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Encyclopedia > Operation Maestral
Operation Mistral
Part of the Croatian War of Independence, Bosnian War
Date September 8 - September 15, 1995
Location Western Bosnia and Herzegovina
Result Decisive Croatian victory
Combatants
Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS)
Commanders
General Ante Gotovina (HV)
Strength
Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized)
Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized)
Other units
Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support units)
Elements of the 1st Krajina Corps of the VRS (Banja Luka Corps)
Croatian War of Independence
Plitvice Lakes – Borovo Selo – Dalmatia – Vukovar (Battle, Massacre) – The Barracks – Dubrovnik – Gospić – Otkos 10 – Škabrnja – Orkan 91 – Voćin – Miljevci – Maslenica – Medak Pocket – Flash – Zagreb – Summer '95 – Storm
War in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sijekovac – Sarajevo – Višegrad – Banja Luka – 1st Markale – Bøllebank – Amanda – Tuzla – Mrkonjić Grad – Srebrenica – Summer '95 – Storm – 2nd Markale – NATO bombing – Mistral – Sana
Bosnian War situation in August-December 1995: Croatian gains during this time period (including Mistral) are light blue (contemporary Bosnian gains are light green)
Bosnian War situation in August-December 1995: Croatian gains during this time period (including Mistral) are light blue (contemporary Bosnian gains are light green)

Operation Mistral (Croatian: Operacija Maestral named after the Mistral wind) were two linked military offensives of the Croatian Army launched in Western Bosnia and Herzegovina during September of 1995 as part of the Croatian War of Independence and the Bosnian War. It ended with a decisive victory for Croatian forces. Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (President... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... HV or Hv may stand for: Home video the IATA code for Transavia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military formation of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Republika_Srpska. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde2 (English: God of Justice) Patron Saint: Saint Stephen3 The location of Republika Srpska as part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Vrs is an abbreviation that may mean: Army of Republika Srpska Vara - a unit of length Vortex ring state - undesirable aerodynamic condition vRS - name given to the sporting Å koda Octavia and Fabia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ante Gotovina Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955) is a former lieutenant general (general pukovnik) of the Croatian Army who served in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Armoured warfare. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ... Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (President... The Plitvice Lakes incident of March 1991 (known in Croatian as Plitvice Bloody Easter, Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama / Plitvički Krvavi Uskrs) was a clash between security forces of the Republic of Croatia and armed Serb separatists. ... The Borovo Selo killings of 2 May 1991 (known in Croatia as the Borovo Selo massacre, Croatian:Pokolj u Borovom Selu and in Serbia as the Borovo Selo incident, Serbian: Инцидент у Боровом Селу) were one of the bloodiest incidents in the early stages of the breakup of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Yugoslavia (JNA) Local Serb forces Croatia (HV, police forces, HOS) Commanders Colonel Ratko Mladić (JNA) Strength JNA 9th Corps (Knin): 63 tanks 45 APCs Other units 6th Operational Zone (Several infantry brigades) Map showing the location of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia Battle of Dalmatia (Croatian: Bitka za Dalmaciju... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army, Serbian paramilitaries Croatian National Guard, Croatian police and militias Commanders Mladen Bratić Života Panić Blago Zadro Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle 2,000 Casualties Unofficial Serbian figures: 1,103 dead ~2,500 wounded 110... Ovčara memorial The Vukovar massacre was an incident that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... Combatants Croatian Army (HV) Yugoslav Army (JNA) Commanders Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Various local commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Various local commanders Strength  ?  ? Casualties At least 15 dead  ? At least: 250 tanks, 180 Armoured personnel carriers, 100 Self... Combatants Yugoslav Army (JNA), Montenegro Territorial Defence Forces Croatian Army (HV) Commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (from 1992) Strength Between 7,500 and 20,000 men [1] Up to 2,000 soldiers... The Gospić massacre was an incident that took place between 16 October-18 October 1991 in the town of Gospić, a mixed Serb/Croat community in the district of Lika in Croatia. ... After the attacking forces of the 5th Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA) corps (Banja Luka corps) had successfully crossed Sava river into Croatia captured Okučani in western Slavonia it was their primary objective to advance along Pakrac - GrubiÅ¡no Polje route and link up with th 28th partisan division... According to the census of 1991, Å kabrnja was inhabited by 1,953 people in 397 households, and the vast majority of them were Croats, there wasnt a single Serb resident. ... After successful completion of Operation Otkos 10, the first offensive operation of such scale by Croatian army in the homeland war, Croatian troops were in position to retake further territory and neutralize a number of serbian held military positions and fortifications. ... Voćin massacre was a massacre of between 45 and 55 Croatian civilians [1] in the village of Voćin, perpetuated by Serb paramilitary units in December 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence. ... On June 21, 1992, the Croatian army attacked the Serbian Territorial Defense on the Miljevci Plateau near Drnis in front of the eyes of UN peacekeeping force (UNPROFOR). ... Operation Maslenica is an offensive Croatian Army conducted in Northwestern Dalmatia against Krajina forces in early 1993. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery  ? Casualties 10 Croats killed, 17 wounded 38 Serbs killed, 50+ wounded Operation Medak Pocket (Croatian: Medački džep) was a military operation undertaken by... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries HVO  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff... The Sijekovac massacre refers to the killings of 60 Bosnian Serb civilians in Sijekovac (a village near Brod, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in March 1992. ... Combatants ARBiH (1992-95) NATO Air Force (1995) JNA (1992) VRS (1992-95) Commanders Jovan Divjak Mustafa Hajrulahović Vahid Karavelić Nedžad Ajnadžić Stanislav Galić (1992-94) Dragomir MiloÅ¡ević (1994-95) Strength 40,000 badly-armed soldiers (1992) 30,000-50,000 heavily-armed troops (1992) The Siege... The ViÅ¡egrad massacre was an act of ethnic cleansing and mass murder of Bosniak civilians that occurred in the town of ViÅ¡egrad in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, committed by Bosnian Serb paramilitary forces of Milan Lukić at the start of the Bosnian War during the spring of 1992. ... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength 6 J-21 Jastreb 4+ F-16 Casualties 4 aircraft destroyed, pilots fate unknown none The Banja Luka incident, February 28, 1994, was an incident in which six Bosnian Serb Army-owned J-21 Jastreb light attack jets were engaged and four of them... Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ... During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Operation Bøllebank was the largest combat operation by Danish forces since 1864. ... Combatants Army of Republika Srpska Danish military (as part of UNPROFOR forces) Commanders Unknown Lt. ... Tuzla massacre was an incident which took place during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northeastern Bosnian city of Tuzla in the early evening hours of May 25, 1995, when the Army of Republika Srpska shelled a gathering of young people in the city from their... Combatants Bosnian Serb Army USAF Strength SA-6 missiles 2 F-16s Casualties none 1 aircraft destroyed The Mrkonjić Grad incident, June 2, 1995, was an incident in which a Bosnian Serb Army SA-6 surface-to-air missile shot down a USAF F-16 near Mrkonjić Grad, Bosnia. ... Burial of 505 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2006) Burial of 610 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2005 The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8,000 Bosniak males, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by units... Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft, 2 pilots POW Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North-Atlantic military organization to undermine the military capability of... Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ... Mistral is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs mostly in the winter and spring in the Gulf of Lion. ... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (President... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...

Contents

Intro

Main article: Operation Summer '95
Main article: Operation Storm

Following successful operations during the Summer of 1995 and the August overtaking of Krajina during Operation Storm, Croatian forces switched to Bosnian territory to continue the pursuit of Serb forces which were routed after Storm. Combatants Croatia (HV, HVO) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders General Ante Gotovina (HV) Strength Two HV Guard Brigades (4th Motorized, 7th Mechanized) Two HVO Guard Brigades (1st, 3rd Motorized) Other units Units of the 2nd Krajina Corps of the VRS (3 motorized brigades, 5 infantry brigades, 5 light brigades and support... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir Červenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile Mrkšić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ...


At the same time, NATO begun its bombings (Operation Deliberate Force) against Bosnian Serbs as punishment for the second of the two Markale Massacres, which further demoralized and weakened the Bosnian Serb position. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ... Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ...


The Operation

Two elite Croatian brigades, which captured Knin during Storm, the 4th and 7th Guard Brigades, returned to Bosnian territory and attacked north from the area around Bosansko Grahovo, captured during the summer. Knin is a historical town in the Šibenik-Knin county of Croatia, located near the source of the river Krka at , , in the Dalmatian hinterland, on the railroad Zagreb–Split. ... Bosansko Grahovo is a town and municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


The first phase of the Operation (Mistral 1) begun on September 8th and first Serb lines were broken quickly. Opposing the Croatians were 7 light infantry brigades, one motorized brigade and two armored battalions of the Serb forces. The city of Drvar fell quickly and the 7th Guard Brigade captured the strategically important mountain pass of Mliništa. Jajce was captured on September 13th and the first phase ended on that day at 1800 hours at which time about 2000 square kilometers had changed hands. Drvar is a town and a municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, located on the road between Bosansko Grahovo and Bosanski Petrovac, also near Glamoč. It is administratively part of the West Bosnia Canton of the Federation. ... In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ...


Following this, the second phase of the operation (Mistral 2) begun, during which Ključ and Šipovo were captured and the operation ended on September 30th. When it ended, only the city of Mrkonjić Grad remained between Croat forces and the Serb capital of Banja Luka. Mrkonjić Grad was captured soon after. // Introduction Ključ is a town and municipality by the same name in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Å ipovo is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Mrkonjić-Grad (Cyrillic: Мркоњић-Град) is a town and municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mrkonjić-Grad (Cyrillic: Мркоњић-Град) is a town and municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


At the same time, the Bosnian Fifth Corps from Bihać, on the left wing of the Croatian advance, launched simultanious offensives and captured Donji Vakuf, Bosanski Petrovac and Krupa; advancing on Prijedor, west of Banja Luka. Donji Vakuf is a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 15,552 Population density Coordinates Area code +387 37 Mayor Dragan Kecman (SNSD) Website Bosanski Petrovac (Босански Петровац) is a town in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Various people and places are named Krupa. ... Prijedor (Serbian Cyrillic: Приједор) is a town and municipality in northwestern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, located on the Sana River, between Novi Grad and Banja Luka. ...


Aftermath

Following the collapse of Serb resistance in west Bosnia, Serb forces regrouped and launched a counteroffensive which was repulsed with heavy casualties. This enabled ABiH's Fifth Corps to start Operation Sana in November, pushing further east. Combatants ARBiH VRS Commanders Atif Dudakovic Zeljko Raznatovic Strength 25,000 20,000-30,000 est. ...


The success of the Croat and Bosniak post-Storm offensives meant that the entire western Bosnia was now in their hands. The vital Serb center of Banja Luka was now a realistic next objective, whose capture would mean total defeat for Serb forces in Bosnia. Their new position finally convinced the Bosnian Serb leaders to agree to negotiate and the Dayton Agreement was reached only one month after Mistral, ending the Bosnian War. General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, i. ...


References

    • Review of Operation Deliberate Force
    • YouTube: Operation Mistral original videos by troops, part 1 of several

     
     

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