FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Operation Mockingbird

Operation Mockingbird is a Central Intelligence Agency operation to influence domestic and foreign media, whose activities were made public during the Church Committee investigation in 1975 (published 1976). CIA redirects here. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


The word Mockingbird was first used by Deborah Davis in Katharine the Great (1979). There is no evidence that the CIA called it this. Cord Meyer said that when he joined the operation in 1951 it was so secret that it did not have a name. Deborah Davis {could use a disambiguation page} 1) Deborah Davis wrote an unauthorized biography, Katharine the Great, about Katharine Graham, owner-publisher of the The first edition (Harcourt Brace, 1979) print run of 25,000 copies had barely entered bookstores when Graham was able to get it recalled and all... ...

Contents


History

In 1948, Frank Wisner was appointed director of the Office of Special Projects (OSP). Soon afterwards OSP was renamed the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). This became the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the Central Intelligence Agency. Wisner was told to create an organization that concentrated on "propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world." [1] 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Frank Wisner was the director of the Office of Special Projects of the Central Intelligence Agency. ... The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was a U.S. covert psychological operations and paramilitary actions organization completely separate from the CIA until the two were merged in 1951. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Later that year Wisner established Mockingbird, a program to influence the domestic and foreign media. Wisner recruited Philip Graham (Washington Post) to run the project within the industry. According to Deborah Davis ("Katharine the Great"): "By the early 1950s, Wisner 'owned' respected members of the New York Times, Newsweek, CBS and other communications vehicles." [2] ... Deborah Davis {could use a disambiguation page} 1) Deborah Davis wrote an unauthorized biography, Katharine the Great, about Katharine Graham, owner-publisher of the The first edition (Harcourt Brace, 1979) print run of 25,000 copies had barely entered bookstores when Graham was able to get it recalled and all... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... It has been suggested that CBS evening news anchors be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1951, Allen W. Dulles persuaded Cord Meyer to join the CIA. However, there is evidence that he was recruited several years earlier and had been spying on the liberal organizations he had been a member of in the later 1940s. [3] According to Deborah Davis, Meyer became Mockingbird's "principal operative". [4] 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...


In 1977, Rolling Stone alleged that one of the most important journalists under the control of Operation Mockingbird was Joseph Alsop, whose articles appeared in over 300 different newspapers. Other journalists alleged by Rolling Stone Magazine to have been willing to promote the views of the CIA included Stewart Alsop (New York Herald Tribune), Ben Bradlee (Newsweek), James Reston (New York Times), Charles Douglas Jackson (Time Magazine), Walter Pincus (Washington Post), William C. Baggs (The Miami News'), Herb Gold (The Miami News) and Charles Bartlett (Chattanooga Times). [5] According to Nina Burleigh (A Very Private Woman), these journalists sometimes wrote articles that were commissioned by Frank Wisner. The CIA also provided them with classified information to help them with their work. [6] Stewart Johonnot Oliver Alsop (17 May 1914 – 26 May 1974) was an American newspaper columnist and political analyst. ... The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ... Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee (born August 26, 1921) is the vice president of the Washington Post. ... James Scotty Reston James Barrett Reston (3 November 1909 – 12 June 1995) (nicknamed Scotty) was a prominent American journalist whose career spanned the mid 1930s to the early 1990s. ... General Charles Douglas Jackson (16 March 1902-18 September 1964) was an expert on psychological warfare who served in the Office of Strategic Services in World War II and later in the Eisenhower administration. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Walter Haskell Pincus (born December 24, 1932) is a national security journalist for The Washington Post. ... ... William Calhoun Bill Baggs was editor of The Miami News from 1957 until his death in 1969. ... The Miami News was the evening newspaper in Miami, Florida for most of the 20th Century. ... Charles Lafayette Bartlett (January 31, 1853–April 21, 1938) was a U.S. political figure, a Democratic Party senator from Georgia. ... The Chattanooga Times Free Press is a local broadsheet newspaper located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. ...


After 1953, the network was overseen by Allen W. Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency. By this time Operation Mockingbird had a major influence over 25 newspapers and wire agencies. These organizations were run by people with well-known right-wing views such as William Paley (CBS), Henry Luce (Time Magazine and Life Magazine), Arthur Hays Sulzberger (New York Times), Alfred Friendly (managing editor of the Washington Post), Jerry O'Leary (Washington Star), Hal Hendrix (Miami News), Barry Bingham, Sr., (Louisville Courier-Journal), James Copley (Copley News Services) and Joseph Harrison (Christian Science Monitor). [5] 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... William Paley William Paley (July, 1743 - May 25, 1805), English divine, Christian apologist and philosopher, was born at Peterborough, Northamptonshire. ... Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 - February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher. ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... Arthur Hays-Sulzberger (1891 - 1968) was the publisher of the New York Times (1935-61). ... The Washington Star, previously known as the Washington Star-News and the Washington Evening Star, was a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. between 1852 and 1982. ... George Barry Bingham, Sr. ... Categories: Stub | Newspapers in Kentucky | Louisville, Kentucky ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ...


The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was funded by siphoning of funds intended for the Marshall Plan. Some of this money was used to bribe journalists and publishers. Frank Wisner was constantly looking for ways to help convince the public of the dangers of communism. In 1954, Wisner arranged for the funding the Hollywood production of Animal Farm, the animated allegory based on the book written by George Orwell. [7] The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was a U.S. covert psychological operations and paramilitary actions organization completely separate from the CIA until the two were merged in 1951. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... now. ... Eric Arthur Blair (June 25, 1903 — January 21, 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author, and journalist. ...


According to Alex Constantine (Mockingbird: The Subversion Of The Free Press By The CIA), in the 1950s, "some 3,000 salaried and contract CIA employees were eventually engaged in propaganda efforts". Wisner was also able to restrict newspapers from reporting about certain events. For example, the CIA plots to overthrow the governments of Iran (See: Operation Ajax) and Guatemala (See: Operation PBSUCCESS). [8] Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ...


Thomas Braden, head of the International Organizations Division (IOD), played an important role in Operation Mockingbird. Many years later he revealed his role in these events: Thomas Wardell Braden (born 1918) is an American journalist. ...

"If the director of CIA wanted to extend a present, say, to someone in Europe - a Labour leader - suppose he just thought, This man can use fifty thousand dollars, he's working well and doing a good job - he could hand it to him and never have to account to anybody... There was simply no limit to the money it could spend and no limit to the people it could hire and no limit to the activities it could decide were necessary to conduct the war - the secret war.... It was a multinational. Maybe it was one of the first. Journalists were a target, labor unions a particular target - that was one of the activities in which the communists spent the most money." [9]

World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The name Labour Party or Labor Party is used by several political parties around the world. ...

Part of the Directorate of Plans

In August 1952, the Office of Policy Coordination and the Office of Special Operations (the espionage division) were merged to form the Directorate of Plans (DPP). Frank Wisner became head of this new organization and Richard Helms became his chief of operations. Mockingbird was now the responsibility of the DPP. [10] 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was a U.S. covert psychological operations and paramilitary actions organization completely separate from the CIA until the two were merged in 1951. ... Frank Wisner was the director of the Office of Special Projects of the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from 1966 to 1973. ...


J. Edgar Hoover became jealous of the CIA's growing power. He described the OPC as "Wisner's gang of weirdos" and began carrying out investigations into their past. It did not take him long to discover that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the 1930s. This information was passed to Joseph McCarthy who started making attacks on members of the OPC. Hoover also gave McCarthy details of an affair that Frank Wisner had with Princess Caradja in Romania during the war. Hoover claimed that Caradja was a Soviet agent. [11] Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover KBE (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the founder of the FBI in its present form and its director from May 10, 1924 until his death in 1972. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Joseph Raymond McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908–May 2, 1957) was a Republican Senator from the U.S. state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... Frank Wisner was the director of the Office of Special Projects of the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Joseph McCarthy also began accusing other senior members of the CIA as being security risks. McCarthy claimed that the CIA was a "sinkhole of communists" and claimed he intended to root out a hundred of them. One of his first targets was Cord Meyer, who was still working for Operation Mockingbird. In August, 1953, Richard Helms, Wisner's deputy at the OPC, told Meyer that Joseph McCarthy had accused him of being a communist. The Federal Bureau of Investigation added to the smear by announcing it was unwilling to give Meyer "security clearance". However, the FBI refused to explain what evidence they had against Meyer. Allen W. Dulles and Frank Wisner both came to his defense and refused to permit an FBI interrogation of Meyer. [12] Joseph Raymond McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908–May 2, 1957) was a Republican Senator from the U.S. state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... ... Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from 1966 to 1973. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the federal criminal investigative and intelligence agency, which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... Frank Wisner was the director of the Office of Special Projects of the Central Intelligence Agency. ...


Joseph McCarthy did not realize what he was taking on. Wisner unleashed Mockingbird on McCarthy. Drew Pearson, Joe Alsop, Jack Anderson, Walter Lippmann and Ed Murrow all went into attack mode and McCarthy was permanently damaged by the press coverage orchestrated by Wisner. [13] Joseph Raymond McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908–May 2, 1957) was a Republican Senator from the U.S. state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... Drew Pearson Drew Pearson (December 13, 1897–September 1, 1969), born in Evanston, Illinois was an American journalist best known for his muckraking syndicated newspaper column Washington Merry-Go-Round. Pearsons father, Paul Pearson, who was a Quaker, became professor of public speaking at Swarthmore College, and the family... Jackson Northman Anderson (October 19, 1922 – December 17, 2005) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ... Cover of Time Magazine, March 30, 1930 Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974), was an influential United States writer, journalist, and political commentator. ... Edward Roscoe Murrow, born Egbert Roscoe Murrow, (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist, whose radio news broadcasts during World War II were eagerly followed by millions of radio listeners. ...


Guatemala

Mockingbird was very active during the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala during Operation PBSUCCESS. People like Henry Luce were able to censor stories that appeared too sympathetic towards the plight of Arbenz. Allen W. Dulles was even able to keep left-wing journalists from travelling to Guatemala, including Sydney Gruson of the New York Times. [14] Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán was the democratically-elected, left-wing reformist President of Guatemala. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 - February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher. ... Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, pictured above with his wife, was the democratically elected, center-left agrarian reformist President of Guatemala. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Even in the wake of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles' 1952 presidentiual campaign pledge to "roll back the Iron Curtain", American covert action operations came under scrutiny almost as soon as Dwight Eisenhower was inauguarated in 1953. He soon set up an evaluaton operation called Solarium, which had three committees playing analytical games to see which plans of action should be continued. In 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the 5412 Committee in order to keep more of a check on the CIA's covert activities. The committee (also called the Special Group) included the CIA director, the national security adviser, and the deputy secretaries at State and Defence and had the responsibility to decide whether covert actions were "proper" and in the national interest. It was also decided to include Richard B. Russell, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. However, as Allen W. Dulles was later to admit, because of "plausible deniability" planned covert actions were not referred to the 5412 Committee. Countries behind the Iron Curtain are shaded red. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... Richard Russell can refer to several people: Richard Russell, Sr. ... Armed Services Committee could refer to: U.S. House Committee on Armed Services U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Eisenhower became concerned about CIA covert activities and in 1956 appointed David Bruce as a member of the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities (PBCFIA). Eisenhower asked Bruce to write a report on the CIA. It was presented to Eisenhower on 20 December 1956. Bruce argued that the CIA's covert actions were "responsible in great measure for stirring up the turmoil and raising the doubts about us that exists in many countries in the world today." Bruce was also highly critical of Mockingbird. He argued: "what right have we to go barging around in other countries buying newspapers and handling money to opposition parties or supporting a candidate for this, that, or the other office." [15] 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Bruce jr. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After Richard Bissell lost his post as Director of Plans in 1962, Tracy Barnes took over the running of Mockingbird. According to Evan Thomas (The Very Best Men) Barnes planted editorials about political candidates who were regarded as pro-CIA. Richard Mervin Bissell Jr. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


First exposure

In 1964, Random House published Invisible Government by David Wise and Thomas Ross. The book exposed the role the CIA was playing in foreign policy. This included the CIA coups in Guatemala (Operation PBSUCCESS) and Iran (Operation Ajax) and the Bay of Pigs operation. It also revealed the CIA's attempts to overthrow President Sukarno in Indonesia and the covert operations taking place in Laos and Vietnam. The CIA considered buying up the entire printing of Invisible Government but this idea was rejected when Random House pointed out that if this happened they would have to print a second edition. [1] 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... Picture of David Wise in Rares sound studio. ... Thomas Ross, (1806 - 1865) (son of John Ross), a Representative to the United States Congress from Pennsylvania; born in Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, December 1, 1806; attended the Doylestown, Pa. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... The Bay of Pigs (Spanish: Bahía de Cochinos) is a bay on the southern coast of the Matanzas Province in Cuba. ... It has been suggested that Gilchrist Document be merged into this article or section. ...


John McCone, the new director of the CIA, also attempted to stop Edward Yates from making a documentary on the CIA for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). This attempt at censorship failed and NBC went ahead and broadcast this critical documentary. John Alex McCone (January 4, 1902 - February 14, 1991) was an American businessman and politician who served as Director of Central Intelligence during the height of the Cold War. ... Edward J. Yates was an American television director who was the director of the ABC television program American Bandstand from 1952 until 1969. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In June, 1965, Desmond FitzGerald was appointed as head of the Directorate for Plans. He now took charge of Mockingbird. At the end of 1966 FitzGerald discovered that Ramparts, a left-wing publication, had discovered that the CIA had been secretly funding the National Student Association. [16] FitzGerald ordered Edgar Applewhite to organize a campaign against the magazine. Applewhite later told Evan Thomas for his book, The Very Best Men: "I had all sorts of dirty tricks to hurt their circulation and financing. The people running Ramparts were vulnerable to blackmail. We had awful things in mind, some of which we carried off." [17] 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Desmond Fitzgerald (1910 – July 23, 1967) was an American Central Intelligence Agency deputy director, who planned three different assassinations of Cuban leader Fidel Castro. ... Ramparts was an American political and literary magazine, published from 1962 through 1975. ... The National Student Association, a confederation of American college and university student governments, was founded in 1947. ... Evan Thomas Evan Thomas is an American journalist and author. ...


This dirty tricks campaign failed to stop Ramparts publishing this story in March 1967. The article, written by Sol Stern, was entitled NSA and the CIA. As well as reporting CIA funding of the National Student Association it exposed the whole system of anti-Communist front organizations in Europe, Asia, and South America. It named Cord Meyer as a key figure in this campaign. This included the funding of the literary journal Encounter. [9] 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The National Student Association, a confederation of American college and university student governments, was founded in 1947. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... ... Encounter was a literary magazine, founded in 1953 by Stephen Spender and Irving Kristol. ...


In May 1967, Thomas Braden responded to this by publishing an article entitled, "I'm Glad the CIA is Immoral", in the Saturday Evening Post, where he defended the activities of the International Organizations Division unit of the CIA. Braden also confessed that the activities of the CIA had to be kept secret from Congress. As he pointed out in the article: "In the early 1950s, when the cold war was really hot, the idea that Congress would have approved many of our projects was about as likely as the John Birch Society's approving Medicare." [18] 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Thomas Wardell Braden (born 1918) is an American journalist. ... There have been many publications called the Saturday Evening Post; several were/are local British newspapers. ... Seal of the Congress. ... The 1950s were the decade that traditionally speaking, spanned the years 1950 through 1959. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between capitalism and communism, centering around the global superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union, and their military alliance partners. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Medicare is a health insurance program for the elderly and disabled in the USA. It was first passed on July 30, 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson as amendments to Social Security legislation. ...


Meyer's role in Operation Mockingbird was further exposed in 1972 when he was accused of interfering with the publication of a book, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia by Alfred W. McCoy. The book was highly critical of the CIA's dealings with the drug traffic in Southeast Asia. The publisher, who leaked the story, had been a former colleague of Meyer's when he was a liberal activist after the war. [19] ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Alfred W. McCoy is a noted historian and current Professor of History in the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a global black market activity consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Church Committee investigations

Further details of Operation Mockingbird were revealed as a result of the Frank Church investigations (Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities) in 1975. According to the Congress report published in 1976: Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was a four-term U.S. Senator representing Idaho as a Democrat (1957-1981). ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Seal of the Congress. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

"The CIA currently maintains a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence opinion through the use of covert propaganda. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets."

Church argued that misinforming the world cost American taxpayers an estimated $265 million a year. [20]


In February 1976, George H. W. Bush, the recently appointed Director of the CIA announced a new policy: "Effective immediately, the CIA will not enter into any paid or contract relationship with any full-time or part-time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station." However, he added that the CIA would continue to "welcome" the voluntary, unpaid cooperation of journalists. [21] 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America (1989–1993). ...


Carl Bernstein article

Carl Bernstein, who had worked with Bob Woodward in the investigation of Watergate, provided further information about Operation Mockingbird in an article in Rolling Stone in October 1977. Bernstein claimed that over a twenty-five year period over 400 American journalists secretly carried out assignments for the CIA: Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right) Carl Bernstein (born February 14, 1944) is an American journalist who, as an reporter for The Washington Post along with Bob Woodward, broke the story of the Watergate break-in and consequently helped bring about the resignation of US president Richard Nixon. ... Bob Woodward Robert Upshur Bob Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is one of the best-known journalists in the United States, thanks largely to his work in helping uncover the Watergate scandal that led to President Richard Nixons resignation, in a historical journalistic partnership with Carl Bernstein, while working... The Watergate building. ... Rolling Stone is an American magazine devoted to music, politics and popular culture. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...

"Some of the journalists were Pulitzer Prize winners, distinguished reporters who considered themselves ambassadors-without-portfolio for their country. Most were less exalted: foreign correspondents who found that their association with the Agency helped their work; stringers and freelancers who were as interested it the derring-do of the spy business as in filing articles, and, the smallest category, full-time CIA employees masquerading as journalists abroad." [5]

It is almost certain that Bernstein had encountered Operation Mockingbird while working on his Watergate investigation. For example, Deborah Davis (Katharine the Great) has argued - incorrectly, as it turned out - that Deep Throat was senior CIA official Richard Ober, who was running Operation Chaos for Richard Nixon during this period. [22] The gold medal awarded for Public Service in Journalism The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical compositions. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The Watergate building. ... Deborah Davis {could use a disambiguation page} 1) Deborah Davis wrote an unauthorized biography, Katharine the Great, about Katharine Graham, owner-publisher of the The first edition (Harcourt Brace, 1979) print run of 25,000 copies had barely entered bookstores when Graham was able to get it recalled and all... W. Mark Felt, on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ... Operation CHAOS was a domestic espionage project conducted by the CIA. A department within the CIA was established by President Lyndon Johnson which then came to be known as the Domestic Operations Division (DOD). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Media contacts

According to Carl Bernstein 400 reporters were working for the CIA as part of Operation Mockingbird. These include, but are not limited to:

It has been suggested that CBS evening news anchors be merged into this article or section. ... William S. Paley (September 28, 1901 in Chicago, Illinois – October 26, 1990 in New York, New York) was the chief executive who built CBS from a small radio network to the dominant radio and television network operation in America. ... The Chattanooga Times Free Press is a local broadsheet newspaper located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. ... Charles Lafayette Bartlett (January 31, 1853–April 21, 1938) was a U.S. political figure, a Democratic Party senator from Georgia. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Categories: Stub | Newspapers in Kentucky | Louisville, Kentucky ... George Barry Bingham, Sr. ... The Miami News was the evening newspaper in Miami, Florida for most of the 20th Century. ... William Calhoun Bill Baggs was editor of The Miami News from 1957 until his death in 1969. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee (born August 26, 1921) is the vice president of the Washington Post. ... The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ... Stewart Johonnot Oliver Alsop (17 May 1914 – 26 May 1974) was an American newspaper columnist and political analyst. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Arthur Hays-Sulzberger (1891 - 1968) was the publisher of the New York Times (1935-61). ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... General Charles Douglas Jackson (16 March 1902-18 September 1964) was an expert on psychological warfare who served in the Office of Strategic Services in World War II and later in the Eisenhower administration. ... Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 - February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher. ... ... Walter Haskell Pincus (born December 24, 1932) is a national security journalist for The Washington Post. ... The Washington Star, previously known as the Washington Star-News and the Washington Evening Star, was a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. between 1852 and 1982. ...

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) is a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... Judith Miller Judith Miller (born January 2, 1948) is an American journalist. ... James Risen is a reporter for the New York Times and previously the Los Angeles Times, and author/co-author of two books about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Mighty Wurlitzer is a term used to describe the systematic, covert manipulation of the media by U.S. intelligence agencies. ...

References

  • Katherine the Great: Katherine Graham and the Washington Post by Deborah Davis, Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch, 1979. This book makes many claims about Katherine Graham, then owner of the Washington Post, and her cooperation with Operation Mockingbird.
  • Private Censorship -- Killing 'Katharine The Great' by Eve Pell, The Nation, November 12, 1983. This article alleges the previously mentioned book was shelved for years under enormous pressure by the Washington Post.

This page refers to the year 1979. ... Katharine Graham (June 16, 1917 – July 17, 2001) was the head of The Washington Post newspaper for more than two decades, overseeing its most famous period, the Watergate coverage that helped bring down President Richard Nixon. ... ... The Nation logo The Nation is a weekly left-liberal periodical devoted to politics and culture. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b David Wise and Thomas Ross (1964). Invisible Government.
  2. ^ Deborah Davis (1979). Katharine the Great, 137-138.
  3. ^ Cord Meyer (1980). Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA, 42-59.
  4. ^ Deborah Davis (1979). Katharine the Great, 226.
  5. ^ a b c Carl Bernstein. "CIA and the Media", Rolling Stone Magazine, 20 October 1977.
  6. ^ Nina Burleigh (1998). A Very Private Woman, 118.
  7. ^ Evan Thomas (1995). The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA, 33.
  8. ^ Alex Constantine (2000). Mockingbird: The Subversion Of The Free Press By The CIA.
  9. ^ a b (1975) Thomas Braden, interview included in the Granada Television program, World in Action: The Rise and Fall of the CIA.
  10. ^ John Ranelagh (1986). The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, 198-202.
  11. ^ Evan Thomas (1995). The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA, 98-106.
  12. ^ Cord Meyer (1980). Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA, 60-84.
  13. ^ Jack Anderson (1979). Confessions of a Muckraker, 208-236.
  14. ^ Evan Thomas (1995). The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA, 117.
  15. ^ Evan Thomas (1995). The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA, 148-150.
  16. ^ Cord Meyer (1980). Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA, 86-89.
  17. ^ Evan Thomas (1995). The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA, 330.
  18. ^ Thomas Braden. ""I'm Glad the CIA is Immoral", Saturday Evening Post, 20 May 1967.
  19. ^ Nina Burleigh (1998). A Very Private Woman, 105.
  20. ^ (April, 1976) Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Government Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities, 191-201.
  21. ^ Mary Louise (2003). Mockingbird: CIA Media Manipulation.
  22. ^ Deborah Davis (1979). Katharine the Great, 266-268.

October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ...

External links

  • Carl Bernstein. The CIA and the Media, Rolling Stone Magazine, October 20, 1977.
  • Operation Mockingbird. A detailed article with internal links on the individuals involved and external links to other articles on the subject.
  • Operation Mockingbird, SourceWatch.
  • Alex Constantine. The Subversion Of The Free Press By The CIA, What Really Happened.
  • Disinfopedia - Operation Mockingbird. This site compiles many of the allegations made regarding Operation Mockingbird on the web.
  • Discussion about Operation Mockingbird and Search Engines
  • The History The Government Doesn't Want You To Know by WhatReallyHappened.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Mockingbird (13173 words)
Mockingbird was very active during the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala.
Mockingbird was an immense financial undertaking with funds flowing from the CIA largely through the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) founded by Tom Braden with Pat Buchanon of CNN's Crossfire.
Operation Mockingbird continued to flourish with CIA agents boasting at having “important assets” inside every major news outlet in the country.” The list included such luminaries of the US media as Henry Luce, publisher of Time Magazine, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, of the New York Times and C.D. Jackson of Fortune Magazine, according to Constantine.
Operation Mockingbird - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2486 words)
Operation Mockingbird is a Central Intelligence Agency operation to influence domestic and foreign media, whose activities were made public during the Church Committee investigation in 1975 (published 1976).
Mockingbird was very active during the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala during Operation PBSUCCESS.
Further details of Operation Mockingbird were revealed as a result of the Frank Church investigations (Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities) in 1975.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m