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Encyclopedia > Operation Litani
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Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. It was a military success, as PLO forces were pushed north of the river. However, complaints from the Lebanese government led to the creation of the UNIFIL peacekeeping force and a partial Israeli withdrawal. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Litani river is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ...

Contents


Background

Though it took the form of an Israeli military incursion into Lebanon, Operation Litani was grounded in the long-running Israeli-Palestinian conflict. From 1968 on, the PLO, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and other Palestinian groups established a quasi-state in southern Lebanon, using it as a base for raids on northern Israel. This was exacerbated by a massive influx of PLO militants fleeing a defeat in the Jordanian civil war and regrouping in southern Lebanon. Israel responded with damaging attacks against Lebanese villages and PLO bases and an escalating cycle of violence began, eventually culminating in the Lebanon War of 1982 and the ejection of the PLO from the country. Several notable events preceded the 1978 Operation Litani: Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - al-jabhah al-sha`biyyah li-tahrÄ«r filastÄ«n) is a Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian political and military organization, founded in 1967. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Lebanon War is used to describe either of the following events: Lebanese Civil War (starting 1975) 1982 Lebanon War (also known as Operation Peace for Galilee) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

  • On 26 December 1968 two Palestinian gunmen travelled from Beirut to Athens, and attacked an El Al jet there killing 1 person. In response, on 28 December 1968, Israel Defense Force (IDF) troops destroyed 13 civilian aircraft at Beirut International Airport.
  • On 8 May 1970 three Palestinian gunmen crossed the Lebanese border into the agricultural community of Avivim and ambushed the local schoolbus, killing nine children and three adults, and crippling 19 other children in the Avivim school bus massacre.
  • On 10 April 1973 Israeli commandos killed three PLO leaders (Yusef Al Najjar, Kamal Adwan and Kamal Nasserin) in Beirut (Operation Spring of Youth).
  • On 11 April 1974 three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrated Kiryat Shmona from Lebanon, killing eighteen residents of an apartment building, including nine children in the Kiryat Shmona massacre; they were eventually killed during an exchange of fire with a failed IDF rescue mission.
  • On 15 May 1974 members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrated the Israeli border town of Ma'alot from Lebanon, killing five adults and taking grade 11 children in a local school hostage. They eventually shot 21 of the children, before being killed by IDF soldiers, in the Ma'alot massacre.
  • On 5 March 1975 eight PLO gunmen travelled from Lebanon to Tel Aviv by sea in a rubber dinghy, entered the Savoy Hotel and took dozens of hostages. During the rescue mission three IDF soldiers were killed and eight hostages wounded; the PLO gunmen retreated to a room and attempted to blow themselves up, killing eight hostages and wounding 11, as well as killing seven of the PLO gunmen. See Savoy Operation.
  • On 11 March 1978, eight Fatah members led by the 18-year old female Dalal Mughrabi travelled from Lebanon and killed an American tourist on the beach. They then hijacked a full bus on the coastal road near Haifa to take them to Tel Aviv and after a lengthy chase and shootout, six of the commandos and 35 of the passengers were killed, 71 wounded. This, the Coastal Road Massacre was the proximate cause of the Israeli invasion three days later. (Cobban, p.94, Shlaim p.369)

According to Robert Fisk, the PLO-Israeli conflict increased political tensions between Maronite Christians and the Muslims and Druze, adding to the factors behind the 1975-76 Lebanese Civil War. December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Central Beirut Beirut (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... Terminal Overview Beirut International Airport is an airport located in Beirut, Lebanon. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... An ambush attack known as the Avivim school bus massacre took place on May 8, 1970 near Avivim, an agricultural community in Israel founded in 1963 by Moroccan immigrants. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Operation Spring of Youth took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Qiryat Shemona (קרית שמונה; unofficially also spelled Kiryat Shmona) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... On April 11, 1974, a three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command crossed the Israeli border from Lebanon. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabhah al-Dimuqratiyah Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist political and military organization. ... Maalot (hebrew מעלות) is a town in northern Israel, about 20 km east of Nahariyya. ... The Maalot massacre was a school massacre in Maalot, Israel, that occurred on May 15, 1974. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The Savoy Operation was a terrorist act masterminded by Abu Jihad On the night of March 4th, 1975, at 11:00 PM eight terrorists in two teams landed by boat on the Tel-Aviv beach. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Fatah (Arabic: فتح); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major Palestinian faction and the largest constituency of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. ... Ehud Barak standing over the body of Dalal Mughrabi. ... Nickname: Red Haifa Official website: www. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Charred remains of the hijacked bus Front end remains of the hijacked bus The Coastal Road Massacre is the name by which a Palestinian terrorist attack on an Israeli coastal-road bus is known. ... Robert Fisk during a lecture at Carleton University, Canada, 2004 Robert Fisk (born 1946, Maidstone, Kent) is a British journalist, currently Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Independent. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish:Müslüman, Persian:مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Druze (Arabic: duruzÄ« درزي, pl. ... For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ...


Course of fighting

On March 14, 1978, Israel launched Operation Litani, occupying the area south of the Litani River, excepting Tyre, with over 25,000 soldiers. Its stated goals were to push Palestinian militant groups, particularly the PLO, away from the border with Israel, and to bolster Israel's ally at the time, the South Lebanon Army. During the 7-day offensive, the Israeli Defence Forces first captured a belt of land approximately 10 kilometres deep, but later expanded north to the Litani River. The Lebanese government estimated 285,000 refugees were created (Fisk, p. 130). Estimates of the casualties on the Lebanese side range from 300 [1] to 1,100-2,000 killed (Fisk, p. 124). Israeli soldiers were court-martialled after several Lebanese peasants were strangled and prisoners were executed (Fisk, p. 131) 20 Israelis were killed. The PLO retreated north of the Litani River, continuing to fire at the Israelis. March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Litani river is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«biyy. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ...


Outcome of the war

 The neutrality and factual accuracy of this section are disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

In response to the invasion, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 425 and Resolution 426 calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. The UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) [2] was created to enforce this mandate, and restore peace and sovereignty to Lebanon. UNIFIL forces arrived in Lebanon on 23 March 1978, setting up headquarters in Rosh haNiqra/Ras Naqoura. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Rosh Hanikra Grottos Rosh Hanikra Grottos Rosh Hanikra is a geologic formation on the Mediterranean Coast in western Galilee, on the Israeli side of the Israel-Lebanon border. ...


Israeli forces partially withdrew later in 1978, turning over positions inside Lebanon to their ally, the South Lebanon Army (SLA) militia under the leadership of Maj. Saad Haddad. The SLA periodically harassed UNIFIL. On 19 April 1978, the SLA shelled UNIFIL headquarters, killing 8 UN soldiers. (Fisk, 138). In April, 1980, two Irish UN soldiers were kidnapped and murdered by Christian gunmen in SLA territory and another Irish soldier was shot by Haddad's men. The Israeli press at the time, particularly the Jerusalem Post, accused the Irish of pro-PLO bias. (Fisk, pp. 152-154). However, the PLO also attacked UNIFIL, killing an Irish UN soldier in 1981 and continuing to occupy areas in southern Lebanon. The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-Janūbiyy. ... Saad Haddad was the founder and head of the South Lebanon Army (SLA). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Resolution 425

In 2000, the UN Security Council concluded that, as of 16 June 2000, Israel had withdrawn its forces from Lebanon in accordance with Resolution 425. This article is about the year 2000. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ...


Lebanon has not extended control over south Lebanon, though it was called on to do so by UN Resolution 1391 of 2002 (3 page PDF document:) [3] and urged by UN Resolution 1496. Israel has lodged multiple complaints regarding Lebanon's conduct.


Lebanon's claim that Israel has not fully withdrawn (see Shebaa Farms) was explicitly rejected by UN's Secretary-General's report which led to UN Security Council Resolution 1583. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon led to UN Security Council Resolution 1559 demanding the remaining 14,000 (of 50,000 originally) Syrian troop withdrawal and the dismantling of Hezbollah and Palestinian militias. On April 26, 2005, after 29 years of Syrian military presence in Lebanon, the last of the Syrian troops withdrew in accordance with the resolution. Shebaa Farms is a disputed, agricultural area consisting of a dozen or more abandoned farms located southwest of Shebaa, a Lebanese village on the northwestern slopes of Mount Hermon, at the junction of Syria, Lebanon and Israel. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1583 calls on Lebanon to assert full control over its border with Israel (See: Hezbollah). ... The Syrian occupation of Lebanon has continued for about three decades, until the present day. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 calls on Syria to cease intervening in Lebanese internal politics, withdraw from Lebanon, and for the disbanding of all Lebanese militias (See: Hezbollah). ... The Hezbollah flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a Shia Islamist group in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight the Israeli occupation in southern Lebanon. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

This article discusses the modern-day history of Lebanon. ... For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ... The 1982 Invasion of Lebanon, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defence Force invaded southern Lebanon purportedly in response to the Abu Nidal organizations assassination attempt against Israels ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, and to halt...

External links

References

  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415287162
  • Cobban, Helena (1984). The Palestinian Liberation Organization: People, Power and Politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521272165.
  • Fisk, Robert (2002). Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. Nation Books. ISBN 1560254424.
  • Shlaim, Avi (2001). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393321126.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Golani Brigade (1655 words)
The Golani brigade took part along with the Seventh armored infantry brigade, and the Carmeli brigade in Operation Dekel (in the Galilee).
This involved counter­thrusts that penetrated as deep as the Litani River in Lebanon.
The Golani brigade also took part in Operation Assaf to take control of the western Negev, and also participated in Operation Horev in which the Egyptians were repelled from Israeli territory.
Operation Litani - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1111 words)
Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river.
Israel responded with damaging attacks against Lebanese villages and PLO bases and an escalating cycle of violence began, eventually culminating in the Lebanon War of 1982 and the ejection of the PLO from the country.
The PLO retreated north of the Litani River, continuing to fire at the Israelis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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