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Encyclopedia > Operation Overlord
Operation Overlord
Part of World War II

Tank landing ships unloading supplies on Omaha Beach, building up for the breakout from Normandy.
Date June 6, 1944August 25, 1944
Location Normandy, France
Result Decisive Allied victory
Belligerents
Western Allies Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Commanders
Flag of the United States Dwight Eisenhower
(Supreme Allied Commander)
Flag of the United Kingdom Arthur Tedder (Deputy Supreme Allied Commander)
Flag of the United KingdomBernard Montgomery (Ground Forces Commander in Chief)
Flag of the United Kingdom Trafford Leigh-Mallory (Air Commander in Chief)
Flag of the United Kingdom Bertram Ramsay (Naval Commander in Chief)
Flag of Nazi GermanyGerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST)
Flag of Nazi GermanyErwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B)
Strength
1,452,000 (by July 25)[1] 380,000 (by July 23)[2]
Casualties and losses
Canada: 5,000 dead; 13,000 wounded and missing;
United Kingdom: 11,000 dead, 54,000 wounded and missing;
United States: 29,000 dead, 106,000 wounded and missing;
France: 12,200 civilian and Resistance dead and missing
By August, The Germans had suffered over 400,000 Casualties[3], including 50,000 dead.[4]

Operation Overlord was the phase in the Western front of World War II that was fought in 1944 between German forces and the invading Allied forces. The campaign began with Normandy Landings on June 6, 1944 (commonly known as D-Day), among the largest amphibious assaults ever conducted when nearly three million troops crossed the English Channel and ended on August 25, 1944, with the liberation of Paris.[5][6] This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... wtrwretqwt ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... wtrwretqwt ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Free French Forces French Resistance Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3,200 dead, 12,800 POW The...


Allied land forces that saw combat in Normandy on D-Day itself came from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Substantial Free French and Polish forces also participated in the battle after the assault phase, and there were also contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Norway.[7] Other Allied nations participated in the naval and air forces. Once the beachheads were secured, a three-week military buildup occurred on the beaches before Operation Cobra, the operation to break out from the Normandy beachhead began. The battle for Normandy continued for more than two months, with campaigns to establish a foothold on France, and concluded with the close of the Falaise pocket and the subsequent liberation of Paris in late August 1944. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... Combatants North:  United Kingdom  Canada Polish forces South:  United States  Free French Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Harry Crerar Philippe Leclerc StanisÅ‚aw Maczek Bernard Montgomery George Patton Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength ~at least 500,000 Casualties Canadian: 1,470 killed Polish: 325 killed ~50,000 killed... Combatants Free French Forces French Resistance Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3,200 dead, 12,800 POW The...

Contents

Preparations for D-Day

Allied Preparations

"In the East, the vastness of space will… permit a loss of territory… without suffering a mortal blow to Germany’s chance for survival. Not so in the West! If the enemy here succeeds… consequences of staggering proportions will follow within a short time." Adolf Hitler, Directive 51[8]


In June 1940, Adolf Hitler had triumphed in what he called "the most famous victory in history", the fall of France.[9] The British, although besieged, had been spared from annihilation when they evacuated 300,000 troops from Dunkirk. Winston Churchill, in one of his famous speeches, would vow to invade France and liberate it from Nazi Germany[10][11]. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk British evacuation on Dunkirk beach Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation, the Miracle of Dunkirk or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Churchill redirects here. ...


In a joint statement with Stalin, President Roosevelt and Churchill had announced a "full understanding" was reached with regard to the urgent tasks of creating a Second Front in Europe in 1942. Churchill unofficially informed the Soviets in a memorandum handed to Molotov that the resources necessary for an invasion were lacking in 1942.[12] However, the announcement had some effect as it caused Hitler to order preparations for an Allied descent on Europe[8]. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Netherlands  Belgium  United States Poland Canada Free France Germany Italy Commanders 1939–1940 Maurice Gamelin Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman 1944–1945 Dwight Eisenhower, (SHAEF) Bernard Montgomery, 21st Army Group Omar Bradley, 12th Army Group Jacob Devers, 6th Army...


The British, under Churchill, wished to avoid the costly frontal assaults of World War I. Churchill and the British staff favoured a course of allowing the insurgency work of the Special Operations Executive to come to widespread fruition, while making a main Allied thrust from the Mediterranean to Vienna and into Germany from the south, concentrating on the weaker Axis ally, Italy. Such an approach was also believed to offer the advantage of creating a barrier to limit the Soviet advance into Europe. However, the U.S. believed from the onset that the optimum approach was the shortest route to Germany emanating from the strongest Allied Power base. They were adamant in their view and made it clear that it was the only option they would support in the long term. Two preliminary proposals were drawn up: Operation Sledgehammer, for an invasion in 1942, and Operation Roundup, for a larger attack in 1943, which was adopted and became Operation Overlord, although it was delayed until 1944.[13] The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces towards enemy forces in a large number, in an attempt to overwhelm the enemy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... During World War II, Operation Sledgehammer was an Allied contingency plan for a limited-objective cross-channel invasion of Europe in response to a German or Soviet collapse in 1942. ...


The planning process was started in earnest after the Casablanca and Tehran conferences[14] with the introduction of the British Chief of Staff of Supreme Allied Commander (COSSAC), Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick E. Morgan[15] with the aid of his American deputy, Maj. Gen. Ray Barker. The COSSAC and its operational elements were later absorbed into the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in November 1943-January 1944, led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower[16]. General Sir Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group, to which all of the invasion ground forces belonged, and was also given charge of developing the invasion plan.[17] American president Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Free French leaders Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle in front of Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, January 14, 1943 The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, then a French... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... Frederick E. Morgan Sir Frederick Edgeworth Morgan (b. ... Ray Barker (Dec 10, 1889 - Jun 28, 1974) was a Major General of the Allied Forces, and served in the European Theater of Operations During World War II. General Barker was a key member of the combined United States-British group, which became known as COSSAC (Chief of Staff to... Badge of SHAEF Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF, pronounced shāf), was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. General Dwight Eisenhower was in command of SHAEF throughout its existence. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and...


In part because of lessons learned by Allied troops in the raid on Dieppe of August 19, 1942, the Allies decided not to assault a French seaport directly in their first landings.[18] The short operating range of British fighters, including the Spitfire and Typhoon, from UK airfields greatly limited the number of potential landing sites.[14] Geography reduced the choices further to two sites: the Pas de Calais and the Normandy coast.[19] Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... The Typhoon was a British single-seat fighter-bomber, produced by Hawker Aircraft starting in 1941. ... Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France. ...


Normandy would have presented serious logistical problems, not the least of which being that the only viable port in the area, Cherbourg, was heavily defended and many among the higher echelons of command argued that the Pas de Calais would make a more suitable landing area on these grounds alone. Although the Pas de Calais was the shortest distance to the European mainland from England [20], it was the most heavily fortified and defended landing site. Normandy was hence chosen as the landing site.[19]


Landings in force on a broad front in Normandy would permit simultaneous threats against the port of Cherbourg, coastal ports further west in Brittany, and an overland attack towards Paris and towards the border with Germany. Normandy was a less-defended coast and an unexpected but strategic jumping-off point, with the potential to confuse and scatter the German defending forces.[19] For the Australian town and Aboriginal Mission, see Cherbourg, Queensland. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


At that stage the COSSAC plan proposed a landing from the sea by three divisions, with two brigades landed by air. In total, 47 divisions would be committed to the Battle of Normandy: 19 British, five Canadian and one Polish divisions under overall British command, and 21 American divisions with one Free French division[citations needed], totaling over a million troops[21]. On April 7 and May 15 Montgomery presented his strategy for the invasion at St Paul's School.[22] He envisaged a ninety day battle, ending when all the forces reached the Seine[23], pivoting on an Allied-held Caen[24], with British and Canadian armies forming a shoulder and the U.S. armies wheeling to the right. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St Pauls School St Pauls School is a boys public school, founded in 1509 by John Colet. ... This article is about the river in France. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ...


The objective for the first 40 days was to create a lodgement that would include the cities of Caen and Cherbourg (especially Cherbourg, for its deep-water port). Subsequently, there would be a breakout from the lodgement to liberate Brittany and its Atlantic ports, and to advance to a line roughly 125 miles (190 km) to the southwest of Paris, from Le Havre through Le Mans to Tours, so that after ninety days the Allies would control a zone bounded by the rivers Loire in the south and Seine in the northeast. A lodgement is an enclave made by increasing the size of a bridgehead, beachhead or airhead. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... Le Mans is a city in France, located at the Sarthe River. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ...


Deception

Training with live ammunition in England.
Training with live ammunition in England.

In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a deception operation, Operation Bodyguard, designed to persuade the Germans that areas other than northern France would be threatened as well (such as the Balkans and the south of France). Then, in the weeks leading up to the invasion, in order to persuade the Germans that the main invasion would really take place at the Pas de Calais, and to lead them to expect an invasion of Norway, the Allies prepared a massive deception plan, called Operation Fortitude. Operation Fortitude North would lead the Axis to expect an attack on Norway; the much more vital Operation Fortitude South was designed to lead the Germans to expect the main invasion at the Pas de Calais, and to hold back forces to guard against this threat rather than rushing them to Normandy.[25] Image File history File links Description: Invasion Training in England - Training with live ammunition Source: ibiblio. ... Image File history File links Description: Invasion Training in England - Training with live ammunition Source: ibiblio. ... Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ... During World War II, Operation Bodyguard was the overall Allied strategic deception plan in Europe for 1944, carried out as part of the build-up to the invasion of Normandy. ... During World War II, Operation Bodyguard was the overall Allied strategic deception plan in Europe for 1944, carried out as part of the build-up to the invasion of Normandy. ... Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ...


An entirely fictitious First U.S. Army Group ("FUSAG"), supposedly located in southeastern England under the command of General Lesley J. McNair and General George S. Patton, Jr., was created in German minds by the use of double agents and fake radio traffic. The Germans had an extensive network of agents operating in England. Unfortunately for them, every single one reporting about FUSAG had been "turned" by the Allies as part of the Double Cross System, and appropriate agents were dutifully sending back messages "confirming" the existence and location of FUSAG and the Pas de Calais as the likely main attack point.[25] Dummy tanks (some inflatable), trucks, and landing craft, as well as troop camp facades (constructed from scaffolding and canvas) were placed in ports on the eastern and southeastern coasts of Britain, and the Luftwaffe was allowed to photograph them. During this period, most of the Allied naval bombardment was focused on Pas de Calais instead of Normandy. The Allied Forces even went as far as to broadcast static over Axis accessible radioways and convinced Germany to expend efforts to try to decode white noise, further leading Germany away from the upcoming Normandy invasion. Lesley James McNair (died July 25, 1944) was a general of the United States Army, who was killed by friendly fire during World War II. As Commandant of the Command and General Staff College, McNair initiated changes that prepared the Colleges graduates to meet the upcoming challenges of World... General George Smith Patton Jr. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... The Double Cross System or XX System, was a World War II anti-espionage and deception operation of the British military intelligence arm, MI5. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


In aid of Operation Fortitude North, Operation Skye was mounted from Scotland using radio traffic, designed to convince German traffic analysts that an invasion would also be mounted into Norway. Against this phantom threat, German units that otherwise could have been moved into France were instead kept in Norway. Operation Skye was a deception plan carried out by the Allies during World War II. Operation Skye was subplan of Operation Fortitude, a wider deception plan. ...


The last part of the deception occurred on the night before the invasion: a small group of SAS operators deployed dummy paratroopers over Le Havre and Isigny. These dummies led the Germans to believe that an additional airborne assault had occurred; this tied up reinforcing troops and kept the true situation unclear. On that same night, two RAF squadrons (No. 617 Squadron and No. 218 Squadron) created an illusion of a massive naval convoy sailing for the Cap d'Antifer (15 miles north of Le Havre). This was achieved by the precision dropping of strips of metal foil. The foil give a radar return mistakenly interpreted by German radar operators as a fleet of small craft towing barrage balloons.[26] See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ...


Rehearsals and security

Allied forces rehearsed their roles for D-Day months before the invasion. On April 28, 1944, in south Devon on the English coast, 749 U.S. soldiers and sailors were killed when German torpedo boats surprised one of these landing exercises, Exercise Tiger[27]. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... E-boat is the British and American name for the German Schnellboot (S-boot), a small, fast torpedo boat a little larger than the American PT boat and the British MTB. Specification Length - 34. ... The exercise involved travelling through Lyme Bay to Slapton Sands Sherman DD tank at the memorial A plaque at the memorial, commemorating those who perished Exercise Tiger (also called Operation Tiger) was the code name for an eight-day practice run for the Utah Beach landings of the D-Day...


The effectiveness of the deception operations was increased by a news blackout from Britain. Travel to and from the Irish Free State was banned, and movements within several miles of the coasts restricted. [28]The German embassies and consulates in neutral countries were flooded with all sorts of misleading information, in the well-founded hope that any genuine information on the landings would be ignored with all the confusing chaff. This article is about the prior state. ...


In the weeks before the invasion it was noticed that the crossword puzzles printed in the British Daily Telegraph newspaper contained a surprisingly large number of words which were codewords relating to the invasion. MI-5 (the Security Service) first thought this was a coincidence, but when the word Mulberry was one of the crossword answers, MI-5 then interviewed the compiler — a schoolmaster — and were convinced of his innocence. According to National Geographic,[29] in 1984 a former student of the compiler claimed that he had picked up the words while eavesdropping on soldiers' conversations around the army camps and suggested their use in the puzzles. This assertion has not been independently verified, and Marc Romano, author of the book Crossworld: One Man's Journey into America's Crossword Obsession, gives several reasons why the story is implausible. This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... MI-5 redirects here. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


There were several leaks prior to or on D-Day. Through the Cicero affair, the Germans obtained documents containing references to Overlord, but these documents lack all detail.[30] Another such leak was Gen. Charles de Gaulle's radio message after D-Day. He, unlike all the other leaders, stated that this invasion was the real invasion.[31] This had the potential to ruin the Allied deceptions Fortitude North and Fortitude South. For example, Eisenhower referred to the landings as the initial invasion. The Germans did not believe de Gaulle and waited too long to move in extra units against the Allies. Elyesa Bazna Elyesa Bazna (Albanian: Iljaz Bazna born 1904 in Kosovo - December 21, 1970 in Munich) was a spy who offered secret documents to Nazi Germany during the Second World War, in what widely became known as the Cicero affair. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ...


Allied invasion plan

Further information: Operation Neptune
D-day assault routes into Normandy.
D-day assault routes into Normandy.

The British were to take an airborne assault on the River Orne, with amphibious assault units attacking Sword and Gold Beaches. The US had an airborne division and land units which were to take Omaha beach, Pointe du Hoc and Utah Beaches. The Canadians would team up with British units to attack Juno Beach Operation Neptune refers to the landing phase of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x966, 188 KB) Allied invasion plans and german positions in the Normandy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x966, 188 KB) Allied invasion plans and german positions in the Normandy. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... This article is about the beach codenamed in WWII. For other uses, see Juno Beach (disambiguation) Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000[1] 7,771 Casualties 340 dead, 739 other casualties...


The Invasion Fleet was drawn from 8 different navies comprising of warships and submarines, split into the Western Naval Task Force (Rear-Admiral Alan G Kirk) and the Eastern Naval Task Force (Rear-Admiral Sir Philip Vian). The fleet was overall led by Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay. Alan Goodrich Kirk (born October 30, 1888, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; died October 1963, Washington, DC) was an admiral in the U.S. Navy and an American diplomat. ... Admiral of the Fleet Sir Philip Vian GCB KBE DSO was a British naval officer best known for the incident early in 1940 when a force under his command released captured British merchant sailors from the German supply ship Altmark in Norway. ... Categories: People stubs | 1883 births | 1945 deaths | Royal Navy admirals | Royal Navy officers | British World War II people ...


Codenames

The Allies assigned codenames to the various operations involved in the invasion. Overlord was the name assigned to the establishment of a large-scale lodgement on the Continent. The first phase, the establishment of a secure foothold, was codenamed Neptune, according to the D-day museum[1]:

"The armed forces use codenames to refer to the planning and execution of specific military operations. Operation Overlord was the codename for the Allied invasion of northwest Europe. The assault phase of Operation Overlord was known as Operation Neptune. (...) Operation Neptune began on D-Day (6 June 1944) and ended on 30 June 1944. By this time, the Allies had established a firm foothold in Normandy. Operation Overlord also began on D-Day, and continued until Allied forces crossed the River Seine on 19 August 1944."

is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

German preparations and defences

Atlantic Wall

A map of the Atlantic Wall.
Main article: Atlantic Wall

Through most of 1942 and 1943, the Germans had rightly regarded the possibility of a successful Allied invasion in the west as remote. Preparations to counter an invasion were limited to the construction by the Organisation Todt, of impressive fortifications covering the major ports. The number of military forces at the disposal of Nazi Germany, reached its peak during 1944 with 59 divisions stationed in France, Belgium and the Netherlands.[32] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x804, 60 KB) The File is an image that originated on wikipedia (Image:Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x804, 60 KB) The File is an image that originated on wikipedia (Image:Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Organisation Todt Flag Organisation Todt (OT) was a Nazi construction and engineering group during the years of the Third Reich, which enslaved over 1. ...


In late 1943, the obvious Allied buildup in Britain prompted the German Commander-in-Chief in the west, Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, to request reinforcements. In addition to fresh units, von Rundstedt also received a new subordinate, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Rommel originally intended only to make a tour of inspection of the Atlantic Wall. After reporting to Hitler, Rommel requested command of the defenders of northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands. These were organised as Army Group B in February 1944. (The German forces in southern France were designated as Army Group G, under General Johannes Blaskowitz). Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most famous German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Rommel had recognised that for all their propaganda value, the Atlantic Wall fortifications covered only the ports themselves. The beaches between were barely defended, and the Allies could land there and capture the ports from inland. He revitalised the defenders, who laboured to improve the defences of the entire coastline. Steel obstacles were laid at the high-water mark on the beaches, concrete bunkers and pillboxes constructed, and low-lying areas flooded. Given the Allied air supremacy (12,000 Allied aircraft against 300 Luftwaffe fighters[33]), booby-trapped stakes known as Rommelspargel (Rommel's asparagus) were set up on likely landing grounds to deter airborne landings.


These works were not fully completed, especially in the vital Normandy sector, partly because Allied bombing of the French railway system interfered with the movement of the necessary materials, and also because the Germans were convinced by the Allied deception measures and their own preconceptions that the landings would take place in the Pas de Calais, and so they concentrated their efforts there.


The Germans had nevertheless extensively fortified the foreshore area as part of their Atlantic Wall defences (including tank top turrets and extensive barbed wire), believing that any forthcoming landings would be timed for high tide (this caused the landings to be timed for low tide). The sector which was attacked was guarded by four divisions, of which the 352nd and 91st were of high quality. The other defending troops included Germans (who were not considered fit for active duty on the Eastern Front, usually for medical reasons) and various other nationalities such as conscripted Poles and former Soviet prisoners-of-war who had agreed to fight for the Germans rather than endure the harsh conditions of German POW camps. These "Ost" units were provided with German leadership to manage them.


Rommel proposed that the armoured formations be deployed close to the invasion beaches. Von Geyr argued that the Panzer formations should be concentrated in a central position around Paris and Rouen, and deployed en masse against the main Allied beachhead when this had been identified. When the matter was brought to Hitler, he gave an unworkable compromise solution, giving three tank divisions to Rommel, and allowing Von Geyr to scatter the other tanks across Northern France and the Netherlands. The other mechanized divisions capable of intervening in Normandy were retained under the direct control of the German Armed Forces HQ (OKW) and were initially denied to Rommel. Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ...


Weather forecast

A full moon was required both for light for the aircraft pilots and for the spring tide, effectively limiting the window of opportunity for mounting the invasion to only a few days in each month. Eisenhower had tentatively selected June 5 as the date for the assault. However, on June 4, conditions were clearly unsuitable for a landing; wind and high seas made it impossible to launch landing craft, and low clouds prevented aircraft finding their targets. The Germans meanwhile took comfort from the existing poor conditions and believed an invasion would not be possible for several days. Some troops stood down, and many senior officers were absent. Rommel, for example, decided to leave to attend his wife's birthday. At a vital meeting on June 5, Eisenhower's chief meteorologist James Stagg predicted a slight improvement in the weather for June 6. This was based on weather reports transmitted from the Captain Class frigate HMS Grindall, which, since April, had been on station in mid-Atlantic transmitting weather reports every three hours, day and night. The officer resposible for sending the weather reports was Lieutenant H.R. Curry R.N.V.R. On 4th June, his weather reports indicated a ridge of high pressure behind a deep depression. He forecast that the ridge would move in an easterly direction to reach the south-west approaches late on 5th June and show an improvement in the weather, which up to that point had shown very strong winds, heavy rain and very rough seas, resulting from the passage of a deep depression. On this basis, General Eisenhower, after much consideration, decided to commence the invasion, despite opposition from some of his staff. This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The invasion

Main article: Invasion of Normandy
You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.

—Eisenhower, Letter to U.S. Army[34] The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ...

British Pathfinders synchronising their watches in front of an Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle.
British Pathfinders synchronising their watches in front of an Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle.

To eliminate the enemy's ability to organise and launch counterattacks during the amphibious assault phase, airborne operations were utilised to seize key objectives, such as bridges, road crossings, and terrain features, particularly on the eastern and western flanks of the landing areas. The airborne landings some distance behind the beaches were also intended to ease the egress of the amphibious forces off the beaches, and in some cases to neutralise German coastal defence batteries and more quickly expand the area of the beachhead. The U.S. 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions were assigned to objectives west of Utah Beach. The British 6th Airborne Division was assigned to similar objectives on the eastern flank. Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.41 Albemarle was a British twin-engined transport aircraft that entered service during World War II. Originally designed as a medium bomber, the Albemarle never served in that role, instead being converted for general and special transport duties, paratroop transport and glider towing. ... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ...


The Beaches

On Sword Beach, the regular British infantry came ashore with light casualties. They had advanced about 8 kilometres (5 mi) by the end of the day but failed to make some of the deliberately ambitious targets set by Montgomery. In particular, Caen, a major objective, was still in German hands by the end of D-Day, and would remain so until the Battle for Caen, August 8. Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders General-Lieutenant Miles Dempsey, British 3rd Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Hans von Luck, German 21st Panzer Division Strength 28,845 Unknown Casualties 630 Unknown German defense at Ouistreham. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... This article is about the beach codenamed in WWII. For other uses, see Juno Beach (disambiguation) Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000[1] 7,771 Casualties 340 dead, 739 other casualties... Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Poland United States Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery, Miles Dempsey, Richard OConnor, Guy Simonds Edgar Feuchtinger, Erwin Rommel, Gerd von Rundstedt, Günther von Kluge Strength 2nd British Army, 51st Highland Division, 11th British Armoured division, 7th British Armoured Division, Polish 1st Armoured Division, VIII British... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Canadian forces that landed on Juno Beach faced heavy batteries of machine-gun nests, pillboxes, other concrete fortifications, and a seawall twice the height of the one at Omaha Beach. [35] Despite the obstacles, the Canadians were off the beach within hours and advancing inland. [36] The Canadians were the only units to reach their D-Day objectives, although most units fell back a few kilometres to stronger defensive positions.


At Gold Beach, the casualties were also quite heavy, because the Germans had strongly fortified a village on the beach. However, the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division overcame these difficulties and advanced almost to the outskirts of Bayeux by the end of the day. The linkup with commando units securing the Port en Bassin gave the Allies a base to deploy their PLUTO pipeline, the first part of Operation Tombola. For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... During World War II, Operation Tombola was a major Special Air Service raid on German rear areas in Italy. ...

Senior officers aboard the USS Augusta during the Normandy Invasion. General Omar Bradley is the second man from the left.
Senior officers aboard the USS Augusta during the Normandy Invasion. General Omar Bradley is the second man from the left.

The Americans who landed on Omaha beach faced the veteran German 352nd Infantry Division, one of the best trained on the beaches. Omaha was the most heavily fortified beach, and the majority of landings missed their assigned sectors, and Commanders considered abandoning the beachhead, but small units of infantry, often forming ad hoc groups eventually infiltrated the coastal defenses. Further landings were able to exploit the initial penetrations and by the end of the day two isolated footholds had been established. The tenuous beachhead was expanded over the following days, and the original D-Day objectives were accomplished by D+3. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x630, 95 KB)Senior military officials aboard the USS Augusta observing the Normandy invasion, June 1944. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x630, 95 KB)Senior military officials aboard the USS Augusta observing the Normandy invasion, June 1944. ... The fourth USS Augusta (CA-31) (originally CL-31) was a Northampton-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy, notable for service in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during World War II, and for her occasional use as a presidential flagship carrying both Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


At Pointe du Hoc, the task for the 2nd Ranger battalion (James Earl Rudder) was to scale the 30 meter (100 ft) cliffs under enemy fire with ropes and ladders, and then destroy the guns there. The beach fortifications themselves were still vital targets since a single artillery forward observer based there could have called down accurate fire on the U.S. beaches. The Rangers were eventually successful, and captured the fortifications. They then had to fight for 2 days to hold the location, losing more than 60% of their men. James Earl Rudder James Earl Rudder (May 6, 1910 – March 23, 1970) was a United States Army Major General, Texas Land Commissioner and President of Texas A&M University. ...


Casualties on Utah Beach, the westernmost landing zone, were the lightest of any beach, with 197 out of the roughly 23,000 troops that landed. Although the 4th Infantry Division troops that landed on the beach found themselves too far to the southeast, they landed on a lightly defended sector that had relatively little German opposition, and the 4th Infantry Division was able to press inland by early afternoon, linking up with the 101st Airborne Division.

American troops in an LCVP landing craft approach Omaha Beach June 6, 1944.
American troops in an LCVP landing craft approach Omaha Beach June 6, 1944.
The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland
The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland

Once the beachhead was established, the Mulberry Harbours were made operational around June 9. One was constructed at Arromanches by British forces, the other at Omaha Beach by American forces. Severe storms on June 19 interrupted the landing of supplies and destroyed the Omaha harbour. However, the Arromanches harbour was able to supply around 9,000 tons of materiel daily until the end of August 1944, by which time the port of Cherbourg had been secured by the Allies. marines approaching omaha beach Photo #: SC 320901 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... marines approaching omaha beach Photo #: SC 320901 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2828x2243, 611 KB) The build-up of Omaha Beach. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2828x2243, 611 KB) The build-up of Omaha Beach. ... A Mulberry harbour was a type of temporary harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arromanches-les-Bains or simply Arromanches is a town in Normandy, France, located on the coast in the heart of the area where the Normandy landings took place on D_Day, on June 6, 1944. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... For the Australian town and Aboriginal Mission, see Cherbourg, Queensland. ...


Despite this, the German 21st Panzer division mounted a concerted counterattack, between Sword and Juno beaches, and succeeded in nearly reaching the channel. Stiff resistance by anti-tank gunners and fear of being cut off caused them to withdraw before the end of June 6. According to some reports, the sighting of a wave of airborne troops flying over them was instrumental in the decision to retreat. is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Allied invasion plans had called for the capture of Carentan, St. Lô, Caen, and Bayeux on the first day, with all the beaches linked except Utah, and Sword (the last linked with paratroopers) and a front line 10 to 16 kilometres (6–10 mi) from the beaches. In practice none of these had been achieved. However, overall the casualties had not been as heavy as some had feared (around 10,000 compared to the 20,000 Churchill had estimated), and the bridgeheads had withstood the expected counterattacks. Carentan is a town and commune of the Manche département in Normandy, France. ... Saint-Lô is a city and commune of France, the préfecture (capital) of the Manche département, in Normandy. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Bayeux (pronounced ) is a small town and commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy, northwestern France. ...


Cherbourg

Main article: Battle of Cherbourg

In the western part of the lodgement, U.S. troops were to occupy the Cotentin Peninsula, especially Cherbourg, which would provide the Allies with a deep water harbour. The country behind Utah and Omaha beaches was characterised by bocage; ancient banks and hedgerows, up to three metres (10 ft) thick, spread one to two hundred metres (300–600 ft) apart, both seemingly being impervious to tanks, gunfire, and vision, thus making ideal defensive positions. The U.S. infantry made slow progress, and suffered heavy casualties, as they pressed towards Cherbourg. The airborne troops were called on several times to restart a stalled advance. The far side of the peninsula was reached on June 18. Hitler prevented German forces from retreating to the strong Atlantic Wall fortifications in Cherbourg, and after initially offering stiff resistance, the Cherbourg commander, Lieutenant General von Schlieben, capitulated on June 26. Before surrendering however, he had most of the facilities destroyed, making the harbour inoperable until the middle of August. Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders J. Lawton Collins Friedrich Dollman Strength Unknown 40,000 Casualties 2,800 killed, 5,700 missing, 13,500 wounded 39,000 captured The Battle of Cherbourg was part of the Battle of Normandy during World War II, it was fought immediately after the successful Allied... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Bocage is a French word referring to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with tortuous side-roads and lanes bounded on both sides by banks surmounted with high thick hedgerows limiting visibility. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Caen

Main article: Battle for Caen
Map showing operations close to Caen.
Map showing operations close to Caen.

Believing Caen to be the "crucible" of the battle, Montgomery made it the target of a series of attritional attacks. The first was Operation Perch, which attempted to push south from Bayeux to Villers-Bocage where the armour could then head towards the Orne and envelop Caen, but was halted at the Battle of Villers-Bocage. After a delay owing to the difficulty of supply because of storms from June 17 until June 23, a German counterattack (which was known through Ultra intelligence) was pre-empted with Operation Epsom. Caen was severely bombed and then occupied north of the River Orne in Operation Charnwood from July 7 until July 9. A major offensive in the Caen area followed with all three British armoured divisions, codenamed Operation Goodwood from July 18 until July 21 that captured the remainder of Caen and the high ground to the south at a high cost. A further operation, Operation Spring, from July 25 until July 28, by the Canadians secured limited gains at a high cost. Combatants United Kingdom Canada Poland United States Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery, Miles Dempsey, Richard OConnor, Guy Simonds Edgar Feuchtinger, Erwin Rommel, Gerd von Rundstedt, Günther von Kluge Strength 2nd British Army, 51st Highland Division, 11th British Armoured division, 7th British Armoured Division, Polish 1st Armoured Division, VIII British... Image File history File links Battleforceanmapenglish. ... Image File history File links Battleforceanmapenglish. ... Villers-Bocage is the name of several communes in France: Villers-Bocage, in the Calvados département, in Normandy, and the site of the Battle of Villers-Bocage Villers-Bocage, in the Somme département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery William Onslow Michael Wittmann Karl Mobius Fritz Bayerlein Helmut Ritgen Strength 200 tanks 25 tanks Casualties +30 tanks 30 lightly armoured vehicles 11 tanks (3 repaired) The Battle of Villers-Bocage (June 13, 1944) was a clash between the British and Germans in... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Richard OConnor SS General Paul Hausser Strength 1 armoured division 3 infantry divisions 1 armoured brigade 2 SS Panzer Divisions 5 Panzer battlegroups Casualties British VIII Corps 4,020 12th SS Panzer Regiment 324 25th SS Panzer-Grenadier Regiment 383 26th... During World War 2, Operation Charnwood (Allies, 1944) had the objective to capture Caen and its surroundings during the ongoing Battle of Normandy. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Goodwood was an Allied military operation of World War II from July 18 to 20 July 1944 taking place in Normandy some weeks following D-Day. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II, Operation Spring (Allies, 1944) enabled to secure territory gains around Caen and its surroundings during the Battle of Normandy, after Operation Goodwood. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Breakout from the beachhead

Main article: Operation Cobra

An important element of Montgomery's strategy was to cause the Germans to commit their reserves to the eastern part of the theatre to allow an easier breakout from the west. By the end of Goodwood, the Germans had committed the last of their reserve divisions; there were six and a half Panzer divisions facing the British and Canadian forces compared to one and a half facing the United States armies. Operation Cobra, was launched on July 24 by the U.S. First Army and was extremely successful with the advance guard of VIII Corps entering Coutances at the western end of the Cotentin Peninsula, on July 28, after a penetration through the German lines. Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coutances is a commune of Normandy, France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Map showing the breakout from the Normandy beachhead.
Map showing the breakout from the Normandy beachhead.

On August 1, VIII Corps became part of Lieutenant General George S. Patton's newly-arrived U.S. Third Army. On August 4, Montgomery altered the invasion plan by detaching only a corps to occupy Brittany and hem the German troops there into enclaves around the ports, while the rest of the Third Army continued south. The U.S. First Army turned the German front at its western end. Because of the concentration of German forces south of Caen, Montgomery moved the British armour west and launched Operation Bluecoat from July 30 until August 7 to add to the pressure from the United States armies. This drew the German forces to the west, allowing the launch of Operation Totalize south from Caen on August 7. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1265x965, 1723 KB) Summary www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1265x965, 1723 KB) Summary www. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Patton redirects here. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. Third Army. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey SS General Paul Hausser Strength 3 armoured divisions, 3 infantry divisions, 2 armoured brigades rising to: 3 Panzer Divisions, 3 infantry divisions Casualties N/A N/A Operation Bluecoat was an attack by British Second Army at the Battle of Normandy... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II, Operation Totalize (Allies, 1944) was a ground attack on 7 August 1944 by British, Canadian and Polish forces to breakout from the Normandy beachhead along the Caen-Falaise road. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Falaise Gap

Main article: Falaise Gap

By the beginning of August, more German reserves became available with the realisation that no landings were going to take place near Calais. The German forces were being encircled, and the German High Command wanted these reserves to help an orderly retreat to the Seine. However, they were overruled by Hitler who demanded an attack at Mortain at the western end of the pocket on August 7. The attack was repelled by the Allies, who again had advance warning from Ultra. The original Allied plan was for a wide encirclement as far as the Loire valley, but Bradley realised that many of the German forces in Normandy were not capable of maneuver by this stage, and he obtained Montgomery's agreement by telephone on August 8 for a "short hook" further north to encircle German forces. This was left to Patton to effect, moving nearly unopposed through Normandy via Le Mans, and then back north again towards Alençon. The Germans were left in a pocket with its jaws near Chambois. Fierce German defence and the diversion of some American troops for a thrust by Patton towards the Seine at Mantes prevented the jaws closing until August 21, trapping 50,000 German troops. Whether this could have been achieved earlier with more prisoners taken has been a matter of some controversy. Patton's thrust prevented the Germans from establishing the Seine as a defensive line, and the Canadian First and British Second Armies both advanced there, bringing the war in Normandy in their sector to a close and meeting the projected schedule set by Montgomery earlier than expected. During World War II, the Falaise pocket (also known as the Chambois pocket, Chambois-Montcormel pocket, Falaise-Chambois pocket) was the area between the four cities of Trun-Argentan-Vimoutiers-Chambois near Falaise, France, in which United States 12th Army Group encircled and destroyed the German Seventh Army. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Hans von Kluge Strength 5 infantry divisions, 3 armoured combat commands 3 Panzer Divisions, 2 infantry divisions, 5 panzer or infantry battlegroups Casualties N/A N/A Operation Lüttich was a counterattack launched by German forces on the left flank of the... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alençon is a town in Normandy, France, préfecture (capital) of the Orne département. ... Chambois is a city in France, and was part of the Falaise pocket. ... Mantes-la-Jolie or Mantes or Mantes-sur-Seine is a commune of northern France, the capital of an arrondissement (sous-préfecture) and the third largest town in the département of Yvelines on the left bank of the Seine, some 30 miles north west of Paris. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The liberation of Paris followed shortly afterwards. The French Resistance in Paris rose against the Germans on August 19, and the French 2nd Armoured Division under General Philippe Leclerc, along with the U.S. 4th Infantry Division pressing forward from Normandy, received the surrender of the German forces there and liberated Paris on August 25. The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arms of the , the Second Armoured Division commanded by Lerclerc. ... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ... Combatants Free French Forces French Resistance Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3,200 dead, 12,800 POW The... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Political considerations

The appointment of Bernard Montgomery was questioned by some Americans, who would have preferred the urbane Harold Alexander to have commanded the land forces. Montgomery, in turn, had doubts about the appointment of Dwight D. Eisenhower. In the end, however, Montgomery and Eisenhower cooperated to excellent effect in Normandy; their well-known disagreements came much later.


Normandy presented serious logistical problems, not the least of which being that the only viable port in the area, Cherbourg, was heavily defended and many among the higher echelons of command argued that the Pas de Calais would make a more suitable landing area on these grounds alone.


Campaign close

Normandy Campaign Streamer.
Normandy Campaign Streamer.

The campaign in Normandy is considered by historians to end either at midnight on July 24, 1944 (the start of Operation Cobra on the American front) or August 25, 1944 (the advance to the Seine and the liberation of Paris). The original Overlord plan anticipated a ninety-day campaign in Normandy with the ultimate goal of reaching the Seine; this goal was met early. The Americans were able to end the campaign on their front early with the massive breakout of Operation Cobra. Image File history File links Normandy_Streamer. ... Image File history File links Normandy_Streamer. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The U.S. official history describes the fighting beginning on July 25 as the "Northern France" campaign, and includes the fighting to close the Falaise Gap, which the British/Canadians/Poles consider to be part of the Battle of Normandy. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


SHAEF, back in England, and the governments were very nervous of stagnation, and there were reports of Eisenhower requesting Montgomery's replacement in July.[citation needed] The lack of forward progress is often attributed to the nature of the terrain in which much of the post-landing fighting in the U.S. and parts of the British sectors took place, the bocage (small farm fields separated by high earth banks covered in dense shrubbery, well suited for defence), as well as the usual difficulties of opposed landings. However, as at the battle of El Alamein, Montgomery kept to his original attritional strategy, reaching the objectives within his original ninety day target. Bocage is a French word referring to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with tortuous side-roads and lanes bounded on both sides by banks surmounted with high thick hedgerows limiting visibility. ... Combatants British Eighth Army: United Kingdom Australia Free French Greece India New Zealand South Africa Panzer Army Africa: Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,100 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 116,000 men[1] 559 tanks[2...


Victory in Normandy was followed by a pursuit to the French border in short order, and Germany was forced once again to reinforce the Western Front with manpower and resources from the Soviet and Italian fronts. Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...


By September, Allied forces of seven field armies (two of which came through southern France in Operation Dragoon) were approaching the German frontier. Allied material weight told heavily in Normandy, as did intelligence and deception plans. The general Allied concept of the battle was sound, drawing on the strengths of both Britain and the United States. German dispositions and leadership were often faulty, despite a credible showing on the ground by many German units. In larger context the Normandy landings helped the Soviets on the Eastern front, who were facing the bulk of the German forces and, to a certain extent, contributed to the shortening of the conflict there. Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ...


Allied logistics, intelligence, morale and air power

Victory in Normandy stemmed from several factors. The Allies ensured material superiority at the critical point (concentration of force) and logistical innovations like the PLUTO pipelines and Mulberry harbors enhanced the flow of troops, equipment, and essentials such as fuel and ammunition. Movement of cargo over the open beaches exceeded Allied planners' expectations, even after the destruction of the U.S. Mulberry in the channel storm in mid-June. By the end of July 1944, one million American, British, Canadian, French, and Polish troops, hundreds of thousands of vehicles, and adequate supplies in most categories were ashore in Normandy. Although there was a shortage of artillery ammunition, at no time were the Allies critically short of any necessity. This was a remarkable achievement considering they did not hold a port until Cherbourg fell. By the time of the breakout the Allies also enjoyed a considerable superiority in numbers of troops (approximately 3.5:1) and armored vehicles (approximately 4:1) which helped overcome the natural advantages the terrain gave to the German defenders. For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ...


Allied intelligence and counterintelligence efforts were successful beyond expectations. The Operation Fortitude deception plan before the invasion kept German attention focused on the Pas-de-Calais, and indeed high-quality German forces were kept in this area, away from Normandy, until July. Prior to the invasion, few German reconnaissance flights took place over Britain, and those that did saw only the dummy staging areas. Ultra decrypts of German communications had been helpful as well, exposing German dispositions and revealing their plans such as the Mortain counterattack. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ...


German leadership

German commanders at all levels failed to react to the assault phase in a timely manner. Communications problems exacerbated the difficulties caused by Allied air and naval firepower. Local commanders also seemed unequal to the task of fighting an aggressive defence on the beach, as Rommel envisioned. The German High Command remained fixated on the Calais area, and von Rundstedt was not permitted to commit the armored reserve. When it was finally released late in the day, success was immeasurably more difficult, and even the 21st Panzer Division, which was able to counterattack earlier, was stymied by strong opposition that had been allowed to build at the beaches. Overall, despite considerable Allied material superiority, the Germans kept the Allies bottled up in a small bridgehead for nearly two months, aided immeasureably by terrain factors.


Although there were several well-known disputes among the Allied commanders, their tactics and strategy were essentially determined by agreement between the main commanders. By contrast, the German leaders were bullied and their decisions interfered with by Hitler, controlling the battle from a distance with little knowledge of local conditions. Field Marshals von Rundstedt and Rommel repeatedly asked Hitler for more discretion but were refused. Von Rundstedt was removed from his command on June 29 after he bluntly told the Chief of Staff at Hitler's Armed Forces HQ (Field Marshal Keitel) to "Make peace, you idiots!" Rommel was severely injured by Allied aircraft on July 16. Field Marshal von Kluge, who took over the posts held by both von Rundstedt and Rommel, was compromised by his association with some of the military plotters against Hitler, and he would not disobey or argue with Hitler for fear of arrest. As a result, the German armies in Normandy were placed in deadly peril by Hitler's insistence on counterattack rather than retreat after the American breakthrough. Kluge was relieved of command on August 15 and took his own life shortly afterwards. The more independent Field Marshal Walter Model took over when the Germans in Normandy were already in the midst of defeat. is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his...


The German commanders also suffered in the quality of the available troops. 60,000 of the 850,000 in Rundstedt's command were raised from the many prisoners of war captured on the east front.[37] These "Ost" units had volunteered to fight against Stalin, but when instead unwisely used to defend France against the Western Allies, ended up being unreliable. Many surrendered or deserted at the first available opportunity.


The Normandy Campaign in context

Canadian soldiers with a Nazi German flag which they captured during the Battle of Normandy
Canadian soldiers with a Nazi German flag which they captured during the Battle of Normandy

The landings were planned to take place on May 1944, but poor weather and insufficient buildup delayed the landings until June. By then, the Allies had taken Rome in the Italian Campaign, and in the Pacific War, the Americans were launching their first strikes on Japan. On the Eastern Front, the Red Army were planning their own offensive, Operation Bagration, to drive the Germans away from Soviet territory. Combined with the Allied lodgement established at Normandy, the second front in Western Europe that had been demanded by Stalin since the Tehran Conference had been established, the Axis powers were driven back from all fronts.[38] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 3472 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 3472 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian...


The Normandy campaign has drawn criticism in grand strategy in that it diverted resources and units from other theatres (such as the Italian and Pacific fronts) for the invasion. The Italian front had ceased to be an effective front after the Normandy campaign,[39] and the Pacific front experienced manpower shortages for the Leyte and Okinawa campaigns.[40] The quick successes of Operation Dragoon compared with Normandy also lent criticism to the execution of the Normandy campaign. However, the Normandy front was hindered by Hitler's attempts to hold the West at any cost. As the Allies were closing in on Paris and sealing the Falaise Gap, an invasion in southern France. Hitler was anxious to hold on to the Belgian and northern French coasts as bases for the "V" weapons, which had started launching against England. The linkup with the southern French forces occurred on September 12 as part of the drive to the Siegfried Line.[41] Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... In Nazi Germany during World War II, the V-1 flying bomb and the V-2 rocket were termed reprisal weapons or vengeance weapons (Vergeltungswaffen or V-Waffen for short) by Goebbels propaganda ministry. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ...


The Normandy landings not only signalled the beginning of the end for Nazi Germany, it heralded in the start of the race for Europe, which some historians consider to be the start of the Cold War (see Origins of the Cold War).[42] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Origins of the Cold War are widely regarded to lie most directly within the immediate post-World War II relations between the two main superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union in the years 1945–1947, leading to the Cold War that endured for just under half...


Impact of Normandy

War memorials and tourism

The Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery.
Main article: Impact of Normandy

The beaches of Normandy are still known by their invasion codenames today. Streets near the beaches are still named after the units that fought there, and occasional markers commemorate notable incidents. At significant points, such as Pointe du Hoc and Pegasus Bridge, there are plaques, memorials or small museums. The Mulberry harbour still sits in the sea at Arromanches. In Sainte-Mère-Église, a dummy paratrooper hangs from the church spire. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5676x1658, 2152 KB) The Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery, September 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5676x1658, 2152 KB) The Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery, September 2006. ... Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery, September 2006. ... Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... Pegasus Bridge before its replacement Pegasus Bridge in 1944 Original Pegasus Bridge in the Pegasus Museum - July 2005 The replacement Pegasus Bridge in operation The Pegasus Bridge is a bascule bridge over the Caen Canal, near Ouistreham, France. ... A Mulberry harbour was a type of temporary harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy. ...


References

  1. ^ Zetterling, p. 32: "On 25 July there were 812,000 US soldiers and 640,000 British in Normandy."
  2. ^ Zetterling, p. 32: "When Operation Cobra was launched, the Germans had brought to Normandy about 410,000 men in divisions and non-divisional combat units. If this is multiplied by 1.19 we arrive at approximately 490,000 soldiers. However, until July 23, casualties amounted to 116,863, while only 10,078 replacements had arrived."
  3. ^ "A War to be Won" Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett
  4. ^ "The Second World War" John Keegan
  5. ^ Michael Blumenson (2005). . Ed. I.C.B Dear, M.R.D. Foot. 627-630. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  6. ^ http://www.historynet.com/magazines/world_war_2/3035101.html The American invasion of Okinawa was the largest amphibious assault of World War II.
  7. ^ Williams, Jeffery. The Long Left Flank. ISBN 978-0850528800. 
  8. ^ a b Ambrose, Stephen (1995). D-Day June 6 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. Simon & Schuster. 
  9. ^ Alistair Horne (2005). "The Oxford Companion to World War II".. Oxford University Press. 322. ISBN 9-780192-806666. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. 
  10. ^ God protect France, Wikiquote (1940-10-21). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  11. ^ God protect France (permanent version) (1940). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  12. ^ Eddy Bauer, Spelet vid konferensbordet, p 44, Bokorama – ISBN 91-7024-017-5 – 1983
  13. ^ Churchill, Winston (1948). The Second World War book 5, Closing the Ring, Chapter 16, paragraph 1. 
  14. ^ a b Gilbert, Martin (1989). Second World War, 397, 478. ISBN 9-78-0805017885. 
  15. ^ Dear, I.C.B. (2005). The Oxford Companion to World War II. ISBN 9-780192-806666. 
  16. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1989). Second World War, 491. 
  17. ^ Nigel Hamilton, Montgomery, Bernard Law, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004)
  18. ^ {{cite video|year=1974|title=The World At War, episode 17, Morning|person=Laurence Olivier, Goronwy Rees, [[Louis Mountbatten|time=2:29-3:09}}
  19. ^ a b c Ambrose, Stephen (1995). D-Day June 6 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. Simon & Schuster, Chapter 4 Paragraph 4. 
  20. ^ military history online, D-Day prelude.
  21. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard (1995). A world at arms - A global history of World War II. Cambridge University Press, 684. 
  22. ^ St. Pauls School biographies of famous pupils paragraph 4. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  23. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard (1995). A world at arms - A global history of World War II. Cambridge University Press, 698. 
  24. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1989). {{{title}}}, 538. “The allied D-Day objective-the vital communications centre at Carn” 
  25. ^ a b Weinberg, Gerhard (1995). A world at arms - A global history of World War II. Cambridge University Press, 680. 
  26. ^ Bickers, Richard (1994). Air War Normandy. Pen And Sword Books, pp. 19–21. ISBN 0-85052-412-1. 
  27. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1989). The Second World War, 520. ISBN 9-78-0805017885. 
  28. ^ (2005) The Oxford Companion to World War II. ISBN 9-780192-806666. 
  29. ^ Thomas B. Allen. "Untold Stories of D-Day", National Geographic, June 2002. Retrieved on 2007-07-20. 
  30. ^ Keegan, John. The Second World War, p 279. ISBN 014011341X
  31. ^ "We are told that an immense assault force has begun to leave the shores of Old England to aid us. ".SHAEF (1944-06-06). "Text of De Gaulle's message on D-Day". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  32. ^ Wilmot, Chester (1952). The Struggle for Europe. ISBN 1853266779. 
  33. ^ Keegan, John. The Second World War, 309. ISBN 9-780712-673488. 
  34. ^ DefenseLink News Article: The Passing of the Torch
  35. ^ Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Volume III: The Victory Campaign
  36. ^ Martin, Charles Cromwell Battle Diary (Dundurn Press, Toronto, 1994) ISBN 1-55002-213-X p.16
  37. ^ Keegan, John (1982). Six Armies in Normandy. Penguin Books, 61. ISBN 0 14 00.5293. 
  38. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1989). Second World War, 531, 540, 544. 
  39. ^ (1974). The World at War, episode 13. Event occurs at 29:50-31:58.
  40. ^ "…the manpower available to the US Army in the Pacific and to the Marine Corps had been limited by the war in Europe" Keegan, John (1989). The Second World War, 467. ISBN 9-780712-673488. 
  41. ^ Keegan, John (1989). The Second World War, 362-363. 
  42. ^ [[John Lewis Gaddis|Gaddis, John Lewis]] (1990). Russia, the Soviet Union, and the United States An Interpretive History, 149.  (inferred from Origins of the Cold War)

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Further Study

Documentaries
  • Morning: Normandy Invasion (June–August 1944), episode 17 of the 1974 ITV series The World at War narrated by Laurence Olivier features an extensive coverage of the Allied preparations and the actual events.
  • Battlefield-The Battle for Normandy, 100 minute 1994 documentary that compares Allied and German commanders, personnel, equipment, and tactics before, during, and after the battle.
  • Ken Burns-The War, a seven-part PBS documentary series about World War II as seen through the eyes of men and women from four quintessentially American towns.
Dramatizations
  • Band of Brothers, a 2001 American miniseries produced by Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks based on the book of the same name by Stephen Ambrose.
  • D-Day 6.6.1944, a 2004 BBC/Discovery documentary. A 2-hour dramatization containing interviews with surviving soldiers who experienced the landings.
Video games
  • Company of Heroes
  • Medal of Honor series. Several games of the series deal with the Battle of Normandy
  • Soldiers: Heroes of WWII. The German campaign of the game, titled "Hunter", takes place after the invasion of D-Day and has the player in control of German tank commander Michael Wittmann.
  • 1944 D-Day Operation Overlord, a complete simulation of the entire Battle of Normandy. Players have the option to be a pilot, a sailor, a tank commander, or any other person who was fighting for either army.
Wargames
  • Atlantic Wall, a large 1970s American board wargame by SPI depicting the battle from the landings through to the breakout, at company and battalion level, and using a similar game system to Wacht Am Rhein. Due to be reprinted in 2008.
  • Cobra, a 1970s American board wargame by SPI depicting the breakout and Falaise Pocket, at brigade and division level (with Tiger tank battalions). Reprinted by TSR, Inc in the late 1980s with an extra map covering the initial landings.
  1. Charles MacDonald, The Mighty Endeavor: American Armed Forces in the European Theater in World War II (1969); and
  2. Charles MacDonald and Martin Blumenson, "Recovery of France," in Vincent J. Esposito, ed., A Concise History of World War II (1965).
  • Memoirs by Allied commanders contain considerable information. Among the best are:
  1. Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier's Story (1951);
  2. Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic (1948); and
  • Almost as useful are biographies of leading commanders. Among the most prominent are:
  1. Stephen E. Ambrose, The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1970), and Eisenhower, Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890–1952 (1983);
  2. Richard Lamb, Montgomery in Europe, 1943–1945: Success or Failure (1984).
  • Numerous general histories also exist, many centering on the controversies that continue to surround the campaign and its commanders. See, in particular:
  1. John Keegan, Six Armies in Normandy: From D-Day to the Liberation of Paris (1982);
  2. Richard Collier, Fighting Words: The Correspondents of World War II (1989). CMH Pub 72–18


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Operations Key locations See also

Landing Points: This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Matthew B. Ridgway Maxwell D. Taylor Erich Marcks Wilhelm Falley Strength (airlifted) 13,100 paratroops 3,900 glider troops 5,700 USAAF aircrew 36,600 (7. ... Operation Tonga: Pathfinders synchronising their watches in front of an Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle. ... Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under The Ocean) was a World War II operation by British scientists, oil companies and armed forces to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France. ... Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Richard OConnor SS General Paul Hausser Strength 1 armoured division 3 infantry divisions 1 armoured brigade 2 SS Panzer Divisions 5 Panzer battlegroups Casualties British VIII Corps 4,020 12th SS Panzer Regiment 324 25th SS Panzer-Grenadier Regiment 383 26th... During World War 2, Operation Charnwood (Allies, 1944) had the objective to capture Caen and its surroundings during the ongoing Battle of Normandy. ... There were 3 operations called Jupiter during World War 2: in 1942, a proposal to invade Norway in 1942, a failed Soviet offensive against the Rzhev salient in 1944, an attack to capture Hill 112, a prominent height in Normandy This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated... Operation Goodwood was an Allied military operation of World War II from July 18 to 20 July 1944 taking place in Normandy some weeks following D-Day. ... During World War II, Operation Atlantic (Allies, 1944) was a Canadian offensive, part of the British great breakout tentative (Operation Goodwood) during the Battle of Normandy, on June 19th. ... During World War II, Operation Spring (Allies, 1944) enabled to secure territory gains around Caen and its surroundings during the Battle of Normandy, after Operation Goodwood. ... Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey SS General Paul Hausser Strength 3 armoured divisions, 3 infantry divisions, 2 armoured brigades rising to: 3 Panzer Divisions, 3 infantry divisions Casualties N/A N/A Operation Bluecoat was an attack by British Second Army at the Battle of Normandy... During World War II, Operation Totalize (Allies, 1944) was a ground attack on 7 August 1944 by British, Canadian and Polish forces to breakout from the Normandy beachhead along the Caen-Falaise road. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Hans von Kluge Strength 5 infantry divisions, 3 armoured combat commands 3 Panzer Divisions, 2 infantry divisions, 5 panzer or infantry battlegroups Casualties N/A N/A Operation Lüttich was a counterattack launched by German forces on the left flank of the... Operation Tractable was a military operation commanded by II Canadian Corps in Normandy in August 1944. ... This article is about the Second World War battle for Brest. ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Poland United States Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery, Miles Dempsey, Richard OConnor, Guy Simonds Edgar Feuchtinger, Erwin Rommel, Gerd von Rundstedt, Günther von Kluge Strength 2nd British Army, 51st Highland Division, 11th British Armoured division, 7th British Armoured Division, Polish 1st Armoured Division, VIII British... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders J. Lawton Collins Friedrich Dollman Strength Unknown 40,000 Casualties 2,800 killed, 5,700 missing, 13,500 wounded 39,000 captured The Battle of Cherbourg was part of the Battle of Normandy during World War II, it was fought immediately after the successful Allied... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery William Onslow Michael Wittmann Karl Mobius Fritz Bayerlein Helmut Ritgen Strength 200 tanks 25 tanks Casualties +30 tanks 30 lightly armoured vehicles 11 tanks (3 repaired) The Battle of Villers-Bocage (June 13, 1944) was a clash between the British and Germans in...

Other: Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, British 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, German 352nd Static Infantry Division Strength 24,970 Unknown Casualties 400 altogether Unknown This article is about a World War II invasion. ... This article is about the beach codenamed in WWII. For other uses, see Juno Beach (disambiguation) Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000[1] 7,771 Casualties 340 dead, 739 other casualties... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders General-Lieutenant Miles Dempsey, British 3rd Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Hans von Luck, German 21st Panzer Division Strength 28,845 Unknown Casualties 630 Unknown German defense at Ouistreham. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ...

More information on Battle of Normandy:

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D-day from Wikinews
Combatants North:  United Kingdom  Canada Polish forces South:  United States  Free French Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Harry Crerar Philippe Leclerc StanisÅ‚aw Maczek Bernard Montgomery George Patton Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength ~at least 500,000 Casualties Canadian: 1,470 killed Polish: 325 killed ~50,000 killed... Hill 262 in Normandy, also known as The Mace (in Polish Maczuga - because the ridge on this hill resembled a cavemans mace with two bulbous heads) and Mount Ormel, was a vital command post during World War II. It has an excellent view on the area around Chambois and... Pegasus Bridge before its replacement Pegasus Bridge in 1944 Original Pegasus Bridge in the Pegasus Museum - July 2005 The replacement Pegasus Bridge in operation The Pegasus Bridge is a bascule bridge over the Caen Canal, near Ouistreham, France. ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in the sea wall on Utah Beach. ... This is a list of Allied forces in the Normandy Campaign between 6 June-25 August 1944. ... A Mulberry harbour was a type of temporary harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... Combatants Free French Forces French Resistance Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 20,000 Casualties 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3,200 dead, 12,800 POW The... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... Jedburgh was an operation in World War II in which men from the Office of Strategic Services and the British Special Operations Executive parachuted into Nazi occupied France to conduct sabotage and guerilla warfare, and to lead French Maquis forces against the Germans. ... The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial is a World War II cemetery and memorial in Colleville-sur-Mer, Normandy, France, that honors American soldiers who died in Europe during World War II. // On June 8, 1944, the U.S. First Army established the temporary St. ... // The Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial south of Saint-James, France near the eastern edge of Brittany and contains the remains of 4,410 of World War II American soldiers, most of whom lost their lives in the Normandy and Brittany campaigns of 1944. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
::Operation Overlord:: (635 words)
Operation Overlord was the code-name given to the Allied invasion of France scheduled for June 1944.
Operation Overlord required the type of logistical issues that no army had ever had to cope with before and the plan was for the Allies to have landed a vast amount of both men and equipment by the end of D-Day itself.
Overlord had built into it the movement of a total of 3 million men in 47 divisions, moved by 6000 ships with aerial cover provided by 5000 fighter planes.
Digest of Operation (3084 words)
The object of Operation “Overlord” is to mount and carry out an operation, with forces and equipment established in the United Kingdom, and with target date the 1st May, 1944, to secure a lodgement on the Continent from which further offensive operations can be developed.
Under cover of these operations a force would be employed in capturing the Brittany ports; the first step being a thrust Southwards to seize Nantes and St. Nazaire, followed by subsidiary operations to capture Brest and the various small ports of the Brittany Peninsula.
In carrying out Operation “Overlord” administrative control would be greatly simplified if the principle were adopted that the United States forces were normally on the right of the line and the British and Canadian forces on the left.
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