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Encyclopedia > Operation Manna

Operation Manna took place from 29 April to 8 May 1945, at the end of World War II. Lancaster bombers of the Royal Air Force dropped food into parts of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation in the Dutch famine. The operation was named after the food which miraculously appeared for the Israelites in the book of Exodus, called Manna. April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... The Avro Lancaster was a four-engined World War II bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the Royal Air Force. ... RAF redirects here. ... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in the Nazi occupied Netherlands. ... Manna (sometimes or archaically spelled mana) is the name of the food miraculously produced for the Israelites in the desert in the book of Exodus. ...

The aircraft taking part were from Groups 1, 3, and 8, and consisted of 145 Mosquitoes and 3,156 Lancasters, flying between them a total of 3,298 sorties. The de Havilland Mosquito (The Wooden Wonder, also known as The Timber Terror) was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ...

The first of the two RAF Lancasters chosen for the test flight, the morning of April 20, 1945, was nicknamed "Bad Penny," as in the old expression: "a bad penny always turns up". This bomber, with a crew of 7 young men (five from Ontario, Canada, including pilot Robert Upcott of Windsor, Ontario), took off in bad weather to Holland without a ceasefire agreement by the Nazis. Bad Penny succeeded in dropping her precious cargo and was able to radio back to base, "mission accomplished", allowing Operation Manna to begin in earnest (see A Bad Penny Always Comes Back). Bad Penny is also the name of a 1979 song by Rory Gallagher. ...

Many Thanks spelt-out on the ground in tulips after Operation Manna
Many Thanks spelt-out on the ground in tulips after Operation Manna

The drop zones were marked by Mosquitoes from Squadrons 105 and 109 and were: Leiden (Valkenburg airfield), The Hague (Duindigt horseracecourse and Ypenburg airfield), Rotterdam (Waalhaven airfield and Kralingsche Plas) and Gouda. Image File history File linksMetadata Operation_Manna_-_Many_Thanks_In_Tulips. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Operation_Manna_-_Many_Thanks_In_Tulips. ... This article is about the Tulip bulb plant. ... Leyden redirects here. ... Valkenburg (population: 3,813 in 2004) is a village in the municipality Katwijk in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... Leidschenveen-Ypenburg is a stadsdeel (town part) of The Hague, in the southeast. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms reads Sterker door Strijd, i. ... Waalhaven, was a Dutch military airfield during the second world war located near Rotterdam. ... Goudas 15th Century Town Hall Flag of Gouda Goudas Cheese Market Gouda (population 71,797 in 2004) is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ...

During the operation, Bomber Command delivered 6,680 tons of food. These bombers were used to dropping bombs from 6000 m, but this time they had to do their dropping from a height of 150 m, some even as low as 120 m. The idea was for people to gather and redistribute the food, but some couldn't resist eating straight away, which caused some people to get sick and vomit, a result that fatty food can have in starved bodies. On the other hand, the just distribution took as long as ten days, as a result of which some got the food only after the liberation. Nevertheless, many lives were saved and another effect was that it gave hope and the feeling that the war would soon be over. Bomber Command is an organizational military unit, generally subordinate to the air force of a country. ...

In addition, 400 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers of the USAAF dropped 800 tons of K-rations during May 1-3, on Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the U.S. Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was a part of the U.S. Army during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... The K-ration was an individual daily combat food ration which was introduced by the United States Army during World War II. It was intended to last for a day and provided three courses: breakfast, supper and dinner. ... Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) (municipality Haarlemmermeer) is the Netherlands main airport. ...

Earlier, there had been a distribution of white bread made from Swedish flour that was shipped in and baked locally. A popular myth holds that this bread was dropped from airplanes, but that is a mix-up between the two events. Also, the food was not dropped with parachutes, as is often said.


They Fell Right In The Larder - Aeroplane Monthly, May 1985.

External links

  Results from FactBites:
MANNA - LoveToKnow Article on MANNA (1147 words)
Manna possesses mildly laxative properties, and on account of its sweet taste is employed as a mild aperient for children.
Shir Khist, a manna known to writers on materia medica in the 16th century, is imported into India from Afghanistan and Turkestan to a limited extent; it is the produce of Cotoneaster num,nularia (Rosaceae), and to a less extent of Atraphaxis spinosa (Polygonaceae); it is brought chiefly from Herat.
Briancon manna is met with on the leaves of the common Larch (~.v), and bide-khecht on those of the willow, Salix fragilis; and a kind of manna was at one time obtained from tot cedar.
Manna Sudan | Mission Statement (328 words)
MANNA is mandated by the Lango Community to advocate for development to help meet their basic needs and widen their opportunities to reach their maximum demand and realization of the vision of peace and social progress.
MANNA is to serve individuals and families in poorest communities in the New Sudan and in the World after the fulfillment of the long-term object.
MANNA is a non-partisan and its cooperation is free of discrimination.
  More results at FactBites »



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