. Friedman (ret)

 
 

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