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Encyclopedia > Operation Market Garden
Operation Market Garden
Part of World War II

Waves of paratroopers land in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.
Date September 17, 1944September 25, 1944
Location Netherlands (North Brabant and Gelderland) and Germany (Lower Rhine)
Result Decisive German victory: Allied Operational failure
Belligerents
Flag of Poland Poland
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Nazi Germany Germany
Commanders
Flag of the United Kingdom Field Marshal Montgomery
Flag of the United Kingdom Lieutenant-General Dempsey
Flag of the United Kingdom Lieutenant-General Horrocks
Flag of the United Kingdom Major-General Urquhart
Flag of the United States Major General Taylor
Flag of the United States Brigadier General Gavin
Flag of Nazi Germany Walter Model
Flag of Nazi Germany Wilhelm Bittrich
Flag of Nazi Germany Kurt Student
Strength
35,000 (airborne only) 20,000
Casualties and losses
Flag of Poland Poland:
1st Polish Brigade:
378 Casualties[1]

Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
1st Airborne Division:
1,300 killed[2]
~4,500 captured[3]
2nd British Army:
3,716-5,354 Casualties[4]
RAF 38 & 46 Groups:
294 Casualties[5]
Flag of the United States United States
USAAF IX Troop Carrier Command:
3, 974 Casualties[5]
82nd Airborne Division:
1,432 Casualties[5]
101st Airborne Division:
2,110 Casualties

Total:17,704-19,342 Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River (Maas) in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west. ... Capital Arnhem Queens Commissioner Clemens Cornielje Religion (1999) Protestant 31% Catholic 29% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   4,975 km² (1st) 161 km² Population (2005)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,970,865 (4th) 393/km² (6th) Inclusion {{{inclusion}}} Anthem Ons Gelderland ISO NL-GE Official website www. ... i hate erin saunders ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (IPA: ; 17 November 1887 â€“ 24 March 1976), often referred to as Monty, was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Lieutenant-General Dempsey Lieutenant-General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey GBE KCB DSO MC (15th December 1896 - 5th June 1969) was commander of the British Second Army during the D-Day landings in World War II. After graduating from Sandhurst Military Academy in 1915 Dempsey joined the Royal Berkshire Regiment. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (September 7, 1895 - January 4, 1985) was a British military officer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Urquhart outside his headquarters during Operation Market Garden. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... General Maxwell Davenport Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was an American soldier and diplomat of the mid-20th century. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... James Maurice Jumpin Jim Gavin (born as James Nally Ryan; March 22, 1907-February 23, 1990 rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in the United States Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Wilhelm Bittrich Wilhelm Willi Bittrich (February 26, 1894 – April 19, 1979) was a General of the German SS during World War II. Born in the town of Wernigerode in the Harz mountains of Germany, Bittrich served as an army officer during World War I. He joined the SS-Verfügungstruppe... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Official force name 1 Samodzielna Brygada Spadochronowa Other names 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade 1 SBS Branch Polish Army Chain of Command Directly subordinate to Polish Government in Exile In 1944 transferred under British command Description Airborne force, rapidly deployable aeromobile infantry force. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... (Redirected from 1st Airborne Division) The British 1st Airborne Division was a military unit that fought in World War II. It suffered terrible casualties, especially in Operation Market Garden. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ...

Flag of Nazi GermanyGerman:
2,000 Killed[1]
6,000 Wounded[1]

Operation Market Garden (September 17, 1944September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II in the Netherlands and Germany. Through large-scale use of airborne forces, its tactical objectives were to secure a series of bridges over the main rivers of the German-occupied Netherlands to allow rapid advance by armored units. The strategic purpose was to allow an Allied crossing of the Rhine river, the last major natural barrier to an advance into Germany. The planned rapid advance from the Dutch-Belgian border into northern Germany, across the Maas (Meuse) and two arms of the Rhine (the Waal and the Lower Rhine), would have outflanked the Siegfried Line and made possible an encirclement of the Ruhr Area, Germany's industrial heartland. Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... The 10th Canadian Infantry Brigade was tasked to cross the Ghent Canal about five kilometers south of Bruges at a small village called Oostcamp. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Manton S. Eddy Heinrich F. v. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... Combatants Nazi Germany United States of America Commanders Colonel Gerhard Wilck Colonel George A. Smith Jr. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... During World War II, Operation Clipper was an Allied offensive by Thirtieth British Corps (including the American Eighty-fourth Infantry Division) to reduce the Geilenkirchen Salient on 18 November 1945. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Walther Model Strength 100,000 soldiers 40,000 soldiers Casualties  ?  ? Operation Queen was a joint British-American operation during World War II at the Western Front between Aachen and the Rur river in November 1944. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States Poland  France Canada Free France  Netherlands  Belgium Germany Italy Commanders Winston Churchill, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Harold Alexander, Bertram Ramsay, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Gort, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Franklin Roosevelt,, George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Jacob Devers, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders, WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski, Stanis... Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... Operation Nordwind (North Wind) was an attack conducted by the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS during January 1945 in Alsace and Lorraine. ... wtrwretqwt ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... For other uses, see Waal. ... Categories: Netherlands geography stubs | Rivers of the Netherlands | Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta ... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to...


The operation was initially successful with the capture of the Waal bridge at Nijmegen on September 20. But it was a failure overall since the planned Allied advance across the Rhine at Arnhem had to be abandoned. The British 1st Airborne Division did not secure the bridge at Arnhem, and although they managed to hold out near the bridge far longer than planned, the British XXX Corps failed to relieve them. The Rhine remained a barrier to the Allied advance until the offensives at Remagen, Oppenheim, Rees and Wesel in March 1945. Due to the Allied defeat at Arnhem, the north of the Netherlands could not be liberated before winter and the Hongerwinter ('Hungerwinter') took tens of thousands of lives, particularly in the cities of the Randstad area. Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... The British 1st Airborne Division was a military unit that fought in World War II. It suffered terrible casualties, especially in Operation Market Garden. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... Remagen is a city in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. ... Oppenheim is a small town (about 7000 inhabitants) on the Upper Rhine (Rheinhessen), between Mainz and Worms. ... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, things grew worse in Nazi occupied Holland. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ...

Contents

Background

After major defeats in Normandy in July to August 1944, remnants of German forces withdrew across the Low Countries and eastern France towards the German border by the end of August. In the north, the British 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was advancing on a line running from Antwerp to the northern border of Belgium. The First Canadian Army was just finishing their own offensive northward along the coast and were too fatigued to take part in major actions. To their south, the U.S. 12th Army Group under General Omar Bradley was nearing the German border and had been ordered to orient on the Aachen gap with the U.S. First Army. In the south, the U.S. 6th Army Group under General Jacob L. Devers was advancing towards Germany after their landings in southern France. This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... (Redirected from 21st Army Group) The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. Commanded by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful American military formation ever to take to the field. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... The 6th Army Group was an Army Group of the Allies (namely the United States Army) during World War II. It was created in Corsica, France (specifically activated on August 1, 1944) to consolidate the combined French and American forces that were planning to invade southern France in Operation Dragoon. ... General Jacob Jake Loucks Devers (September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979), who is best remembered for his command of the 6th Army Group in Europe during World War II, graduated from the US Military Academy in 1909. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ...


Logistical problems

The "Red Ball Express" was an attempt to resolve persistent Allied supply problems.
The "Red Ball Express" was an attempt to resolve persistent Allied supply problems.

On 4 September 1944 supply shortages halted the Allied advance. Supply sources were limited to the shallow docks built on the original invasion beaches and the nearby deepwater port of Cherbourg at the tip of the Cotentin peninsula. The massive port of Antwerp lay intact in British hands, but the Scheldt estuary leading inland was still under German control. Other important ports on the English Channel coast such as Dunkirk remained in German hands until May 1945. Although over-the-beach supply operations outperformed expectations and enough supplies were present on the continent to support Allied operations, a shortage of transport to move these supplies forward created a bottleneck. At the beginning of September, Cherbourg had 70,000 tons of stockpiled supplies but no transport to move them. Regional railway transport was non-existent because of the pre-invasion airstrikes; train movement out of Normandy did not resume until August 30 and was very limited. The situation was exacerbated by the fact that 1,400 British three-ton trucks were found to be useless because of faulty pistons in their engines — they could have moved 800 tons per day, enough for two divisions. In an attempt to address this acute shortage of transport, three newly-arrived U.S. infantry divisions (the 26th, 95th, and 104th) were stripped of their trucks in order to supply Montgomery's British 21st Army Group to allow Operation Market Garden to proceed. Similarly, the heavy artillery units of General Omar Bradley's US 12th Army Group were left west of the Seine, freeing their trucks to move supplies for other units. Organization of the Red Ball Express did much to lessen the impact of the transport shortage, but this ad hoc operation could not solve the problem. Image File history File links RedBallExpress. ... Image File history File links RedBallExpress. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Australian town and Aboriginal Mission, see Cherbourg, Queensland. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... Airstrike in Kosovo War An airstrike is a military strike by air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position, which depending on the selected tactics may or may not be followed up by artillery, armor, or infantry units. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... The 26th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. // Activated: July 1917 (National Guard Division from Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont). ... The 95th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. // Activated: 15 July 1942. ... The 104th Infantry Division —nicknamed the Timberwolf Division— was a division of the United States Army that fought for 195 consecutive days during World War II. Some 34,000 men served with the division under the leadership of General Terry Allen, who was much admired despite his nickname, Terrible Terry... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... The 12th Army Group was the largest and most powerful American formation ever to take to the field. ... Sign posted along the Red Ball route The Red Ball Express was an enormous convoy system created by Allied forces to supply their forces moving through Europe following the breakout from the D-Day beaches in Normandy. ...


Competing solutions

US soldiers crossing the Siegfried Line.
US soldiers crossing the Siegfried Line.

Following the British and Canadian breakout from Caen and the closure of the Falaise pocket, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, favoured a broad advance eastwards to the Rhine across a wide front, combined with capture and clearance of the Channel ports and Antwerp (Hibbert 1998, p. 8). This strategy was contested by the field commanders, especially Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery who commanded the British 21st Army Group in the north, and General George Patton, commander of the US 3rd Army in the south. Both favored rapid, concentrated thrusts across the Rhine in their own sectors. With the supply situation deteriorating in early September, a broad advance became impossible; there were not enough supplies moving forward to keep all of the armies in "combat supply". Download high resolution version (1401x1093, 319 KB)Then came the big day when we marched into Germany--right through the Siegfried Line. ... Download high resolution version (1401x1093, 319 KB)Then came the big day when we marched into Germany--right through the Siegfried Line. ... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Combatants North:  United Kingdom  Canada Polish forces South:  United States  Free French Nazi Germany Commanders Omar Bradley Harry Crerar Philippe Leclerc StanisÅ‚aw Maczek Bernard Montgomery George Patton Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength ~at least 500,000 Casualties Canadian: 1,470 killed Polish: 325 killed ~50,000 killed... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... General George Smith Patton Jr. ...


Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks, commander of the British XXX Corps that captured Antwerp, explained in his autobiography "A Full Life" (Collins,1960) how the Allies were crippled by a strategic error in the first days of September. It was assumed that the port of Antwerp would become usable as soon as the city had been captured; not one Allied commander realised that the Scheldt estuary leading to the port was mined and that the Germans had dug in on its banks, so preventing use of the port. Lieutenant-General Horrocks states that the correct action would have been to bypass Antwerp on 3-4 September and drive 24 kilometres (15 mi) north-west to Woensdrecht, so cutting off the Beveland isthmus, trapping the German 15th Army and allowing the Scheldt to be cleared for Allied shipping. The Allied failure to do this on 4 September allowed the Germans a two week respite, during which over 60,000 soldiers of the German 15th Army withdrew from Flanders and escaped across the Beveland isthmus into the Netherlands (Hibbert 1998, p. 44). The continued closure of the Scheldt hugely exacerbated the Allies' supply problem. Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (September 7, 1895 - January 4, 1985) was a British military officer. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most Allied commanders favored pursuit of the seemingly shattered German armies. Omar Bradley (and his subordinate George S. Patton) and Montgomery both requested priority on supplies in order to cross the Rhine River in a single decisive thrust, instead of clearing the Scheldt to open the port of Antwerp. Bradley and Patton favoured an attack east to take the city of Metz and into the industrial area of the Saarland, requiring passage of the Siegfried Line to the heavily defended Rhine. Bradley suggested that Allied air transport should continue to be used to move supplies to the front, able to keep the front lines moving regardless of the existing problems to the rear. Bradley was indulgent with respect to Patton's requests, interpreting Eisenhower's orders in a manner that gave Patton free rein. On 5 September Bradley allowed Patton's US 3rd Army to advance to the Moselle, a move that stretched the US 1st Army, which was trying to cover the gap between Montgomery's 21st Army Group and the US 3rd Army (Hibbert 1998, p. 10). Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... George Patton redirects here. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Montgomery initially suggested Operation Comet, a limited airborne coup de main to seize the bridge in Arnhem on September 7, but weather postponements and a fluid enemy situation made it evident that Arnhem was too distant a target for an unsupported airborne attack. Comet was replaced by a more ambitious plan to bypass the Siegfried Line, cross the Rhine with large-scale forces, and trap the German 15th Army between Arnhem and the shores of the IJsselmeer: Operation Market Garden. On 10 September Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, commander of the British 2nd Army under Montgomery, told Montgomery that he had doubts about this plan, and that he instead favored a strike north-eastwards between the Reichswald and the Ruhr to Wesel. Montgomery replied that he had just received a signal from London that something must be done to neutralise the V-2 launch sites around the Hague, which were bombarding London and Antwerp, and that the plan must therefore proceed (Hibbert 1998, p. 16). Furthermore, operations would be within range of aircraft flying from English bases, it would circumvent the strong defences of the Siegfried Line by hooking around its northern end, and a deep northern penetration would take the Germans by surprise. However, the plan had several problems. It required the British 2nd Army to drive northwards through terrain with numerous water obstacles to cross, and General Bradley pointed out that it would open a dangerous gap to the south between the 21st Army Group and the US 1st Army. Additionally, it entailed an armored advance up a single narrow road, built like a causeway with low-lying polder on both sides, restricting supply lines and the ability to use numerical strength to full advantage (Whiting 2002). Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ... A Coup de main is a swift attack that relies on speed and surprise to accomplish its objectives in a single blow. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... The German Fifteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant-General Dempsey Lieutenant-General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey GBE KCB DSO MC (15th December 1896 - 5th June 1969) was commander of the British Second Army during the D-Day landings in World War II. After graduating from Sandhurst Military Academy in 1915 Dempsey joined the Royal Berkshire Regiment. ... Wesel (IPA: ) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... German test launch. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Map of the Siegfried line The original Siegfried line (Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 in northern France during World War I. However, in English, Siegfried line more commonly refers to the similar World... This article is about the geographical feature. ...


After meeting Lieutenant-General Dempsey, Montgomery flew to Brussels that afternoon (10 September) to meet Eisenhower. Supply difficulties were so severe that tank transporters were being used to ferry parts of portable runways and basic supplies. The British 2nd Army did not even have use of its heavy artillery and anti-aircraft guns. Montgomery requested Eisenhower's Chief Administrative Officer to leave the meeting, but insisted on his own remaining. He then tore a file of Eisenhower's messages to shreds in front of him, and argued for a concentrated northern thrust, simultaneously demanding priority of supply. Eisenhower, convinced that German forces faced imminent collapse, was equally adamant that advance on a broad front was correct. However, he consented to Operation Market Garden, giving it "limited priority" in terms of supplies. In vain, Montgomery complained about this to the Vice-Chief of the Imperial General Staff in London. For their part, the American commanders were irritated by the priority accorded to the 21st Army Group.[citation needed] is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile General Patton had advanced so far that it became clear to Lieutenant-General Dempsey that the US 1st Army would not be able to cover the gap once Market Garden was launched. Hence the British VIII Corps would have to be detached from the main striking force to cover the south-eastern flank. There was not enough transport immediately available to move VIII Corps, necessitating a four day delay until 21 September. On 11 September Montgomery brought this argument to bear on Eisenhower, and on 12 September the Americans promised to give the British many trucks and 1,000 tons of their own supplies each day. Both Montgomery and Bradley assumed that this meant that Eisenhower had accepted Montgomery's demand for a single concentrated, northern thrust to Berlin.[citation needed] is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


General Bradley thought that the advance of the US 3rd Army under General Patton was thus at risk, and warned Patton. Patton decided to advance immediately beyond the Moselle and become so engaged with the enemy that the fight could not be broken off, forcing supplies to be diverted south. Patton was told to conduct "a continuous reconnaissance", it being understood that this meant "unrelenting attack". Indeed, the US 12th Army Group's supplies, which Eisenhower had intended to divert to Montgomery, continued to be supplied to the US 1st Army and Patton's 3rd Army. Thus the supply situation leading up to Operation Market Garden was extraordinarily difficult.[citation needed]


Keith Flint in his book "Airborne Armour", asks why Montgomery did not task Major-General Percy Hobart, who commanded the specialized combat engineering 79th Armoured Division, to attach some of his amphibious DD Sherman medium tanks and LVT-4 Buffalo amtracks that could carry troops, antitank guns as well as jeep and Bren universal carriers - the latter having excellent soft soil mobility. He also believes that the failure to fly in the 6th Airborne Division's 6th Recce Squadron's paratankers with Tetrarch light tanks, to capture and hold Arnhem bridge as requested by Major Frederick Gough, played a major role in the subsequent defeat. Keith Flint believes that the Tetrach light tanks were landed with such great effect on D-Day by Hamilcar gliders that a German commander cancelled his counter-attack.[page # needed] However, there was an extreme shortage of both air and ground transport before Market Garden. Most gliders could only be used once under combat conditions, and could not be constructed within days for such an operation. The light tanks would have been no match for heavy German tanks and anti-tank guns. In any case Operation Market Garden was based on the premise that armour would quickly arrive by road, to relieve the bridges captured and held by airborne infantry (Whiting 2002). Major-General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885-19 February 1957) was a British military engineer and commander of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II. He was responsible for many of the specialised armoured vehicles (Hobarts Funnies) that took part in the invasion of Normandy. ... The Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT) was an amphibious vehicle used by the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Army during World War II. It was widely known as amphtrack, amtrak, amtrac etc. ... General characteristics Length 12. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The Mk VII Tetrarch light tank was a British design of tank produced during the Second World War initially for reconnaisance purposes but used by airborne forces. ... Colonel (Charles) Frederick Howard Gough, MC, TD (16 September 1901 – 19 September 1977) was a British Territorial Army officer, company director and politician. ... The General Aircraft G.A.L. 49 Hamilcar or Hamilcar Mk I was a large British military glider of World War II, which was capable of carrying 7 tons of cargo or a light tank such as the Tetrarch or Locust. ...


Eisenhower's decision to launch Market Garden was mostly influenced by his desire to keep the retreating Germans under pressure. However, General Eisenhower was also under pressure from the U.S. to use the Airborne Army as soon as possible. After Normandy the airborne forces had been withdrawn to reform in England, forming the First Allied Airborne Army of three U.S. and two British airborne divisions, and a Polish brigade. After Normandy, plans for 18 airborne operations had been drafted, but then cancelled at short notice, mostly when Allied ground forces overran the intended drop zones.[6] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Badge of the First Allied Airborne Army The First Allied Airborne Army was part of the Allied Expeditionary Force in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... Official force name 1 Samodzielna Brygada Spadochronowa Other names 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade 1 SBS Branch Polish Army Chain of Command Directly subordinate to Polish Government in Exile In 1944 transferred under British command Description Airborne force, rapidly deployable aeromobile infantry force. ...


Plan

Further information: Operation Market Garden order of battle

The plan of action consisted of two operations: This the complete order of battle of Allied and German forces involved during Operation Market Garden. ...

  • MARKET: airborne forces of General Brereton's the First Allied Airborne Army to seize bridges and other terrain, under tactical command of Lieutenant-General Browning, and
  • GARDEN: ground forces of the British 2nd Army to move north spearheaded by XXX Corps under Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks.

Terrain considerations

There were eight major water obstacles between the XXX Corps jumping-off point and the objective of the north bank of the Rhine, including several major rivers and three canals. Plans were made to seize bridges across all these obstacles nearly simultaneously. Although the smaller canals and rivers could be temporarily bridged by engineers of XXX Corps if the existing permanent bridges could not be seized, the larger rivers (the Waal at Nijmegen and the Rhine at Arnhem) could not be bridged by XXX Corps.


Highway 69 (later nicknamed "Hell's Highway") leading through the planned route was two lanes wide, generally raised above the surrounding flat terrain of polder. The ground on either side of the highway was too soft to support tactical vehicle movement.


A single 100 meter (100 yards) high hill, the Groesbeek ridge, lay in the 82nd Airborne's zone. Seizure and defence of this hill was considered vital to holding the highway bridges. Groesbeek is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ...


Market

The Allied Plan
The Allied Plan

Market would employ three of the five divisions of the First Allied Airborne Army. The U.S. 101st Airborne Division, under Major General Maxwell D. Taylor, would drop in two locations just north of XXX Corps to take the bridges northwest of Eindhoven at Son and Veghel. The 82nd Airborne Division, under Brigadier General James M. Gavin, would drop northeast of them to take the bridges at Grave and Nijmegen, and the British 1st Airborne Division, under Major-General Roy Urquhart, and the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade would drop at the extreme north end of the route, to take the road bridge at Arnhem and rail bridge at Oosterbeek. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1835x3170, 1297 KB) Description: Market-Garden - The allied plan Source: selfmade Map User:W.wolny Licence: GNU/FDL File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Market Garden ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1835x3170, 1297 KB) Description: Market-Garden - The allied plan Source: selfmade Map User:W.wolny Licence: GNU/FDL File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Market Garden ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Badge of the First Allied Airborne Army The First Allied Airborne Army was part of the Allied Expeditionary Force in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... General Maxwell Davenport Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was an American soldier and diplomat of the mid-20th century. ... Country Province Government  - Mayor G.Braks (CDA) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Son en Breugel is a municipality in the southern Netherlands. ... Veghel (pronounced ) is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... James Maurice Jumpin Jim Gavin (born as James Nally Ryan; March 22, 1907-February 23, 1990 rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in the United States Army. ... Grave is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... (Redirected from 1st Airborne Division) The British 1st Airborne Division was a military unit that fought in World War II. It suffered terrible casualties, especially in Operation Market Garden. ... Urquhart outside his headquarters during Operation Market Garden. ... Official force name 1 Samodzielna Brygada Spadochronowa Other names 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade 1 SBS Branch Polish Army Chain of Command Directly subordinate to Polish Government in Exile In 1944 transferred under British command Description Airborne force, rapidly deployable aeromobile infantry force. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... Renkum is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ...


The First Allied Airborne Army had been created on August 16 as the end result of British requests for a coordinated headquarters for airborne operations, a concept approved by General Eisenhower on June 20. The British had strongly hinted that a British officer—Lieutenant-General Frederick Browning in particular—be appointed its commander. Since the bulk of both troops and aircraft were American, however, a USAAF officer, Major General Lewis H. Brereton, was named by Eisenhower on July 16 and appointed by SHAEF on August 2. Brereton had no experience in airborne operations but had extensive command experience at the air force level in several theatres, most recently as commander of Ninth Air Force, which gave him a working knowledge of the operations of IX Troop Carrier Command.[7] is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Browning as Commander, Airborne Corps. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... Lewis Hyde Brereton was an military aviation pioneer and US Army Air Force general in the Second World War. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ninth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Combat Command (ACC). ... IX Troop Carrier Command was an operational command of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II and its immediate aftermath. ...


Market would be the largest airborne operation in history, delivering over 34,600 men of the 101st, 82nd, 1st Airborne Divisions and the Polish Brigade. 14,589 troops were landed by glider and 20,011 by parachute. Gliders also brought in 1,736 vehicles and 263 artillery pieces. 3,342 tons of ammunition and other supplies were brought in by glider and parachute drop.[8] Gliders built by the military of various countries were used for carrying troops and heavy equipment, mainly during the Second World War. ...


To deliver its 36 battalions of airborne infantry and their support troops to the continent, the First Allied Airborne Army had under its operational control the 14 groups of IX Troop Carrier Command,[9] and after August 31, the 16 squadrons of both 38 Group (an organization of converted bombers providing support to resistance groups) and a transport formation, 46 Group. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The combined force had available 1,438 C-47/Dakota transports (1,274 USAAF and 164 RAF) and 321 converted RAF bombers. The Allied glider force had been rebuilt after Normandy until by September 16 it numbered 2,160 CG-4A Waco gliders, 916 Airspeed Horsas (812 RAF and 104 US Army), and 64 General Aircraft Hamilcars. However the U.S. had only 2,060 glider pilots available, so that none of its gliders would have a co-pilot but would instead carry an extra passenger.[10] The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The CG-4A Waco (named Hadrian in Royal Air Force use) was the most widely used United States troop/cargo military glider of World War II. Flight testing began in 1942 and eventually more than 12,000 CG-4As were procured. ... Airspeed Horsa The Airspeed AS.51 Horsa was a World War II troop-carrying glider built by the British company Airspeed Ltd and subcontractors and used for air assault by British and Allied armed forces. ... The General Aircraft G.A.L. 49 Hamilcar or Hamilcar Mk I was a large British military glider of World War II, which was capable of carrying 7 tons of cargo or a light tank such as the Tetrarch or Locust. ...


Because the C-47s served as both paratrooper transports and glider tugs, and because IX Troop Carrier Command would provide all the transports for both British parachute brigades, this massive force could deliver only 60% of the ground forces in a single lift. This limitation was the primary factor in the decision to split the troop lift schedule into successive days. Ninety percent of the USAAF transports on the first day would drop parachute troops, with the same proportion towing gliders on the second day (the RAF transports were almost entirely used for glider operations).[11]


Because September 17 was on a dark moon, and in the days following it, the new moon did not rise until dawn, the drops had to be made by daylight. (Airborne doctrine prohibited large scale operations in the absence of all light.) The risk of Luftwaffe interception was judged small, given the crushing air superiority of Allied fighters, but strong concerns existed about the increasing number of flak units in the Netherlands, especially around Arnhem. General Brereton's experience with tactical air operations judged that flak suppression would be sufficient to permit the troop carriers to operate without prohibitive loss. Further, the invasion of Southern France had demonstrated that large scale daylight airborne operations were feasible.[12] is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dark moon is the period when the Moon appears so close to the Sun in the sky that it cannot be seen even near sunset or sunrise. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... FLAK was a punk rock side project of members of the band Machinae Supremacy in 2001. ... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ...


Daylight operations, in contrast to those in Sicily and Normandy, would have much greater navigational accuracy and time-compression of succeeding waves of aircraft, tripling the number of troops that could be delivered per hour. The time required to assemble airborne units on the drop zone after landing would be reduced by two-thirds.[13] Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


Garden

Garden consisted primarily of XXX Corps and was initially spearheaded by the Guards Armoured Division, an elite British armoured formation, with the 43rd Wessex and 50th Northumbrian Infantry Divisions in reserve. They were expected to arrive at the south end of the 101st Airborne Division's area on the launch day, the 82nd's by the second day and the 1st's by the fourth day at the latest. They would also deliver several additional infantry divisions to take over the defensive operations from the airborne troops, freeing them for other operations as soon as possible. The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... The Guards Armoured Division was a World War II British Army formation. ... The 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division was a British Territorial Army division first formed in 1908. ... The British 50th (Northumbrian) Division was a first-line Territorial Force division. ...


Four days was a long time for an airborne force to fight unsupported. In addition the Allied paratroopers lacked adequate anti-tank weapons. Even so, before Operation Market Garden started it seemed to the Allied high command that the German resistance had broken. Most of the German 15th Army in the area appeared to be fleeing from the Canadians and they were known to have no Panzergruppen. It was thought that XXX Corps would face limited resistance on their route up highway 69 and little armour. Meanwhile, the German defenders would be spread out over 100 km (60 miles) trying to contain the pockets of airborne forces, from the British 2nd Army in the south to Arnhem in the north. Anti-tank refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Panzertruppe (German: Armored troops) refers to a command within the German Wehrmacht responsible for the affairs of panzer and motorized forces shortly before and during the Second World War. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ...


German forces

The rout of the German forces in July and August led the Allies to believe that the German army was a spent force unable to reconstitute its shattered units, but all was not what it seemed. The failure of the 21st Army Group to clear or cut off the Scheldt from the mainland allowed the German 15th Army (previously stuck in Pas de Calais waiting for an Allied invasion that never came) to ferry 86,000 men and 600 artillery pieces back into the mainland of the Netherlands, into the path of the planned attack. (Redirected from 21st Army Group) The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. Commanded by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ... Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France. ...


The arrival of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt as Wehrmacht Commander-in-Chief West in early September also helped stabilize the German front. Rundstedt, who replaced Field Marshal Walter Model, was generally detested by Hitler but well-respected by his troops, whom he had back in fighting condition within the week. Rundstedt immediately began to plan a defence against what Wehrmacht intelligence said were 60 Allied divisions at full strength.[14] Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Hitler redirects here. ...


Colonel General Kurt Student, the Wehrmacht's airborne pioneer, was put in command of what was euphemistically called the 'First Parachute Army'. The 3,000 paratroopers, scattered across the Reich, were likely the only combat-ready reserve forces in Germany at the time[15]. When these troops reached the Albert Canal, a Belgian waterway near the Dutch border which stood in the path of the Allied advance towards Berlin, they were dismayed to realise that at the canal Field-Marshal Model's "New German Line" was virtually non-existent, lacking any trenches or fortifications. Student's men "frantically" began preparing a defence along the southern edge of the canal, placing demolition charges to destroy the bridges that would aid the Allied march towards Berlin. Though stymied by the superior natural inclination of the northern side, Student later marvelled in his memoirs at the speed and precision with which the paratroopers worked. Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ... Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Albert Canal is a canal located in northeastern Belgium. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ...


Lieutenant General Kurt Chill, commanding the shattered 85th Division, established 'reception stations' at key bridge crossings in the Netherlands. Chill's actions gathered a miscellany of troops from various broken units into a semblance of military order, allowing Student to organize a defensive line. The German 719th Infantry Division was added to this force.


A coincidence had resulted in German Panzer forces being sent to the Arnhem area on 4 September. Rundstedt and his generals had agreed that Eisenhower would favour Patton in the anticipated offensive. Accordingly, in one of his final orders as Commander-in-Chief West, Model had ordered the II SS Panzer Corps, including the 9th SS and 10th SS Panzer divisions under the command of Lieutenant General Wilhelm Bittrich, to rest and refit in a "safe" area. The place chosen happened to be the area around Arnhem with the 9th SS scattered in various towns and villages to the north of the city and the 10th SS stationed 15 km (9 miles) further to the east. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The II.SS-Panzerkorps was a German Waffen-SS armoured corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World War II. // Formation - Kharkov The II.SS-Panzerkorps was formed in July 1942 in Bergen in The Netherlands as SS-Panzer-Generalkommando. ... The official cuff title worn by men of 9. ... The 10. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Wilhelm Bittrich Wilhelm Willi Bittrich (February 26, 1894 – April 19, 1979) was a General of the German SS during World War II. Born in the town of Wernigerode in the Harz mountains of Germany, Bittrich served as an army officer during World War I. He joined the SS-Verfügungstruppe...


Both SS divisions were very weak. Their combined strength amounted to no more than 7,000 men, enough for approximately one division. They retained few heavy weapons following the retreat from Normandy. On the eve of the battle, the 9th SS Panzer regiment had no tanks, the 9th SS Artillery regiment based in Dieren had no guns, and neither the 19th nor 20th SS Panzer Grenadier regiments based in Zutphen and Rheden respectively, had any heavy weapons. Nevertheless the fortuitous selection of Arnhem as a rest area meant that there were an additional 3,000 combat-ready troops available to fight the British airborne drop and at least a few serviceable tanks, armoured cars, and assault guns. Dieren is a town in the Dutch province of Gelderland. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Rheden is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ...


Problems

Several reports about the German movements by the Dutch resistance had reached Allied command by September 10, including identification of German armour units. Although planning was in its later stages, SHAEF Chief of Staff General Walter Bedell Smith flew to 21st Army Group headquarters to suggest several possible changes in the plan which Montgomery was unable or unwilling to institute. When an aerial reconnaissance flight returned with pictures clearly showing German tanks only 15km (9 miles) from the British drop zones, they were dismissed by Montgomery, with the (unfounded) assumption that the tanks were broken down. is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF), was the command headquarters of the commander of Allied forces in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Drop zone in Empuriabrava, Catalonia Drop zone in Pepperell, MA (USA) seen from the air In parachuting, a Drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist freefalls and expects to land. ...


IX Troop Carrier Command's transport aircraft had both to tow gliders and drop paratroopers, duties that could not be performed simultaneously. Although every division commander requested two drops the first day, Brereton's staff scheduled only one lift based on the need to prepare for the first drop by bombarding German flak positions for half a day, and a weather forecast on the afternoon of September 16, (which soon proved erroneous), that the area would have clear conditions for four days, so allowing drops on these days.[16] is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first day's lift involved all the U.S. parachute regiments but only half the British parachute troops, none of the Polish, and only three battalions of glider troops. Virtually no combat support units were delivered on D-day. A precarious timetable at the mercy of the weather resulted in the 101st Airborne Division being without its artillery for two days, the 82nd Airborne its artillery for a day and its glider infantry regiment for four days, and the British 1st Airborne division its fourth brigade until the fifth day. The longer the time required to complete the air drops, the longer each division had to devote forces to defending the drop and landing zones, weakening their offensive power. Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


Drop Zone selection was poor, particularly at Arnhem. The RAF coordinator refused to drop near the town on the north side of the target bridge because of flak guns at Deelen. Another suitable drop zone just to the south of the bridge was rejected because it was thought to be too marshy for landing gliders containing the force's heavier equipment. The inexperienced airborne commanders deferred to the RAF's concerns, and thus the three principal landing and drop zones were 8-10 km (5-6 miles) from the bridge, with the fourth being 13 km (8 miles) away (Hibbert 1962). EDE or Equinox Desktop Environment is a small desktop environment that is meant to be simple and fast. ...


Since the division would arrive over two days, the forces landing on the first day would have to take the bridge while simultaneously holding the drop zones, ensuring the force would be divided for over 24 hours. Realizing the seriousness of the problem, the plan was then hastily changed to use a small force of machine-gun equipped jeeps to seize the bridge in a coup de main with three battalions following on foot. A fourth battalion would hold the drop zones with the glider pilots until the final two lifts arrived. A . ... For other uses, see Jeep (disambiguation). ... The Glider Pilot Regiment was a specialist British unit of the Second World War. ...


After one week preparations were declared complete; by comparison the planning and training for the airborne drops at Sicily and Normandy had taken months. One United States Air Force historian noted that Market was the only large airborne operation of World War II in which the USAAF "had no training program, no rehearsals, almost no exercises, and a...low level of tactical training."[17] USAF redirects here. ...


Planning tasks were done badly or not at all. Because it placed reinforcement and resupply of ground forces at the mercy of the weather, the decision to make only one drop per aircraft on September 17 was "disastrous" in the words of the United States Army's historical study of the operation. Communications planning was poor, and the 1st Airborne Division would be out of touch with most other headquarters for most of the battle. No arrangements were made for close air support. The drops were scheduled to occur from south to north to aid the ground-based northward advance of XXX Corps from the Belgian border; this gave the Germans early warning of possible operations to seize bridges across the Waal and Rhine, critically reducing the time available to the northernmost Allied airborne units at Arnhem to capture the Rhine bridge before they would be attacked. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


Gavin, commanding the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division, was skeptical of the plan. In his diary he wrote, "It looks very rough. If I get through this one I will be very lucky." He was also highly critical of Browning, writing that he "...unquestionably lacks the standing, influence and judgment that comes from a proper troop experience... his staff was superficial... Why the British units fumble along... becomes more and more apparent. Their tops lack the know-how, never do they get down into the dirt and learn the hard way."[18]


Battle

Day 1: Sunday, 17 September 1944

Early successes

Allied Landings near Nijmegen
Allied Landings near Nijmegen

Operation Market Garden opened with Allied success all around. The first landing was in daylight for accuracy, and almost all of the troops arrived on top of their drop zones without incident. In the 82nd Airborne Division, 89% of troops landed on or within 1,000 meters (1000 yards) of their correct drop zones, and 84% of gliders landed on or within 1,000 meters (1,000 yards) of their landing zones. This contrasted with previous operations where night drops had resulted in units being scattered by up to 19 km (12 miles). Losses to enemy aircraft and flak were light; German flak was described in reports as "heavy but inaccurate". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (688x662, 175 KB) Description: Market-Garden - The allied landings near Nijmegen Source: selfmade Map User:W.wolny Licence: GNU/FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Operation... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (688x662, 175 KB) Description: Market-Garden - The allied landings near Nijmegen Source: selfmade Map User:W.wolny Licence: GNU/FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Operation...


In the south the 101st met little resistance and captured four of five bridges. The bridge at Son was blown up as they approached it, after being delayed by a short engagement with two German anti-tank guns. Later that day several small attacks by the German 59th Infantry Division (a 15th Army unit that had escaped across the South Beveland isthmus because of the failure of XXX Corps to seal it off) were beaten off, while small units of the 101st had moved south of Son.

82nd Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden. (National Archives)
82nd Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden. (National Archives)

To their north the 82nd arrived, and the small group dropped near Grave took the bridge in a rush. They also succeeded in capturing one of the vitally important bridges over the Maas-Waal canal, the lock-bridge at Heumen. The main effort of the 82nd was to seize the Groesbeek Heights and set up a blocking position there, to prevent a German armour attack out of the nearby Reichswald (a forest in Germany, near the border) and to deny the Heights to German artillery observers. Some soldiers of the 82nd landed on Dutch soil, and then moved a few yards over German ground without knowing it. Both Gavin and Browning felt this must be the Division's priority. The 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment was tasked with taking the 600 meters (600 yards) long Nijmegen highway bridge if possible, but because of miscommunication they did not start until late in the day. Had they attacked earlier they would have faced only a dozen Germans. By the time the 508th attacked, troops of the 9th SS Reconnaissance Battalion were arriving. The attack was stopped, leaving the Nijmegen bridge in German hands. 82d Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation MARKET-GARDEN. (National Archives) File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Market Garden U.S. 82nd Airborne Division ... 82d Airborne Division drop near Grave in the Netherlands during Operation MARKET-GARDEN. (National Archives) File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Market Garden U.S. 82nd Airborne Division ... During World War II, the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment (508th PIR or Red Devils) was a regiment of the 82nd Airborne Division which in turn became part of XVIII Airborne Corps of the United States Army. ...


This was vital. Unlike some of the bridges to the south, which were over smaller rivers and canals that could be bridged by engineering units, the Nijmegen and Arnhem bridges crossed two arms of the Rhine that could not be bridged easily. If either of the Nijmegen or Arnhem bridges were not captured and held, the advance of XXX Corps would be blocked and Operation Market Garden would fail. Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ...


British landings

Lieutenant-Colonel John Frost, in the uniform of The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)
Lieutenant-Colonel John Frost, in the uniform of The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)

The 1st Airborne Division landed without major incident, but problems associated with the poor plan began almost immediately. Only half of the Division arrived with the First Lift, and only half of these, the 1st Parachute Brigade, could advance on the bridge. The remaining troops had to defend the drop zones overnight awaiting the arrival of the Second Lift on the following day. Thus the Division's primary objective had to be tackled by less than a half brigade. While the paratroopers marched eastwards to Arnhem, the Reconnaissance Squadron was to race to the bridge in their jeeps and hold it until the rest of the Brigade arrived. Many jeeps were lost on the 38 gliders of the 1st Division that did not make it to the landing zone; others were unloaded with difficulty. The unit set off to the bridge late, and having travelled only a short distance the vanguard was halted by a strong German defensive position; the squadron could make no further progress. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (410x711, 31 KB) Major John Frost, leading officier of the Bruneval Raid (operation Biting) on 27 February 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (410x711, 31 KB) Major John Frost, leading officier of the Bruneval Raid (operation Biting) on 27 February 1942. ... The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. ... Antonov An-124 loading a container for the Dutch military A large military cargo aircraft: the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies primarily via aircraft. ...


This had grave consequences. Five hours after the initial landing, feeling that the British were tied down in Arnhem, the Reconnaissance Battalion of the 9th Waffen-SS Panzer Division was able to cross the Arnhem bridge and drive to Nijmegen and the bridge over the Waal branch of the Rhine. No British airborne unit was at this bridge. WAAL (The Whale) is a classic rock radio station broadcasting at 99. ...


Two of the three battalions of the 1st Parachute Brigade were slowed down by small German units of a training battalion which had quickly established a thin blocking line covering the obvious routes into Arnhem. Lieutenant-Colonel John Frost's 2nd Battalion, which was advancing eastwards along the southernmost road into Arnhem, near the Rhine, found its route largely undefended. They arrived at the bridge in the evening and set up defensive positions at the north end. Two attempts to capture the arched steel bridge and its southern approach were unsuccessful. Of the other battalions, the 3rd had only covered half the distance to the bridge when they halted for the night, the rear of their column being under attack and needing time to catch up. The 1st Battalion was similarly fragmented, yet pushed on around the flank of the German line throughout the night. Frequent skirmishes resulted in their making little more progress. Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ...


Communication breakdown

Some loss of communication between the bridge and Divisional Headquarters in one of the drop zones was expected, because 13 km (8 miles) separated them and the main radio used throughout the Division was the Type 22 set designed to have an effective range of just 5 km (3 miles) (Hibbert 2002, p. 99-100). However, the British radios did not function at any range; some had difficulty receiving signals from just a few hundred meters and others received nothing at all. Moreover it was found after landing that the radios had been pre-set to different frequencies, two of which coincided with those of German and British public broadcasting stations (ibid.). Other theories have been advanced to explain the greatly reduced range of the 1st Airborne Division's radio sets. Modern tests using Type 22 sets have suggested that large deposits of iron in the soil could have been to blame.[19] It is also possible that repeated operational stand-bys and cancellations (over a dozen drops were planned and then cancelled in the weeks prior to the operation) had led to sloppy battery charging procedures and lax supervision of this task. Thus communication between 1st Airborne units was poor while German defences were being coordinated and reinforced.


The only means of calling for close air support was through two special American units dropped with the 1st Airborne Division. These units were equipped with "Veeps": jeeps having Very High Frequency SCR-193 crystal sets. It was found impossible to communicate with aircraft on the higher of two frequencies allocated for this purpose, and the sets could not be tuned to the lower frequency (Hibbert & 2002 p100). Despite efforts to re-tune them, the sets were soon destroyed by mortar fire, cutting the 1st Airborne's only possible link with RAF fighter-bombers. The pilots were under orders not to attack on their own initiative since from the air there was no easy way to distinguish friend from foe. Together with poor weather, this led to a critical lack of air support. Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF...


XXX Corps advance

Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks refused to commit his troops until he received confirmation that the airborne forces had landed, having had experience of previous Airborne operations that had been cancelled at short notice. XXX Corps therefore did not start its advance until 14:35, and soon ran into infantry and anti-tank units dug in on the road. The force was delayed several hours, and several Guards Armoured Division's tanks were lost. As dusk fell at 17:00, they were still 15 km (9 miles) south of Eindhoven and behind schedule. The common doctrine for armour at that time was to halt at night, and although some night attacks had been made with armour by 21st Army Group in Normandy during Operation Totalise, no attempt was made here. The Irish Guards commander, Colonel Joe Vandeleur was told by the Guards Armoured Division Chief of Staff to "take your time..." because the bridge at Son had been blown. In fact the loss of the bridge at Son made a fast advance urgent, so that XXX Corps engineers could begin work on a replacement. Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (September 7, 1895 - January 4, 1985) was a British military officer. ... The Guards Armoured Division was formed on 17 June 1941. ... Country Province Government  - Mayor G.Braks (CDA) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Combatants First Canadian Army Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Guy Simonds SS General Kurt Meyer Strength 2 infantry divisions, 2 armoured divisions, 2 armoured brigades 3 infantry divisions, 1 SS Panzer Division During World War II, Operation Totalise (Allies, 1944) was a ground attack on 7 August 1944 by British, Canadian... Brig. ...


German reactions

On the German side, it was soon clear what was happening. Field Marshal Walter Model was staying at the Tafelberg Hotel in Oosterbeek, a village to the west of Arnhem, when the British began to land in the countryside to the west of Oosterbeek. Initially confused, he concluded that they were commandos attempting to kidnap him. He made a mad dash for a safer location. Meanwhile, Wilhelm Bittrich, commanding the 2nd SS Panzer Corps, had a clearer head and immediately sent a reconnaissance company of the 9th SS Panzer Division to Nijmegen to reinforce the bridge defence. By midnight, however, Model had gained a clear picture of the situation and issued orders that proved beneficial to the successful defence of Arnhem. The confusion usually attendant upon defending against airborne operations was absent at Arnhem, and the advantage of surprise was largely nullified by an alert reaction. Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Renkum is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Wilhelm Bittrich Wilhelm Willi Bittrich (February 26, 1894 – April 19, 1979) was a General of the German SS during World War II. Born in the town of Wernigerode in the Harz mountains of Germany, Bittrich served as an army officer during World War I. He joined the SS-Verfügungstruppe... The II.SS-Panzerkorps was a German Waffen-SS armoured corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World War II. // Formation - Kharkov The II.SS-Panzerkorps was formed in July 1942 in Bergen in The Netherlands as SS-Panzer-Generalkommando. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ...


Day 2: Monday, 18 September

Allied weather forecasters correctly predicted that England would be covered in fog on the morning of September 18th. The Second Lift was postponed three hours as a result, and thick low clouds began to develop over the southern part of the battle zone that spread during the day over the entire area, hampering both resupply and air support missions. (Seven of the next eight days had poor weather, and all air operations were cancelled on September 22 and September 24.) is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1st Airborne zone

British landings in Arnhem
British landings in Arnhem

The 1st and 3rd Parachute Battalions pushed towards the Arnhem bridge during the early hours of 18 September and made good progress, but they were frequently halted in skirmishes as soon as it became light. With their long and unwieldy columns having to halt to beat off attacks whilst the troops in front carried on unaware, the Germans would delay segments of the two battalions, fragment them, and mop up the remnants. Image File history File links Market-Garden_-_Karte_Verteidigung_von_Arnheim. ... Image File history File links Market-Garden_-_Karte_Verteidigung_von_Arnheim. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early in the day the 9th SS Reconnaissance Battalion, sent south the day before, concluded it was not needed in Nijmegen and returned to Arnhem. Though aware of the British troops at the bridge, it attempted to cross by force and was beaten back with heavy losses, including its commanding officer, SS-Hauptsturmführer Paul Gräbner.


By the end of the day the 1st and 3rd Parachute Battalions had entered Arnhem, and were within 2 km (1 mile) of the bridge with approximately 200 men, one-sixth their original strength. Most of the officers and non-commissioned officers had been killed, wounded, or captured. The Second Lift, delayed by fog and jumping onto a landing zone under heavy attack, landed at full strength (the 4th Parachute Brigade, consisting of the 10th, 11th and 156th Battalions of the Parachute Regiment, commanded by Brigadier-General John Winthrop Hackett) and C and D Companies of the 2nd South Staffordshire Regiment. This article is about the British Army officer and author, for information about the musician, see John Hackett (musician). ... History The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales) or Staffords was formed in 1959 by the amalgamation of The South Staffordshire Regiment and the North Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales). The Staffords can trace their history back to 1705 when a regiment known as the 38th Foot was raised at Lichfield...


82nd Airborne zone

Grave proved to be well defended, and German forces continued to press on the 82nd deployed on the Groesbeek heights to the east of Nijmegen. The 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment defended successfully against German attacks in Horst, Grafwegen, and Riethorst. Early in the day, German counterattacks seized one of the Allied landing zones, where the Second Lift was scheduled to arrive at 13:00. The 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment attacked at 13:10 and cleared the LZ by 14:00, capturing 16 German flak pieces and 149 prisoners. Delayed by weather in Britain, the Second Lift did not arrive until 15:30. This lift brought in elements of the 319th and 320th Glider Field Artillery battalions, the 456th Parachute Field Artillery battalion, and medical support elements. Twenty minutes later, 135 B-24 bombers dropped supplies from low level (100 ), 80% of which were recovered. LZ can stand for: LZ (band), a bulgarian pop/rock band The IATA code for Balkan Bulgarian Airlines Landing Zone, an avionic or military term Led Zeppelin, a rock music group Lempel-Ziv, prefix for family of data compression algorithms (LZ77, LZ78, LZW), sometimes used as beginning for file name...


101st Airborne zone

Map of US landings near Eindhoven
Map of US landings near Eindhoven

Faced with the loss of the bridge at Son, the 101st unsuccessfully attempted to capture a similar bridge a few kilometers away at Best, finding the approach blocked. Other units continued moving to the south and eventually reached the northern end of Eindhoven. At about noon they were met by reconnaissance units from XXX Corps. At 16:00 they made radio contact with the main force to the south and told them about the Son bridge, asking for a Bailey bridge to be brought forward. XXX Corps passed through Eindhoven and bivouacked south of Son, where they waited for the Royal Engineers to erect the Bailey bridge. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (557x906, 117 KB) Description: Market-Garden - The allied landings near Eindhoven Source: selfmade Map User:W.wolny Licence: GNU/FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Operation... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (557x906, 117 KB) Description: Market-Garden - The allied landings near Eindhoven Source: selfmade Map User:W.wolny Licence: GNU/FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Operation... This article is about the municipality in the Netherlands. ... This article is about the portable prefabricated bridge. ...


At the end of two days the XXX Corps advance was behind schedule, and the Nijmegen and Arnhem bridges were still in German hands.


Day 3: Tuesday, 19 September

Arnhem

During the early morning hours the 1st Parachute Brigade began its attack towards Arnhem Bridge with the 1st Battalion leading, supported by remnants of the 3rd Battalion, with the 2nd South Staffordshires on the 1st Battalion's left flank and the 11th Battalion following behind. As soon as it became light the 1st Battalion was spotted, and halted by fire from the main German defensive line. Trapped in open ground and under heavy fire from three sides, the 1st Battalion disintegrated and what remained of the 3rd Battalion fell back. The 2nd South Staffordshires were similarly cut off and, save for about 150 men, overcome by midday. The 11th Battalion, which had stayed out of much of the fighting, was now overwhelmed in exposed positions while attempting to capture high ground to the north. With no hope of breaking through, the 500 remaining men of these four battalions withdrew westwards in the direction of the main force, 5 km (3 miles) away in Oosterbeek. Renkum is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ...


The 2nd Battalion and attached units, by now amounting to approximately 600 men, were still in firm control of the northern approach ramp to the Arnhem bridge. The Germans recognised that they would not be moved by infantry attacks such as those that had been bloodily repulsed on the previous day, so instead they heavily shelled the short British perimeter with mortars, artillery, and tanks, systematically demolishing each house to enable their infantry to exploit gaps and dislodge the defenders. Although in constant, heavy battle against enormous odds, the British clung fiercely to their positions and the perimeter remained largely unaltered.


Oosterbeek

To the north of Oosterbeek the 4th Parachute Brigade led an attempt by the 1st Airborne Division to break through the German lines, but communication difficulties and significant enemy resistance caused the attack to fail with heavy losses. The Division, scattered far and wide and hard pressed by the enemy on all sides, had lost its offensive capability. Unable to help Lt.-Col. Frost at the bridge, the remaining soldiers attempted to withdraw into a defensive pocket at Oosterbeek and hold a bridgehead on the north bank of the Rhine.


The parachute elements of the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade had remained in England because of dense fog. Their gliders, however, mainly carrying anti-tank guns and vehicles, were able to take off but had the misfortune to arrive above the landing zone just as the 4th Parachute Brigade was retreating across it, and the gliders came under fire from German units pursuing the Brigade. Official force name 1 Samodzielna Brygada Spadochronowa Other names 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade 1 SBS Branch Polish Army Chain of Command Directly subordinate to Polish Government in Exile In 1944 transferred under British command Description Airborne force, rapidly deployable aeromobile infantry force. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Nijmegen

At 08:20, the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment made contact with XXX Corps at Grave. This enabled the Regiment to move on to other missions and place the 3rd Battalion in division reserve. By the afternoon of 19 September, advance units of XXX Corps were arriving in Nijmegen. By this time, according to the original plan, they were due in Arnhem. A combined effort to take the Nijmegen bridge was mounted by two companies from the Guards Armoured Division and the 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The attack got within 400 meters (400 yards) of the bridge before being stopped; skirmishing continued throughout the night. A plan was developed to attack the south end of the bridge again while the 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, planned to cross the river in boats 2 km (1 mile) downstream and then attack the north end. The boats, requested for late afternoon, never arrived. Once again XXX Corps was held up in front of a bridge. is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guards Armoured Division was formed on 17 June 1941. ...


The 1st and 5th battalions, Coldstream Guards, were attached to the division. A resupply attempt by 35 C-47s (out of 60 sent) was unsuccessful; the supplies were dropped from a high altitude and could not be recovered. The Coldstream Guards is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division or Household Division. ...


Wijchen

At 09:50 the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment was going forward to Wijchen, to attack the Edithbridge from its south end. The bridge was secured. After this fierce engagement they pushed on to the traffic bridge south of Wijchen. Another fierce engagement followed, and this bridge too was secured. Wijchen is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, at . // Neighbourhoods in Wijchen include: Centrum. ... Wijchen is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, at . // Neighbourhoods in Wijchen include: Centrum. ...


Eindhoven-Veghel

To their south, units of the 101st sent to take Best the day before were forced to yield to German counterattacks during the morning. British tanks arriving during the day helped push back the Germans by late afternoon. Later a small force of Panther tanks arrived at Son and started firing on the Bailey bridge. These too were beaten back by anti-tank guns that had recently landed, and the bridge was secured. The Panther ( ) was a tank fielded by Nazi Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. ...


Day 4: Wednesday, 20 September

Arnhem bridge

Lt. Colonel John Frost's force at the bridge continued to hold out and established communication via the public telephone system with 1st Division at around noon, to learn that the division had no hope of relieving them and that XXX Corps was stopped to the south in front of Nijmegen bridge. By the afternoon the British positions around the north end of Arnhem bridge had weakened considerably. Casualties, mostly wounded, were high from constant shelling. An acute lack of ammunition, especially anti-tank munitions, enabled enemy armour to demolish British positions from point-blank range. Food, water, and medical supplies were scarce, and so many buildings were on fire and in such serious danger of collapse that a two-hour truce was arranged to evacuate the wounded (including Lieutenant-Colonel Frost) into German care and captivity. Frederick Gough took over as commander when Frost left. Major-General John Dutton Johnny Frost, CB, DSO, MC, (December 31, 1912 - May 21, 1993) was a British airborne officer. ... Colonel (Charles) Frederick Howard Gough, MC, TD (16 September 1901 – 19 September 1977) was a British Territorial Army officer, company director and politician. ...


The Germans overcame remaining pockets of resistance throughout the day, gaining control of the northern bridge approaches and permitting reinforcements to cross the span and reinforce units further south near Nijmegen. The remaining British troops continued to fight on fiercely, some with just fighting knives, but by early Thursday morning almost all had been taken prisoner. The last radio message broadcast from the bridge - "Out of ammo, God save the King" - was heard only by German radio intercept operators.


While it was estimated that the entire 1st Airborne Division, 10,000 strong, would only need to hold the Arnhem bridge for two days, in fact just 740 had held it for twice as long against far heavier opposition than anticipated. While 81 British soldiers died defending Arnhem bridge, German losses cannot be stated with any accuracy, though they were certainly extremely heavy; 11 units known to have participated in the fighting reported 50% casualties after the battle. In memory of the fighting there, the bridge has been renamed the "John Frost Bridge". Gavin called Frost's stand "the outstanding independent parachute battalion action of the war."


Oosterbeek

Further west, the remnants of the 1st Airborne Division were gathering at Oosterbeek for their last stand; those already in place were not seriously challenged by the enemy throughout the day. To the east of the village, the 1st, 3rd and 11th Parachute Battalions and 2nd South Staffordshires were organised into a defensive position, and in desperate fighting later in the day they bloodily repulsed an enemy attack which threatened to cut the division off from the Rhine and so seal the fate of their fragile bridgehead. (Redirected from 1st Airborne Division) The British 1st Airborne Division was a military unit that fought in World War II. It suffered terrible casualties, especially in Operation Market Garden. ... The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales) or Staffords is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. ...


In the woods to the west of Oosterbeek, the 4th Parachute Brigade was fighting its way towards the divisional perimeter but was under severe attack from German troops, supported by artillery, mortars and tanks, some mounting flame-throwers. Their casualties were heavy; the 10th Battalion reached Oosterbeek in the early afternoon but with only 60 men.


Further in the rear, the 156th Parachute Battalion was being more hard pressed and was forced to fight off numerous enemy attacks before mounting counter-attacks of their own; indeed it is a credit to the battalion that they were so successful in these respects that the Germans did not know they were fighting men who were in full retreat. The battalion, down to 150 men, mounted a desperate bayonet charge to capture a hollow in the ground in the woods, in which they remained pinned by enemy attacks for the next eight hours. Towards the end of the day the 75 men who could, fixed bayonets and made a highly successful break through the German lines, and so retreated into the Allied pocket at Oosterbeek.


Nijmegen

Boats ordered by the 82nd Airborne the day before failed to arrive until afternoon, and a hasty daylight assault crossing was ordered. At about 15:00 the 3rd Battalion, 504th PIR, made the crossing in 26 canvas assault boats into well-defended positions. The American unit had no training on the British-made boats. A shortage of paddles required some troopers to paddle the craft with rifle butts. About half the boats survived the crossing under heavy fire; survivors then assaulted across 200 meters (200 yards) of open ground on the far bank and seized the north end of the bridge. German forces withdrew from both ends of the bridge, which was then rushed by Guards tanks and the 2nd Battalion, 505th PIR, securing the bridge after four days of struggle. The costly attack was nicknamed "Little Omaha" in reference to (Omaha Beach).


To the east, German attacks on the heights made significant progress, capturing the only remaining bridge suitable for tanks. A counterattack at Mook by elements of the 505th PIR and 4th Battalion, the Coldstream Guards, forced the Germans back to their line of departure by 20:00. However, the 508th PIR lost ground at Im Thal and Legewald when attacked by German infantry and tanks. By now it was evident that the Germans' plan was to cut the highway, which would split up the Airborne units and cut off the advance elements of XXX Corps.


To the south the running battles between the 101st and various German units continued. Eventually several Panther tanks managed to cut the roads, but pulled back when low on ammunition.


When Lieutenant-General Dempsey of the 2nd Army met Brigadier General Gavin, commander of the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division, he is reported to have said (in reference to the Nijmegen attack), "I am proud to meet the commander of the greatest Division in the world today."


Day 5: Thursday, 21 September

Oosterbeek

Approximately 3,584 survivors of the 1st Airborne Division established themselves in the buildings and woods around Oosterbeek with the intention of holding a bridgehead on the north side of the Rhine until XXX Corps could arrive. Throughout the day their position was heavily attacked on all sides. In the southeast the Lonsdale Force (the remnants of the 1st, 3rd, and 11th Parachute Battalions and 2nd South Staffordshires) repulsed a major attack aided by the fire of the divisional light artillery. In the north the 7th King's Own Scottish Borderers were almost overrun during the afternoon, but a counterattack with bayonets restored the situation and the heavily depleted battalion moved further south to occupy a narrower front. The most serious attack of the day was made at dawn against "B" Company, 1st Battalion, Border Regiment, which controlled a vital area of high ground in the southwestern tip of the perimeter overlooking the Heveadorp ferry crossing at Driel, which was the division's only straightforward means of receiving reinforcements from the south. The company was attacked by enemy armour and infantry, and the heights were lost. Counterattacks failed and the remnants of the company were redeployed. The division was left in a precarious position, controlling just 700 meters (700 yards) of the riverbank. The division refused to yield ground to similar attacks elsewhere on their front.


A resupply attempt by RAF Stirlings of 38 Group was disrupted by the only effective Luftwaffe fighter interception during the entire operation. Fw 190s intercepted the Stirlings at low altitude and shot down 7 of one line of 10, and 15 overall. Anti-aircraft fire accounted for 8 further losses. The Fw 190s were able to penetrate the screen of Allied fighters sent to cover the drop when one group, the U.S. 56th Fighter Group, was late in arriving in its patrol sector between Lochem and Deventer. The 56th, however, did redeem itself to an extent by shooting down 15 of the 22 Fw 190s as they departed the area.[20] The Stirling was a World War II heavy bomber design built by Short Brothers. ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird, was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ... The 56th Fighter Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 56th Operations Group, is a current unit of the United States Air Force. ... Lochem is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. ...


Polish Paratroopers Enter The Battle

After two days of weather-related delay, the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade under Major-General Stanislaw Sosabowski finally entered the battle on the afternoon of September 21, delivered at about 17:15 by 114 C-47s of the U.S. 61st and 314th Troop Carrier Groups. Two of the brigade's three battalions were dropped amidst heavy German fire, opposite the 1st Airborne Division's position on a new drop zone south of the Rhine near the village of Driel. Poor coordination by the RAF and persistent attacks by Luftwaffe aircraft caused their supplies to be dropped 15 km (9 miles) away, on the opposite side of the Rhine. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Driel is a small village located in the municipality of Overbetuwe near Arnhem in the Netherlands. ...


Planning to use the Heveadorp ferry to reinforce the division, they soon discovered that the opposite bank was dominated by the enemy and that the ferry was missing; it was later found downstream past the road bridge, unserviceable. Unable to help the British, the Polish withdrew to Driel for the night. The 1st Airborne Division made radio contact during the day with guns of the 64th Medium Regiment of XXX Corps Artillery which had advanced with the ground forces and were assigned to provide the division with artillery support. Unlike many others, this radio link endured throughout the battle and the regiment provided valuable fire support to the division.


Nijmegen

Despite the capture of Nijmegen bridge and the clearing of the town on the previous evening, the Guards Armoured Division did not begin to advance until some 18 hours later, at noon. Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks claimed he needed this delay to sort out the confusion among his troops that had resulted from the battle in Nijmegen. This was a controversial decision that has been examined often in the years since. Half of the division had been detached to assist the 82nd Airborne Division elsewhere as the Germans sought to cut off the tip of the advance. The remainder of the Guards Armoured Division was short of fuel and exhausted from its difficult fight to secure Nijmegen. The Market/Garden plan depended upon a single highway as the route of advance and resupply. This imposed a delay since other units could not be deployed on alternate routes to sustain the forward momentum. Brigadier General Gavin's diary comment was: "Had Ridgway been in command at that moment, we would have been ordered up that road in spite of all our difficulties, to save the men at Arnhem." The historian Max Hastings wrote "It reflected poorly on the British Army...". Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (September 7, 1895 - January 4, 1985) was a British military officer. ...


The delay enabled the Germans to considerably shore up their defences to the south of Arnhem, aided by use of the bridge following their capture of its northern end. The advance of the Guards, hindered by marshes that prevented off-road movement, was soon halted by a firm German defensive line. The Guards not having the strength to outflank it, the 43rd Division was ordered to take over the lead, work its way around the enemy positions and make contact with the Polish at Driel. However, the 43rd was 30 km (20 miles) away and there was a traffic jam between it and Nijmegen. It was not until the following day, Friday, that the whole division finally crossed the River Waal and began its advance.


The Germans, clearly starting to gain the upper hand, continued their counterattacks all along the path of XXX Corps, although the Corps still managed to advance and the 101st Airborne Division continued to exploit its gains.


At about 15:00, 406 C-47 glider tugs and 33 C-47 cargo carriers executed a resupply mission for the 82nd Airborne Division. About 60% of the supplies were recovered (351 of the gliders were counted effective), partly with the help of Dutch civilians. Most of the 82nd and 101st, reinforced with British armour units, were engaged in defensive missions with the objective of holding the highway corridor. Small attacks were fought all along the corridor.


Wijchen bridge

After the victory of the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment at Wijchen the Germans tried to attack the Edithbridge from the north end. The 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment requested the 101st Airborne Division for help. Advancing directly, they couldn't get close enough to the Germans. It looked like another failure to secure the bridge. But the 101st then headed into Wijchen. Ultimately the Germans were not strong enough to defend their position and had to abandon the bridges in Wijchen to the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment.


Day 6: Friday, 22 September ("Black Friday")

The Germans, wary after unsuccessful and costly attacks the previous day, shelled and mortared the airborne positions heavily in lieu of additional direct assaults. By the end of the battle some 110 artillery pieces had been brought into place around Oosterbeek as the Germans shifted to the tactics that had worked so well at the Arnhem bridge. Direct attacks were limited in nature, conducted against specific positions and even individual houses. Numerous well-sited British anti-tank guns also caused German reluctance to attack directly. The survivors of the 1st Airborne were outnumbered 4 to 1.

Polish paratroopers in positions on the southern bank of the Rhine.
Polish paratroopers in positions on the southern bank of the Rhine.

The Polish 1st Parachute Brigade at Driel, unable to cross the Rhine, nonetheless caused a major redeployment of German forces. Fearing a Polish attempt to recapture Arnhem bridge or, worse, an attempt to cut the road to the south and so trap the 10th SS Panzer Division then blocking the route of the Guards Armoured Division northwards to Arnhem, the Germans withdrew 2,400 troops from Oosterbeek. They were moved south of the river to engage the Polish paratroopers at Driel, making attacks with little real effect throughout the day. Source: Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum This work is copyrighted. ... Source: Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum This work is copyrighted. ...


Link-up between the Polish and XXX Corps

The fog lifted as leading elements of the 43rd Division attempted to advance to Driel, exposing them to German fire. They arrived in Driel during the evening. Lacking assault craft, an unsuccessful attempt was made that night to put elements of the Polish brigade across the river. British and Polish engineers on both sides of the Rhine had worked throughout the day to improvise a crossing using small boats linked by signals cable, but the cable consistently broke, forcing the Polish troops to slowly row across against the strong current. The attempt was made under enemy observation and fire, and only 52 soldiers of the 8th Polish Parachute Company survived the crossing before a halt was called at dawn.


While much of the corridor along "Hell's Highway" was firmly in Allied hands, German counterattacks were still being mounted along its length. During the previous night, two mixed armoured formations on either side of Highway 69 attacked between Veghel and Grave; one group managed to cut the highway and prevent any further advance to Arnhem.


Day 7: Saturday, 23 September

The Germans had figured out what the Poles were attempting to do, and they spent the rest of the day trying to cut off the British in their northern bridgehead from the riverside. The British managed to hold on, and both sides suffered heavy losses. The Germans also attacked the Poles on the south side in order to tie them down, but several tanks arrived from XXX Corps and they were beaten off. Boats and engineers from the Canadian army also arrived that day, and another river crossing that night landed another 150 troops of the Polish 3rd Parachute Battalion on the northern bank of the Rhine.


To the south several more German attacks from their position astride the road were stopped, but the road was still cut. XXX Corps then sent a unit of the Guards Armoured Division 19 km (12 miles) south and re-took the road. The rest of the force to the north continued to wait for infantry to move up, still only a few kilometers south of Arnhem.


Day 8: Sunday, 24 September

Another German force successfully attacked the road to the south of Veghel and set up defensive positions for the night. It was not clear to the Allies at this point how much of a danger this represented, but the principal objective of Operation Market Garden, i.e. the Allied crossing of the Rhine, was essentially abandoned this day, and the decision made to go over to the defensive with a new front line in Nijmegen. Nevertheless, an attempt was made on Sunday night to reinforce the 1st Airborne Division with the 4th Battalion, The Dorsetshire Regiment. Two companies were put across the river, however the location of the crossing point was ill-advised and the Dorsets landed among prepared German positions. Fragmented by their landing and immediately pinned down, of the 315 men who crossed only 75 reached Oosterbeek; the remainder were taken prisoner. As a result of this failure, it was decided to withdraw the 1st Airborne Division from its bridgehead on the northern side of the Rhine. Veghel (pronounced ) is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. ... A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ...


Day 9: Monday, 25 September

At dawn, the 1st Airborne Division received their orders to withdraw across the Rhine. This could not be effected until nightfall, and in the meantime the division struggled to survive. In a departure from their cautious, attritional tactics of the previous days, the Germans formed two potent SS battlegroups and made a significant thrust along a narrow front in the eastern sector. This succeeded in breaking through the thin front line, and for a time the division was in peril. However, the attack met with increasing resistance as it pushed deeper into the British lines, and was finally broken up by a heavy bombardment of the 64th Medium Regiment.


Employing every ruse to give the Germans the impression that their positions were unchanged, the 1st Airborne Division began its withdrawal at 22:00. British and Canadian engineer units ferried the troops across the Rhine, covered by the Polish 3rd Parachute Battalion on the north bank. By early the next morning they had withdrawn 2,398 survivors, leaving 300 men to surrender on the north bank at first light, when German fire prevented their rescue. Of approximately 10,600 men of the 1st Airborne Division and other units who fought north of the Rhine, 1,485 had died and 6,414 were taken prisoner, of whom one third were wounded.


To the south the newly-arrived 50th (Northumbrian) Division attacked the Germans holding the highway, and secured it by the next day. Allied positions in the Nijmegen Salient, as it came to be known, were manned throughout the rest of September and October by airborne units, then handed over to the First Canadian Army in November 1944 and remained unchanged until February 1945 when Operation Veritable was launched on the Rhineland, advancing east instead of north towards Arnhem. The British 50th (Northumbrian) Division was a first-line Territorial Force division. ... The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... Operation Veritable was the northern part of the Second World War pincer movement by Field Marshall Bernard Montgomerys 21st Army Group to clear the land between the Rhine and Roer rivers. ...


Losses

Casualties KIA WIA MIA Total Grand Total
German 2,000 approx. 6,000 approx. 8,000 approx. 8,000 approx.
British and Canadian 6,000 6,946 13,398 +17,000
American 558 4,118
Polish 96 276 372

In addition to Allied and German losses, numerous Dutch were killed, including several soldiers and officers in British service as well as resistance fighters and civilians. A green area near the bridge was named after the Dutch officer: Jacob Groenewoud Plantsoen. Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... “UK” redirects here. ...


Aftermath

Front in the Low Countries after Market Garden
Front in the Low Countries after Market Garden

Operation Market Garden led to high losses in the elite Allied Airborne units. After the offensive operation was called off, these light units were left holding defensive positions, a role for which they were not equipped. The frontage held by Allied forces along their northwestern front in the Low Countries also doubled, making it difficult to mass forces for vital offensive operations in the area that took place in late 1944, such as the Battle of the Scheldt and Operation Aintree. In order to accomplish these two simultaneous offensives and make up for the heavy casualties that had been sustained during Operation Market Garden, troops were brought in from the front near Aachen and from the Ardennes. The Germans exploited the thin Allied presence in the Ardennes in December 1944 by launching the Ardennes offensive, which resulted in the Battle of the Bulge. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x965, 1822 KB) Description: Northwestern Europe 1944 - 21st Army Group Operations 15 September - 15 December Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x965, 1822 KB) Description: Northwestern Europe 1944 - 21st Army Group Operations 15 September - 15 December Source: www. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ...


Debate on Allied Strategy and Tactics

Operation Market Garden has remained a controversial battle for several reasons. Both Allied tactics and strategy have been debated. The operation was the result of a strategy debate at the highest levels of Allied command in Europe. Much post-war analysis has thus probed the alternatives that were not taken, such as giving priority to first securing the Scheldt estuary. Military historians have also pointed to the weakened Allied strategic position in the Low Countries as a result of the defeat at Arnhem.


Optimistic planning

Among the controversial aspects of the plan was the necessity of all the major bridges being taken in order for success. Little contingency had been made in the event of blown bridges along the route. The terrain was also ill-suited for the mission of XXX Corps. It is therefore surprising in retrospect that the plans placed so little emphasis on capturing the important bridges immediately with forces dropped directly on them. In the case of Veghel and Grave, where this was done, the bridges were captured with only a few shots being fired. The decision to drop the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division on the Groesbeek Heights, several kilometers from the Nijmegen Bridge, has been questioned, because it resulted in a critical delay of the capture of the span. Brereton had ordered that the bridges along XXX Corps' route should be captured with "thunderclap surprise". Both Browning and Gavin considered holding a defensive blocking position on the ridge a prerequisite for holding the highway corridor. The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ...


Gavin generally favoured accepting the higher initial casualties involved in dropping as close to objectives as possible in the belief that distant drop zones would result in lower chances of success. However, in this case, with the 82nd responsible for holding the centre of the salient, he and Browning decided the ridge must take priority. Combined with the 1st Airborne Division's delays within Arnhem, which left the Arnhem bridge open to their traffic, the Germans were given vital hours to reinforce their hold on the bridge.


The actions of XXX Corps have also been questioned. Their advance was characterized by what was widely perceived, at the time, as a lack of drive. For example, XXX Corps did not jump off until mid-afternoon of the first day and were delayed by pockets of German resistance and the need for engineers to replace the bridge destroyed at Son. They arrived at Nijmegen on September 19 when the plan called for them to be in Arnhem by that afternoon. Their major unexpected delay arose from the need to support the 82nd's assaults on Nijmegen and its bridges. After the river had been crossed, the Guards allegedly waited 18 hours to resume their advance; in the words of Colonel Reuben Tucker (commander of the 504th) the Guards "...stopped for tea". While not literally true (and misunderstanding the habit of British soldiers to "brew-up" in any circumstances - a tradition continued to this day in the British Army), Tucker's statement summed up the view some U.S. troops had of the XXX Corps units. Ridgway added that he was "much dissatisfied with the apathy and lack of aggressiveness of the British forces". is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuben Henry Tucker III (b. ...


However, one cannot shift all the blame to the British forces for the operation's failure (in the words of Montgomery: Seemingly, every allied victory is an American success, every Allied defeat is a British failure), as the American commanders decision to fly just one drop a day instead of two greatly reduced the amount of troops and equipment on the ground. Also, some have blamed the American pilot's lack of co-ordination, as in Normandy, some units landed off target. There was also some dissension between British and American forces and resistance forces in the Netherlands as well as lack of proper intelligence, adequate equipment, a breakdown in communications and a total underestimation of the German forces in the area.


Priority of operation

Several weeks prior to the plan taking shape, the British had captured Antwerp and its all-important port facilities. This action had the potential to greatly shorten the Allies' supply lines and trap Gustav-Adolf von Zangen's 15th Army of 80,000 men on the south side of the Scheldt Estuary. Instead, Von Zangen's men, with most of their heavy equipment including their artillery, escaped by boat to the South Beveland peninsula. In September, the peninsula could have been sealed by a short advance of only 24 km (15 miles) past Antwerp. Instead, because priority on supplies went to Market Garden, the First Canadian Army paused at Antwerp and then fought the Battle of the Scheldt in October at the cost of thousands of casualties. In the aftermath of Market Garden, Antwerp was not made operational until November 28. By October 1, over 240 Allied supply ships were waiting, unable to unload their cargo because of the limited port facilities on the continent. Born in 1892, General Gustav-Adolf von Zangen was the commander of the German 15th Army in the Netherlands, 1944. ... The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Unseized tactical initiative

Arnhem bridge was not the only available Rhine crossing. In fact, had the Market Garden planners realized that a ferry was available at Driel, Frost's paratroops might well have secured that instead of the Arnhem bridge, making a profound difference in the campaign because at a shorter distance away from their western drop and landing zones--the whole of the 1st Brigade could have concentrated to hold the Osterbeek heights instead of just one battalion farther away at the road bridge. In this case, Arnhem was "one bridge too many". At a minimum, had XXX Corps pushed north, they would have arrived at the south end and secured it, leaving the way open for another crossing to the north at some other point. There was the smaller possibility of arriving with Frost's force intact. This perceived "lack of guts" caused some bitterness at the time.


The commander of XXX Corps advocated another course of action. About 25 km (16 miles) to the west was another bridge similar to Arnhem, at Rhenen, which he predicted would be undefended because of all the efforts being directed on Oosterbeek. This was in fact the case, but the corps was never authorised to take the bridge; if they had, it is almost certain they would have crossed unopposed into the rear of the German lines. By this time, it appears that Montgomery was more concerned with the ongoing German assaults on Market Garden's lengthy 'tail'. Rhenen is a municipality and a city in the central Netherlands. ...


Despite the heroism, bad choices were made throughout, and opportunities were ignored. The commander of the Glider Pilot Regiment had asked for a small force with gliders to land on the southern side of the bridge at Arnhem to quickly capture it, but he was denied. This was surprising in light of the fact that in Normandy, the British 6th Airborne Division had used such coup-de-main tactics successfully to take smaller bridges. In Britain, the commander of the British 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, whose troops were slated to fly into a captured airfield, pleaded with his superiors to allow a brigade to fly in with gliders to assist Major-General Urquhart's trapped forces; this was also denied, though under the circumstances probably sensibly, as glider landings on undefended landing zones before the eyes of an alert enemy could have resulted in catastrophe. However, there was another airfield near Grave, and if the 52nd Lowland had been landed there, they might have freed up British units supporting the 82nd Airborne, and might have allowed them to reach Arnhem sooner. Polish 1st Parachute Brigade commander Major-General Stanisław Sosabowski was prepared to try a dangerous drop through the fog which held up his deployment but again was refused. The Glider Pilot Regiment was a specialist British unit of the Second World War. ... The British 52nd (Lowland) Division was a Territorial Army division. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


The Dutch resistance was ignored by the British forces at Arnhem, although they worked with the U.S. airborne divisions. There was a very good reason for this: Britain's spy network in the Netherlands had been thoroughly and famously compromised — the so-called England game, which had only been discovered in April 1944. Perhaps assuming that the Dutch resistance would be similarly penetrated, British intelligence took pains to minimise all civilian contact. U.S. units, without this bad experience, made active use of Dutch help. As things turned out, the simple knowledge of the Driel ferry, or of the underground's secret telephone network could have changed the outcome of the operation, especially since Allied radio equipment was malfunctioning, having to rely on messengers. The latter was very important: it would have given the XXX Corps and Airborne High Command knowledge about the dire situation at Arnhem. The Englandspiel was the German name for an elaborate counter intelligence operation mounted by the German Abwehr in the Netherlands during the Second World War. ...


After the war, claims arose that the Dutch resistance had indeed been penetrated. One high-ranking Dutch counterintelligence officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Oreste Pinto, published a popular book, "Spy Catcher", part-memoir and part counterintelligence handbook. In it, he claimed that one of the leading figures in the Dutch resistance, Christiaan Lindemans ("King Kong" to his men) had been a German agent and had betrayed Operation Market Garden to the Germans. Lindemans was arrested in October 1944, but committed suicide in his cell in 1946 while still awaiting trial. In 2004, a book was published in the Netherlands claiming that Lindemans had in fact been a double agent.[citation needed]


Market Garden was a very high-risk plan that required a willingness to take risks at the tactical, small-unit level. Unfortunately, the detailed planning and leadership required at that level was not always present. The 1st Airborne Division, the least experienced working as a whole division, was given the most difficult, distant objective. XXX Corps was also criticized for its inability to keep to the operation's timetable. Its lead unit, the Guards Armoured Division, was led by a commander (Allan Adair) whom Montgomery had sought to remove prior to D-Day. This action was blocked due to Adair's popularity. Gavin regretted giving his division's most critical tasks (Groesbeek ridge and Nijmegen) to the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment rather than his best regiment, Tucker's 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The Guards Armoured Division was a World War II British Army formation. ... Major General Sir Allan Henry Shafto Adair, 6th Baron. ... During World War II, the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment (508th PIR or Red Devils) was a regiment of the 82nd Airborne Division which in turn became part of XVIII Airborne Corps of the United States Army. ... It has been suggested that 504 PIR World War Two Campaign Details be merged into this article or section. ...


Allied Reflections

Eisenhower believed until his death that Market Garden was a campaign that was worth waging. Even so, Cornelius Ryan quotes Eisenhower as saying, "...I don't know what you heard in Britain, but the British have never understood the American system of command... I never heard from the British any golden paeans of praise. And you're not going to hear it now, particularly from people like Montgomery." But Eisenhower kept these views to himself, not revealing them until long after hostilities had ended. Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became...


For his part, Montgomery called Market Garden "90% successful" and said:

In my prejudiced view, if the operation had been properly backed from its inception, and given the aircraft, ground forces, and administrative resources necessary for the job, it would have succeeded in spite of my mistakes, or the adverse weather, or the presence of the 2nd SS Panzer Corps in the Arnhem area. I remain Market Garden's unrepentant advocate. Seemingly, every Allied victory is an American success, every Allied defeat a British failure.

Subsequent combat in the Netherlands

After Operation Market Garden failed to establish a bridgehead across the Rhine, Allied forces were forced to launch offensives on two fronts in the south of the Netherlands at the same time. To secure shipping to the vital port of Antwerp they advanced northwards and westwards, taking the Scheldt estuary in the Battle of the Scheldt. Allied forces also advanced eastwards in Operation Aintree in order to secure the banks of the river Meuse as a natural boundary for the established salient. This attack on the German bridgehead west of the Meuse near Venlo was for the Allies an unexpectedly protracted affair, which included the Battle of Overloon. Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ...


In February 1945, Allied forces in Operation Veritable advanced from the Groesbeek heights which had been conquered during Market Garden, and into Germany, crossing the Rhine in March during Operation Plunder. However, the Allied forces had by then shifted to a broad front strategy, having crossed the Rhine days earlier much further south at Remagen and at Oppenheim. As a result of Operation Plunder, the city of Arnhem was finally liberated by I Canadian Corps on 14 April 1945 after two days of fighting. A surrender of the remaining German forces in the west of the Netherlands was signed on May 5. Operation Veritable was the northern part of the Second World War pincer movement by Field Marshall Bernard Montgomerys 21st Army Group to clear the land between the Rhine and Roer rivers. ... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ... Remagen is a city in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. ... Oppenheim is a small town (about 7000 inhabitants) on the Upper Rhine (Rheinhessen), between Mainz and Worms. ... Member of the Perth Regiment advances to Arnhem Mention of the Battle of Arnhem brings to mind the doomed Operation Market Garden, which has become synonymous with the name of the town. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Memorials and Remembrance

Monument for the Dutch at Sint-Oedenrode
Monument for the Dutch at Sint-Oedenrode

The prized Arnhem bridge did not survive the war. It was replaced with a bridge of similar appearance after the war and was renamed John Frostbrug ("John Frost Bridge") for Colonel Frost in September 1978. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Sint-Oedenrode is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ...


A memorial near Arnhem reads: "To the People of Gelderland; 50 years ago British and Polish Airborne soldiers fought here against overwhelming odds to open the way into Germany and bring the war to an early end. Instead we brought death and destruction for which you have never blamed us. This stone marks our admiration for your great courage remembering especially the women who tended our wounded. In the long winter that followed your families risked death by hiding Allied soldiers and Airmen while members of the resistance led many to safety."


On September 16, 1994, 101st Airborne veterans revealed a war monument 'Monument for the Dutch' in Sint-Oedenrode. The monument is a gift from the veterans to the civilians who fought alongside of the U.S. troops, much to the surprise and relief of the U.S. soldiers. The inscription on the monument is in English and reads "Dedicated to the people of the Corridor by the veterans of the 101st Airborne Division, in grateful appreciation of their courage, compassion and friendship". is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

Airborne Museum Hartenstein
Airborne Museum Hartenstein

The operation is also memorialized at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, home of the 82nd Airborne Division. Each of the major drop zones on the post is named for a major WW2 jump; the Holland, Nijmegen, and Netherlands Drop Zones commemorate Operation Market Garden. Troopers of the 82nd training on Fort Bragg Paratroopers in training at Fort Bragg Fort Bragg is a major United States Army installation, in Cumberland and Hoke Counties, North Carolina, USA, near Fayetteville. ...


Several museums in the Netherlands are dedicated to Operation Market Garden, including: National Liberation Museum in Groesbeek, Wings of Liberation Museum Park in Schijndel and Airborne Museum Hartenstein in Oosterbeek.
Groesbeek is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ... Schijndel is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. ... Renkum is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ...


Popular culture

In 1946, the British gathered together all of the survivors of the Arnhem battle they were able to locate and who were willing to participate, and made a film of the battle in the still-wrecked Arnhem, Theirs Is the Glory, also released as Men of Arnhem. It provides a fascinating contrast to the much later A Bridge Too Far. Detailing the battleplans in the film Theirs is the Glory. ... This article is about the 1977 film. ...


In 1958 Major-General Urquhart published an account of the battle from his point of view as commander of the British 1st Airborne Division.


Cornelius Ryan's book A Bridge Too Far was a history written about the operation. The book was later adapted to a film of the same name directed by Richard Attenborough and featuring an ensemble cast of stars. The Devil's Birthday by Geoffrey Powell, who was a serving officer at Arnhem, is a thorough and slightly more accurate analysis of Market Garden, although in contrast to A Bridge Too Far it is a book about commanders and command decisions and does not dwell on the stories of individuals. Martin Middlebrook's Arnhem 1944 is, like his work on the Battle of the Somme, told to a fair degree by the veterans themselves. A more recent account of the battle was written by Robert J. Kershaw in 1990. At the time, he was a serving officer in the Parachute Regiment. Kershaw's book, It never snows in September, provides a German view of both Operation Market Garden and the battle of Arnhem. Stewart Bentley's 2007 book "Orange Blood, Silver Wings; the Untold Story of the Dutch Resistance during Market-Garden" provides the narrative of the Jedburg teams and the Resistance during the battle. Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became... This article is about the 1977 film. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (born 29 August 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... Martin Middlebrook Martin Middlebrook (born Boston, Lincolnshire, 1932) is a British military historian and Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. ... The First Day on the Somme (ISBN 0141390719) is a First World War military history book by Martin Middlebrook, published in 1971. ...


General Sir John Hackett, GCB DSO MC, who raised 4th Parachute Brigade, wrote I Was a Stranger (1977) about his part in Market Garden commanding 4th Parachute Brigade and his experiences thereafter. Then-Brigadier Hackett, like a number of others, was wounded in Arnhem. He eluded the Germans and was hidden by the Dutch Resistance until he could make his way to the coast and return to the UK. This article is about the British Army officer and author, for information about the musician, see John Hackett (musician). ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ...


The first film made about the battle for Arnhem bridge was Theirs is the Glory from 1946. Facets of the operation were also featured in Episode 4 of Band of Brothers. Detailing the battleplans in the film Theirs is the Glory. ... For the song We Are a Band of Brothers, see The Bonnie Blue Flag. ...


The battle was well represented as a board wargame in the 1981 game Storm Over Arnhem by Avalon Hill (simulating the battle for Arnhem bridge) and in the 1985 game by Strategic Simulations, Inc. (SSI), Operation Market Garden. A historical module for Advanced Squad Leader was released, depicting the fighting at the bridge, also called A Bridge Too Far. In 2004, Multiman Publishing released Monty's Gamble: Market Garden, a board game ala Storm Over Arnhem but depicting the whole operation. Target Arnhem: Across Six Bridges is a free game, also by Multiman Publishing, which is currently working on Devil's Cauldron, another board game based on the operation. // Overview Storm Over Arnhem (1981) is a board war-game designed by Courtney F. Allen, published by The Avalon Hill game company, and depicts the battle for Arnhem bridge over the Lower Rhine river during operation Market Garden in World War II. This battle was fought between elements of the... Avalon Hill was a game company that specialized in wargames and strategic board games. ... Strategic Simulations, Inc. ... Advanced Squad Leader 2nd Edition Rulebook Advanced Squad Leader (ASL) is a tactical-level board wargame that simulates actions of approximately company or battalion size in World War II. It is a detailed game system for two or more players (with solitaire play also possible). ... // HASL modules Historical Advanced Squad Leader modules (HASL modules) were addons for the tactical wargame Advanced Squad Leader intended to depict actual historical events using maps produced from actual terrain maps, and featuring linked scenarios (called Campaign Games). ...


There are many computer games based on this battle. Real-time strategy games include Close Combat: A Bridge Too Far, Microsoft's second title in its Close Combat series. Matrix Games released Airborne Assault: Highway to the Reich which is completely about this operation, and THQ's Company of Heroes: Opposing Fronts devotes one of its two campaign scenarios to defending against Market Garden. In addition, the World War II PC wargame, Panzer General, included a scenario depicting the Market Garden operation. A real-time strategy (RTS) video game is a strategic game that is distinctly not turn-based. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For other uses, see Close combat (disambiguation). ... Matrix Games is a publisher of computer games. ... THQ Inc. ... Panzer General is a World War II computer wargame published by Strategic Simulations in 1994. ...


The battle is also depicted in the first-person shooter Brothers in Arms: Hell's Highway (scheduled for release for PS3, PC, and Xbox 360 2008). Other FPS games like Battlefield 1942, Medal of Honor: Frontline, Medal of Honor: Vanguard, Medal of Honor: Airborne, Call of Duty: Roads to Victory and Return to Castle Wolfenstein also feature locations after this battle. This article is about video games. ... Battlefield 1942 is a 3D World War II first-person shooter (FPS) computer game developed by Digital Illusions CE and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows (2002) and Apple Macintosh (2004). ... Medal of Honor: Frontline is the first installment of Electronic Arts popular Medal of Honor series for the Sony PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox, and Nintendo GameCube video game systems. ... Return to Castle Wolfenstein (PC) is a first person shooter computer game published by Activision and originally released on November 19, 2001. ...


References

  • Clark, Lloyd (2003). Arnhem: Operation Market Garden, September 1944. Thrupp, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-75092-835-2. 
  • Major Ellis, L.S. [1968] (2004). Victory in the West: The Defeat of Germany, Official Campaign History Volume II, History of the Second World War: United Kingdom Military. Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 1-84574-059-9. 
  • Frost, John [1980] (2002). A Drop Too Many. Pen & Sword Books Ltd; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-85052-927-1. 
  • Hastings, Max [2004] (2005). Armageddon: The Battle for Germany 1944-45. Pan Books; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-33049-062-1. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher [2003] (1962). Arnhem. Phoenix and the Windrush Press. ISBN 1-84212-727-6. 
  • Keegan, John (1994). Six Armies in Normandy: From D-Day to the Liberation of Paris. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14023-542-6. 
  • Keegan, John (2006). The Collins Atlas of World War II. Collins. ISBN 0-00721-465-0. 
  • Kershaw, Robert J [1994] (2004). It Never Snows in September. The German View of Market-Garden and the Battle of Arnhem. Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 0-71103-062-6. 
  • MacDonald, Charles Brown [1963]. The Siegfried Line Campaign, The United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History. ISBN 0-71103-062-6. 
  • Piekałkiewicz, Janusz; H. A. Barker and Arthur J. Barker (1977). Arnhem 1944. Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-71100-826-4. 
  • Powell, Geoffrey (1992). The Devil's Birthday: The Bridges to Arnhem, 1944. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-352-4. 
  • Powell, Geoffrey; First edition published under the pseudonym Tom Angus [1976] (2003). Men at Arnhem. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-966-2. 
  • Ryan, Cornelius [1974] (1999). A Bridge Too Far. Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-84022-213-1. 
  • Saunders, Tim (2001). Hell's Highway: US 101st Airborne & Guards Armoured Division, Battleground Europe. Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-837-2. 
  • Saunders, Tim (2002). The Island—Nijmegen to Arnhem, Battleground Europe. Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-861-1. 
  • Saunders, Tim (2001). Nijmegen—US 82nd Airborne & Guards Armoured Division, Battleground Europe. Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-815-1. 
  • Shulman, Milton [1947, 1968, 1986, 1995] (2003). Defeat in the West. Cassell military New Ed edition. ISBN 0-30436-603-X. 
  • Major-General Urquhart, Robert Elliot [1958] (2008). Arnhem. Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 1-84415-537-4. 
  • Dr.Warren, John C. (1997). Airborne Operations in World War II, European Theater. US Air Force Historical Research Agency. 
  • Weigley, Russel [1981] (1990). Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaigns of France and Germany, 1944-45. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-25320-608-1. 
  • Wilmot, Chester; Christopher Daniel McDevitt [1952] (1997). The Struggle For Europe. Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-85326-677-9. 
  • Wilkinson, Peter W. (2003). The Gunners at Arnhem. P W Wilkinson. ISBN 0-95357-540-3. 
  • Whiting, Charles [????] (2002). Bounce the Rhine, Spellmount Siegfried Line. The History Press LTD; New Ed edition. ISBN 1-86227-151-8. 
  • Buckingham, William [2002] (2004). Arnhem 1944, Battles & Campaigns. Tempus Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7524-3187-0. 

Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became... Urquhart outside his headquarters during Operation Market Garden. ... Peter William Wilkinson, MC, (born 10 December 1922), informally called Sam Wilkinson, is a British soldier, accountant and author. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Operation Market Garden
  • The Airborne Cemetery Oosterbeek
  • All the World's Airborne Operations
  • The Pegasus Archive
  • marketgarden.com: The Digital Monument
  • Operation Market Garden: Last Stand at an Anhem Schoolhouse article by Niall Cherry
  • Illustrated article on Operation Market Garden at Battlefields Europe
  • Airborne Warfare by LTG James M. Gavin
  • 82nd Airborne Division Operation Market historical data
  • 82nd Airborne Division - Field Order No 11 - 13 September 1944

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Stephen Badsey
  2. ^ Ellis, Pg 55
  3. ^ Ellis, Pg 55. 3,800 men captured during the course of the fighting, many of whom were wounded, 300 men of the rearguard and 400 doctors and other medical staff
  4. ^ Ellis, Pg 56, Recorded Second Army casualties as 3,716 from the 17th to 26th September. Ryan, Pg 456 states Second Army casualties being: XXX Corps 1,480, VIII and XII Corps 3,874
  5. ^ a b c Ryan, Pg 456
  6. ^ "Handsup", a drop on Quiberon, was cancelled after naval objections, and "Beneficiary", a drop on Saint-Malo, because defenses were too strong.
  7. ^ Warren, Dr. John C. USAF Historical Study 97: Airborne Operations in World War II, European Theater (1956). Air University. p. 81.
  8. ^ Warren, Appendix 2, Tables I, II, and III, pp. 226-227.
  9. ^ Until August 25 IX TCC had been part of the Ninth Air Force but was placed directly under US Strategic Air Forces
  10. ^ Warren, p. 98
  11. ^ Warren, Table III. 655 of the 700 scheduled RAF sorties on the first two days towed gliders and the RAF only dropped 186 total troops by parachute.
  12. ^ Warren, p. 90.
  13. ^ Warren, p. 154.
  14. ^ Eisenhower had only 49 divisions.
  15. ^ Ryan, Cornelius A Bridge Too Far. 1974. p. 49
  16. ^ Warren, p. 100.
  17. ^ Warren, p.99.
  18. ^ Hastings, p.36.
  19. ^ Murdo Macleod, Why Bridge Too Far attempt was doomed, Scotland on Sunday, January 8, 2006
  20. ^ Warren, pp. 137-138.

Quiberon (Kiberen in Breton) is a commune of the Morbihan département, in the région of Bretagne. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became... The Scotsman is a Scottish newspaper published in Edinburgh. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
1944 - Operation Market Garden (119 words)
Above -- Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops from the 1st Allied Airborne Army land in Holland during Operation Market-Garden.
Operation Market-Garden was an attempt by combined Allied airborne and ground assault troops to capture bridges over Dutch waterways in order to open a rapid northern route for the Allied advance into Germany.
It was the largest Allied airborne operation of the war and the most costly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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