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Encyclopedia > Operation Linebacker
Operation Linebacker
Part of Vietnam War

Two B-52s of a three aircraft cell over the DRV
Date 9 May - 23 October 1972
Location Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Result Tactical U.S. victory
Combatants
United States
Republic of Vietnam
Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Commanders
John W. Vogt, Jr. Nguyen Van Tien
Casualties
US: 134 aircraft lost, casualties unknown
RVN: ten aircraft lost, casualties unknown
54 aircraft shot down, casualties unknown

Operation Linebacker was the title of a U.S. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War. Its purpose was to halt or slow the transportation of supplies and materials for the Nguyen Hue Offensive (known in the West as the Easter Offensive), an invasion of the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), by forces of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). that had been launched on 30 March. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the bombing halt instituted by President Lyndon B. Johnson in November 1968. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Image File history File links B-522. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Vietnam. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... General John W. Vogt was commander, Allied Air Forces Central Europe, and commander in chief, U.S. Air Forces in Europe at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. ... The Seventh Air Force (7 AF) is a Numbered Air Force (NAF) under the Pacific Air Forces major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Task Force 77 is an aircraft carrier task force in the United States Navy, and was the Carrier Strike Force of the U.S. Seventh Fleet in several conflicts. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Van Tien Dung Strength 800,000+ 200,000+ Casualties ~10,000 killed, 33,000 wounded, 2,000 missing [1] ~100,000 total casualties[2] The Easter Offensive (the... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... The Peoples Army of Vietnam (PAVN) is the term used by the Vietnamese for their armed forces. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... “LBJ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Nguyen Hue Offensive

For more details on on the PAVN offensive, see Easter Offensive.

At noon on 30 March 1972, 30,000 PAVN troops, supported by regiments of tanks and artillery, rolled southward across the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that separated the two Vietnams.[1] This three-division force caught the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and their American allies unprepared.[2] The PAVN force struck the defensive positions of the Third ARVN Division and threw it into disarray. South Vietnamese forces then fell back, and a race began between both antagonists to the bridges at Dong Ha and Cam Lo. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Van Tien Dung Strength 800,000+ 200,000+ Casualties ~10,000 killed, 33,000 wounded, 2,000 missing [1] ~100,000 total casualties[2] The Easter Offensive (the... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ...


By 4 April, ARVN officers had patched together a defensive line that held the PAVN at bay, but it was only a temporary respite.[3] Although the conventional attack by the North Vietnamese, which included the extensive use of armor and heavy artillery, riveted the attention of the allies on the northern provinces, it was only the first of three such operations that were launched that spring. On 5 April, a PAVN force of 20,000 crossed the border from their sanctuaries in Cambodia in another three-division, combined arms force to attack Binh Long Province, north of Saigon.[4] They quickly seized the town of Loc Ninh and then surrounded the town of An Loc, cutting the road to the capital. On 12 April, PAVN struck again, this time moving in from eastern Laos and seizing a series of border outposts around Dak To in Kontum Province in the Central Highlands.[5] The North Vietnamese then proceeded east toward the provincial seat of Kontum. Hanoi had initiated the offensive to coincide with the winter monsoon, when continuous rain and low cloud cover made air support difficult.[6] April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... An Loc is a small town in South Vietnam, located approximately 90 km north of Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300(2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ...

The Nguyen Hue offensive
The Nguyen Hue offensive

The initial U.S. response to the offensive was lackadaisical and confused.[7] The Pentagon was not unduly alarmed and the U.S. Ambassador and the commander of U.S. forces, General Creighton W. Abrams, were out of the country. President Richard M. Nixon's first response was to consider a three-day attack by B-52 Stratofortress bombers on Hanoi and the port city of Haiphong. His National Security Advisor, Dr. Henry Kissinger, convinced the president to reconsider, since he did not want to jeopardize the formalization of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) with the Soviets, due to be signed in May.[8] Another stumbling block to the plan was General Abrams' desire to utilize the available bombers (with their all-weather capability) to support the ARVN defense.[9] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x1392, 472 KB) From Lt. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x1392, 472 KB) From Lt. ... This article is about the U.S. military building. ... Creighton W. Abrams watches Bob Hope at Long Binh in Vietnam Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, jet strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954. ... Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, Hǎifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ... -1... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Both Nixon and Kissinger considered a plan offered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to be both unimaginative and lacking in aggressiveness.[10] On 4 April, he authorized bombing within the DRV (which had been limited to reprisal raids just above the DMZ) up to the 18th parallel.[11] In order to prevent a total ARVN collapse and to protect American prestige during the upcoming summit meeting with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, Nixon decided to risk a massive escalation of force.[12] Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ...


Due to the continuous withdrawal of American forces and the ongoing policy of Vietnamization, at the time of the invasion fewer than 10,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam, and most of them were scheduled to leave within the next six months.[13] The number of combat aircraft stationed in Southeast Asia was less than half that of its peak strength in 1968-1969. At the beginning of 1972, the U.S. Air Force had only three squadrons of F-4s and a single squadron of A-37s, a total of 76 aircraft, stationed in South Vietnam.[14] Another 114 fighter-bombers were located at bases in Thailand. 83 B-52 bombers were stationed at U-Tapao RTAFB, Thailand and at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam.[15] The U.S. Navy's Task Force 77 (stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin), had four aircraft carriers assigned to it, but only two were available at any one time to conduct operations. Their air wings totaled approximately 140 aircraft.[16] Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II[2] is a two-seat supersonic long-range all-weather fighter-bomber originally developed for the U.S. Navy by McDonnell Douglas. ... One of the most prominent of the trainer-attack type aircraft is the Cessna T-37/A-37, known in various forms as the Tweety Bird, Tweet, Dragonfly, or Super Tweet. ... U-Tapao (Thai: ; also spelt Utapao and U-Taphao) (IATA: UTP, ICAO: VTBU) is both an active civil airport (U-Tapao International Airport) and home of the Royal Thai Navy First Air Wing (U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield). ... A B-1B at Andersen This B-2 Spirit was photographed in 2004 at Andersen Andersen Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. ... Task Force 77 is an aircraft carrier task force in the United States Navy, and was the Carrier Strike Force of the U.S. Seventh Fleet in several conflicts. ... The Gulf of Tonkin is located to the south of China. ...


Build-up and air attacks

Redeployment of U.S. air assets

American and South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) aircraft had been supporting the defense (weather permitting) since the inception of the Nguyen Hue Offensive. These strikes were conducted in support of ARVN forces, and included those of the air wings of the carriers Coral Sea and Hancock. The continuing bad weather, however, limited the ability of the U.S. aircraft to assist in stemming the North Vietnamese onslaught. By 6 April, at naval and air bases around the globe, American forces were put on alert and ships and aircraft squadrons began moving toward Southeast Asia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (786x735, 89 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (786x735, 89 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USS Coral Sea (CV/CVB/CVA-43), a Midway-class aircraft carrier, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... The fourth USS Hancock (CV-19) of the United States Navy was an Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The U.S. immediately began a rapid build-up of airpower. A massive redeployment of U.S. Air Force assets had begun on 29 December 1971. The Air Force deployed 176 F-4 Phantoms and 12 F-105s from bases in the Republic of Korea and the U.S. to Thailand between 1 April and 11 May in Operation Constant Guard.[17] Between 4 April and 23 May, during Operation Bullet Shot, Strategic Air Command (SAC) dispatched 124 B-52s from the U.S. to Guam bringing the total B-52 strength available for operations to 209.[18] The Navy cut short its in-port period for the carriers Kitty Hawk and Constellation and ordered the Midway and Saratoga to augment the fleet so that four or more carrier air wings could conduct missions simultaneously. The 7th Fleet was thereby increased from 84 to 138 ships.[19] December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief was a single-seat, supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... The supercarrier, USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), formerly CVA-63, is the second naval ship named after Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, the site of the Wright brothers first flight. ... USS Constellation (CV-64), a Kitty Hawk-class supercarrier, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the new constellation of stars on the flag of the United States. ... USS Midway (CVB/CVA/CV-41) was an aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class, and the first to be commissioned after the end of World War II. Active in the Vietnam War and in Operation Desert Storm, as of 2007 she is a... USS Saratoga (CV-60), formerly CVB-60 and CVA-60, is the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the American Revolutionary War Battle of Saratoga, was a Forrestal-class supercarrier. ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, South Korea and Japan. ...


U.S. Air Force tactical strikes against North Vietnam north of the 20th parallel were authorized on 5 April under the nickname Freedom Train.[20] The first large-scale B-52 raid directed against the North was conducted on 10 April when 12 B-52s, supported by 53 attack aircraft struck petroleum storage facilities around Vinh.[21] By 12 April, President Nixon had informed Kissinger that he had decided on a more comprehensive bombing campaign which would include strikes against both Hanoi and Haiphong.[22] April 5 is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...

DRV anti-aircraft defense weapons
DRV anti-aircraft defense weapons

The following day 18 B-52s struck Thanh Hoa's Bai Thuong Airfield. Three more days followed before another strike, this time by another 18 bombers in a pre-dawn attack against an oil tank farm outside Haiphong. They were followed by more than 100 tactical aircraft attacking targets around Hanoi and Haiphong during daylight.[23] Between the 6th and the 15th, U.S. aircraft also struck and destroyed the Paul Doumer and Thanh Hóa bridges and the Yen Vien railway marshalling yard. This marked the introduction of laser-guided bombs against strategic targets in the North. Both bridges had previously been attacked unsuccessfully with conventional bombs and even missiles. This was also the first use of LGB's against targets north of the 19th parallel during the conflict. The big bombers were then withdrawn from operations in the north, and when they returned in June, their missions would be limited to the southern panhandle.[24] V!% File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... V!% File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... French statesman Paul Doumer Paul Doumer (March 22, 1857 – May 7, 1932) was the President of France from June 13, 1931 to his death. ... Combatants United States North Vietnam Casualties 11 Aircraft destroyed Unknown The Thanh Hoa Bridge, spanning the Song Ma river, is situated three miles south of Thanh Hóa, the capital of Thanh Hoa Province in Vietnam. ... A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a free-fall bomb, usually dropped from an aircraft, that is guided to its target by a laser designator The laser is directed at the target, illuminating it. ...


By mid-month, nearly all of North Vietnam had been cleared for bombing raids for the first time in over three years. Air Force and Navy commanders and pilots were relieved that Nixon (unlike President Johnson) left the operational planning to local commanders and loosened the targeting restrictions that had hampered Operation Rolling Thunder.[25] Between 1 May and 30 June B-52s, fighter-bombers, and gunships had flown 18,000 sorties against formidable AAA defenses with the loss of 29 aircraft.[26] Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders Joseph H. Moore William W. Momyer George S. Brown Phung The Tai (Air Defense) Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force) Casualties U.S. Air Force, 381 KIA or MIA/222 POWs (23 died in captivity, 1... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The U.S. also now began what DRV historians described as "using devious political and diplomatic schemes...to cut back the amount of aid being supplied to us by socialist nations."[27] On 20 April Kissinger met secretly with Brezhnev in Moscow. Unwilling to jeopardize increasingly normalized relations with the West and wary of Washington's growing relationship with Beijing, Brezhnev agreed to apply pressure to Hanoi to end the offensive and negotiate seriously.[28] April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Brezhnev then arranged for another secret meeting between Kissinger and the DRV lead negotiator Le Duc Tho, to be held on 2 May in Paris. On the assigned day, the two men met for a session that Kissinger later described as "brutal and insulting."[29] The North Vietnamese, sensing victory, were in no mood to make concessions. As a result of this meeting and the fall of Quang Tri City, Nixon was prepared to up the ante, stating that "the bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time."[30] Le Duc Tho (Lê Ðức Thọ  ) (October 14, 1911 – October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Operation Pocket Money

On 27 April, ARVN defenses in Quang Tri Province began to collapse. Due to conflicting orders from their high command, South Vietnamese units joined an exodus of refugees heading southward, abandoning Quang Tri City.[31] PAVN forces entered the city on the same day as the meeting between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. The PAVN offensive had become a massive conventional military operation that was being conducted on three fronts simultaneously, involving the equivalent of 15 divisions and 600 tanks.[32] As PAVN continued to gain ground in three of South Vietnam's four military regions, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff updated their contingency plans (drawn up before the bombing halt of 1968) for the resumption of bombing in the north and recommended it to the president, who approved it on 8 May.[33] April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ...

The docks at Haiphong harbor

Shortly after his inauguration, Nixon had ordered the preparation of another, "MAXIMUM EFFORT" contingency plan, that would bring the Vietnam Conflict to an end.[34] Operation Duck Hook was to include an invasion of the north itself and included a proposal to mine the major harbors of the DRV.[35] The plan had been shelved at the time as too extreme, but it was not forgotten. The U.S. Navy had also been updating its contingency plans for just such a mining operation since 1965. On 5 May, the president ordered the Joint Chiefs to prepare to execute the aerial mining portion of the Duck Hook plan within three days under the operational nickname Pocket Money.[36] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 743 KB)Lab Schools I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 743 KB)Lab Schools I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ...


At precisely 0900 (local time) on 8 May six Navy A-7 Corsair IIs and three A-6 Intruders from Coral Sea entered Haiphong harbor and dropped 36 1,000-pound Mark-52 and Mark-55 mines into the water. They were protected from attack by North Vietnamese MiG fighters by the guided-missile cruisers Chicago and Long Beach and by flights of F-4 Phantoms. The reason for the precise timing of the strike became apparent when President Nixon delivered a televised speech explaining the escalation to the American people: "the only way to stop the killing is to take the weapons of war out of the hands of the international outlaws of North Vietnam."[37] The mines were activated five days after their delivery in order to allow any vessels then in port to escape without damage.[38] Over the next three days other carrier aircraft laid 11,000 more mines into DRV secondary harbors, effectively blockading all maritime commerce.[39] May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... The Ling-Temco-Vought A-7 Corsair II is a carrier-based subsonic light attack aircraft design that was introduced to replace the A-4 Skyhawk in US Naval service and based on the successful supersonic F-8 Crusader aircraft produced by Chance Vought. ... The A-6 Intruder is a twin-engine, mid-wing attack aircraft built by Grumman Aerospace. ... Mig may refer to: Mikoyan or MiG, formerly Mikoyan-Gurevich, a Russian military aircraft manufacturer Gas metal arc welding, also called MIG welding Mig Greengard, an online chess columnist (Mig on Chess) Main Industrial Groupings classification in trade statistics Mig Ayesa, an Australian singer-songwriter. ... The third USS Chicago (CA-136) was laid down on 28 July 1943 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by the Philadelphia Navy Yard. ... USS Long Beach (CGN-160/CLGN-160/CGN-9) was the first all-new cruiser designed and constructed after World War II (all others were completions or conversions of cruisers begun or completed during the war). ...


Both before and during Pocket Money, Nixon and Kissinger had worried about the Soviet and Chinese reaction to the escalation. Hours before the president's speech announcing the mining, Kissinger had delivered a letter to Soviet ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin which outlined the U.S. plan, but which also made clear Nixon's willingness to proceed with the summit.[40] The next day, Nixon shook the hand of Soviet Foreign Trade Minister Nikolai Patolichev at the White House. Although both Moscow and Beijing publicly denounced the American operation, they were not willing to jeopardize their thawing relationship with the U.S. Hanoi's requests for support and aid from its socialist allies met with only cool responses.[41] Nixon and Kissinger's diplomacy had triumphed and the U.S. was free to react as it pleased. Anatoly Dobrynin was Soviet Ambassador to the United States, serving from 1962 to 1986 and most notably during the Cuban Missile Crisis; he was appointed by Nikita Khrushchev. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...


Going North

Operation Linebacker, the designation for the new interdiction campaign, would have four objectives: to isolate North Vietnam from its outside sources of supply by destroying railroad bridges and rolling stock in and around Hanoi and northeastward toward the Chinese frontier; the targeting of primary storage areas and marshalling yards; to destroy storage and transshipment points; and finally, to eliminate (or at least damage) the DRV's air defense system.[42] The administration and the Pentagon believed that a large-scale interdiction campaign would cripple the north, since it depended heavily on its socialist allies to sustain both it's domestic economy and the war in the south. Nearly 85 percent of the DRV's imports, however, came in by sea from the Soviet Union and Eastern European nations.[43] The People's Republic of China shipped an average of 22,000 tons of supplies a month over two rail lines and eight major roads that linked it with North Vietnam.[44]

8th TFW F-4 Phantoms loaded with laser-guided bombs

On May 10 Operation Linebacker began with large-scale bombing operations against North Vietnam by tactical fighter aircraft of the Seventh Air Force and Task Force 77. Their targets included the railroad switching yards at Yen Vien and the Paul Doumer Bridge, on the northern outskirts of Hanoi.[45] A total of 414 sorties were flown on the first day of Linebacker, 120 by the Air Force and 294 by the Navy, and they encountered the heaviest single day of air-to-air combat during the Vietnam Conflict, with 11 North Vietnamese MiGs (four MiG-21s and seven MiG-17s) and two U.S. Air Force F-4s shot down.[46] Anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) and over 100 surface-to-air missile firings also brought down two U.S. Navy aircraft.[47] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 943 KB) Lab School I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 943 KB) Lab School I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ...


By the end of the month, American aircraft had destroyed 13 bridges along the rail lines running from Hanoi to the Chinese border. Another four were destroyed between the capital and Haiphong, including the notorious "Dragon's Jaw" that spanned the Song Ma River near Thanh Hoa. Several more bridges were brought down along the rail line leading to the south toward the DMZ. Targets were then switched to petroleum and oil storage and transportation networks and DRV airfields.[48] There was an immediate impact on the battlefield in South Vietnam. Shelling by PAVN artillery dropped off by one-half between 9 May and 1 June. This slowdown was not due to an immediate shortage of artillery shells, but rather to a desire to conserve ammunition. U.S. intelligence analysts believed that PAVN had enough stockpiled supplies to sustain their campaigns throughout the autumn.[49] May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The intensity of the bombing campaign was reflected by the sharp increase in the number of strike and support sorties flown in Southeast Asia as a whole: from 4,237 for all services, including the VNAF, during the month preceding the invasion, to 27,745 flown in support of ARVN forces from the beginning of April to the end of June (7,239 of them flown by the Navy).[50] SAC B-52s provided an additional 1,000 sorties during the same period.[51] The north was feeling the pressure, admitting in the official PAVN history that "between May and June only 30 percent of supplies called for in our plan" actually reached the front-line units.[52]

Captains Steve Ritchie and Chuck DeBellevue, the first Air Force aces of the Vietnam Conflict

The Linebacker missions included the first widespread use of precision-guided munitions, including electro-optical and laser-guided bombs. In addition to interdicting the road and rail system of North Vietnam, Linebacker also systematically attacked its air defense system. The North Vietnamese Air Force, with approximately 200 interceptors, strongly contested these attacks throughout the campaign. Navy pilots, employing a mutually-supporting "loose deuce" tactical formation and many with TOPGUN training, enjoyed a kill ratio of 6:1 in May and June, such that after that the North Vietnamese rarely engaged them thereafter.[53] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (470x794, 196 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (470x794, 196 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a free-fall bomb, usually dropped from an aircraft, that is guided to its target by a laser designator The laser is directed at the target, illuminating it. ... TOPGUN is the popular name of the United States Navy Strike Fighter Tactics Instructor (SFTI) program. ...


The Air Force, opposed by MiG-21s, MiG-17s, and J-6s (the Chinese version of the MiG-19), experienced a virtual 1:1 shoot-down ratio through the first two months of the campaign, as seven of its eventual 24 Linebacker air-to-air losses occurred without any corresponding North Vietnamese loss in a twelve-day period between 24 June and 5 July.[54] Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... MiG-17 at the Central Texas Airshow, USA, May 2003. ... An F-6 of the Pakistan Air Force The Shenyang J-6 (designated F-6 for export versions) was the Chinese-built version of the Soviet MiG-19 fighter aircraft. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 (NATO reporting name Farmer) is a third-generation Soviet, single-seater jet engined fighter aircraft. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ...


Air Force pilots were hampered by use of the outdated "fluid four" tactical formation (a four-plane, two element formation in which only the leader did the shooting and in which the outside wingmen were vulnerable) dictated by Air Force doctrine. Also contributing to the parity was a lack of air combat training against dissimilar aircraft, a deficient early warning system, and ECM pod formations that mandated strict adherence to formation flying.[55] During August, however, the introduction of real-time early warning systems, increased aircrew combat experience, and degraded North Vietnamese ground control interception capabilities reversed the trend to a more favorable 4:1 kill ratio.[56] This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Linebacker saw several other "firsts". On the opening day of the operation, Navy Lieutenant Randall H. Cunningham and his radar intercept officer, Lieutenant (j.g.) William P. Driscoll became the first U.S. air aces of the Vietnam Conflict when they shot down their fifth MiG.[57] On 28 August, the Air Force gained its first ace when Captain Richard S. Ritchie downed his fifth enemy aircraft. Twelve days later, Captain Charles B. DeBellevue (who had been Ritchie's backseater during four of his five victories) downed two more MiGs, bringing his total to six, and on October 13 another weapons officer, Captain Jeffrey S. Feinstein, was credited with his fifth MiG, the final Air Force ace.[58] Randy Duke Cunningham speaking January 2005 Randall Harold Duke Cunningham (born December 8, 1941), usually known as Randy or Duke, is a Vietnam veteran, convicted felon and a former Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Californias 50th Congressional District from 1991 to 2005. ... William Irish Driscoll served as a Navy Radar Intercept Officer who together with pilot Randall Duke Cunningham, were the US Navys only two aces during the Vietnam War flying F-4 Phantom II jets off the USS Constellation in Squadron VF-96, The Fighting Falcons. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Brigadier General Richard S. Steve Ritchie was born in Reidsville, North Carolina. ... Colonel Charles Barbin “Chuck” DeBellevue (born August 15, 1945 in New Orleans, Louisiana) was an officer in the United States Air Force. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capt. ...


Paris Peace Talks and conclusion

For more details on on the negotiations, see Paris Peace Talks.

The stalled offensive in the south and the devastation in North Vietnam had helped to convince Hanoi to return to the bargaining table by early August.[59] The meetings produced new concessions from Hanoi which promised to end the deadlock that had plagued negotiations since their inception in 1968. Gone were Hanoi's demands for the ouster of South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and his replacement by a coalition government in which the National Liberation Front would participate.[60] The diplomatic impasse was broken and Nixon ordered a halt to all bombing above the 20th parallel on 23 October. This once again placed Hanoi and Haiphong off-limits, and halted Linebacker operations. ... President Nguyá»…n Văn Thiệu Nguyá»…n Văn Thiệu  , (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Diplomatic triumph: Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev (l), Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin (c), and President Richard Nixon (r) in Moscow

Air Force historian Earl Tilford has written that Linebacker was "a watershed in aerial warfare...it was the first modern aerial campaign in which precision guided munitions changed the way in which air power was used."[61] It succeeded, where Rolling Thunder had failed, he claimed, for three reasons: President Nixon was decisive in his actions and gave the military greater latitude in targeting; American airpower was forcefully and appropriately used; and the immense difference in the technology used made Linebacker the first bombing campaign in a "new era" of aerial warfare.[62] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (603x609, 186 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (603x609, 186 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


During and immediately following the PAVN offensive, U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps aviators had flown 18,000 sorties in the four northern provinces of South Vietnam and dropped 40,000 tons of ordnance in the defense of An Loc. Between March and May, B-52 sortie rates had climbed from 700 to 2,200 per month and the big bombers had dropped 57,000 tons of bombs in Quang Tri Province alone.[63] During Freedom Train and Linebacker proper, B-52s had dropped 150,237 tons of bombs on the north while Air Force and Navy tactical aircraft had flown 1,216 sorties and dropped another 5,000 tons of ordnance.[64]


From the beginning of Freedom Train in April to the end of June 1972 the United States lost 52 aircraft over North Vietnam: 17 to SAMs; 11 to AAA; three to small arms fire; 14 to MiGs and seven to unknown causes.[65] During the same time period, the South Vietnamese Air Force lost ten aircraft.[66] 63 North Vietnamese aircraft were destroyed during the same time period.[67] North Vietnam claimed that it had shot down 651 aircraft and sunk or set on fire 80 U.S. warships during the operation.[68]


Linebacker had played a crucial role in blunting the northern offensive by drying up its vital sources of supply. PAVN had evolved into a conventional military force, and such a force depended upon a complex logistical system, which made it vulnerable to aerial attack.[69] By September, imports into North Vietnam were estimated at 35 to 50 percent below what they had been in May, bolstering claims that the campaign had been successful in its interdiction effort.[70] Air Force General Robert N. Ginsburgh, of the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, summed up the attitudes of U.S. commanders by remarking that Linebacker had "a greater impact in its first four months of operation than Rolling Thunder had in three and one-half years."[71] Although Henry Kissinger may have announced that peace was at hand, it was not going to come easily. American bombers would once again return to the skies of the DRV in 1972 during Operation Linebacker II before the American commitment to the Vietnam Conflict came to an end. The Christmas Day Bombings in late December, 1972, codenamed Operation Linebacker II, were the heaviest bomber strikes of the Vietnam War, ordered by US President Nixon, against North Vietnamese Army forces in North Vietnam and Laos. ...


U.S. aircraft losses during Linebacker

Between May 10 and October 23, 1972, the United States lost a total of 134 aircraft either over the north or as a direct result of Linebacker missions. 104 were lost in combat and 30 were destroyed in operational accidents. Losses by service were:[72] May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


USAF: - 70 total

  • 51 combat losses (22 to MiGs, 5 induced losses,[73] 20 to AAA, 4 to SAMs)
    • 43 F-4D/E Phantom II (+17 non-combat losses)
    • 2 RF-4C Photo Recon (+1 non-combat loss)
    • 4 F-105G Wild Weasel (+1 non-combat loss)
    • 2 F-111A "Aardvark"

USN: - 54 total The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II[2] is a two-seat supersonic long-range all-weather fighter-bomber originally developed for the U.S. Navy by McDonnell Douglas. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II[2] is a two-seat supersonic long-range all-weather fighter-bomber originally developed for the U.S. Navy by McDonnell Douglas. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, commonly known as the Thud by its crews, was a single-seat supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... A U.S. Air Force F-111 The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark (the nickname was unofficial for most of its lifespan, but it was officially named Aardvark at its retirement ceremony for the United States Air Force) is a long-range strategic bomber, reconnaissance, and tactical strike aircraft. ...

  • 43 combat losses (1 MiG, 2 induced, 13 SAM, 27 AAA)
    • 8 F-4B/J Phantom II (+3 non-combat losses)
    • 22 A-7A/C/E Corsair II (+3 non-combat losses)
    • 3 A-6A Intruder
    • 2 F-8J Crusader (+3 non-combat losses)
    • 5 A-4F Skyhawk (+1 non-combat loss)
    • 1 RA-5C Vigilante
    • 2 RF-8G Photo Crusader (+1 non-combat loss)

USMC: - 10 total The F-4 Phantom II (simply F-4 Phantom after 1990) is a two-place (tandem), supersonic, long-range, all-weather fighter-bomber built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. ... The Ling-Temco-Vought A-7 Corsair II was a light attack aircraft based on the F-8 Crusader. ... The A-6 Intruder is a twin-engine, mid-wing attack aircraft built by Grumman Aerospace. ... The F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft built by Chance-Vought of Dallas, Texas, USA. It replaced the Vought F-7 Cutlass. ... The A-4 Skyhawk was an attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. ... The North American A3J/A-5 Vigilante was a powerful, highly advanced carrier-based supersonic bomber designed for the US Navy. ... The F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft built by Chance-Vought of Dallas, Texas, USA. It replaced the Vought F-7 Cutlass. ...

  • 10 combat losses (1 MiG, 1 SAM, 8 AAA)
    • 4 F-4J Phantom II
    • 2 A-4E Skyhawk
    • 4 A-6A Intruder

DRV aircraft losses

(Air-to-air losses only)[74][75]

Dates Service MiG-21 MiG-19 MiG-17 Total
5 April9 May USAF 4 1 5
USN 2 2 4
10 May23 October USAF 30 7 37
USN 3 2 11 16
USMC 1 1
VPAF Total 40 10 13 63

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 (NATO reporting name Farmer) is a third-generation Soviet, single-seater jet engined fighter aircraft. ... MiG-17 at the Central Texas Airshow, USA, May 2003. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

U.S. air order of battle

  • Task Force 77
USS Constellation, Carrier Air Wing 9 (F-4, A-6, A-7)
USS Coral Sea, Carrier Air Wing 15 (F-4, A-6, A-7)
USS Hancock, Carrier Air Wing 21 (F-8, A-4)
USS Kitty Hawk, Carrier Air Wing 11 (F-4, A-6, A-7)
USS Midway, Carrier Air Wing 5 (F-4, A-6, A-7)
USS Saratoga, Carrier Air Wing 3 (F-4, A-6, A-7)
USS America , Carrier Air Wing 8 (F-4, A-6, A-7)
  • Seventh Air Force
8th Tactical Fighter Wing, Ubon RTAFB, Thailand (F-4)
+ two Constant Guard squadrons from 4th TFW, Seymour-Johnson AFB. North Carolina
49th Tactical Fighter Wing, Takhli RTAFB, Thailand (F-4)
56th Special Operations Wing, Nakhon Phanom RTAFB, Thailand (A-1, HH-53)
366th Tactical Fighter Wing, Danang AB, RVN (F-4)
+ one Constant Guard squadron from 3rd TFW, Osan AB, Korea
388th Tactical Fighter Wing, Korat RTAFB, Thailand (F-4, F-105G)
+ one Constant Guard squadron from 23d TFW, McConnell AFB, Kansas
432d Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, Udon RTAFB, Thailand (F-4), RF-4)
+three Constant Guard squadrons
--one squadron from 405th TFW, Clark AB, Philippnes
--one squadron from 31st TFW, Homestead AFB, Florida
--one squadron from 33d TFW, Eglin AFB, Florida
43d Strategic Wing, Andersen AFB, Guam (B-52)
72d Strategic Wing (Provisional), Anderson AFB, Guam (B-52)
307th Strategic Wing, U Tapao RTAFB, Thailand (B-52)
Vietnam War
Ap Bac – Binh Gia –Pleiku – Song Be – Dong Xoai – Starlite – Gang Toi – Ia Drang – Hastings – A Shau – Duc Co –Long Tan – Attleboro – Cedar Falls – Tra Binh Dong – Junction City – Hill 881 – Ong Thanh – Dak To – 1st Tet – Khe Sanh – 1st Saigon – Hue – Lang Vei – Lima Site 85 – Kham Duc – Dewey Canyon  – 2nd Tet – Hamburger Hill – Binh Ba – Cambodia – Snuol – FSB Ripcord – Lam Son 719 – Ban Dong –FSB Mary Ann – Easter '72 – 1st Quang Tri –Loc Ninh – An Loc – Kontum – 2nd Quang Tri  –Phuoc Long – Ho Chi Minh – Buon Me Thuot – Xuan Loc – Truong Sa –2nd Saigon – Flaming Dart – Rolling Thunder – Barrell Roll – Pony Express – Steel Tiger – Tiger Hound – Tailwind – Commando Hunt – Linebacker I – Linebacker II – Chenla I – Chenla II – SS Mayagüez

USS Constellation (CV-64), a Kitty Hawk-class supercarrier, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the new constellation of stars on the flag of the United States. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II[2] is a two-seat supersonic long-range all-weather fighter-bomber originally developed for the U.S. Navy by McDonnell Douglas. ... The A-6 Intruder is a twin-engine, mid-wing attack aircraft built by Grumman Aerospace. ... The Ling-Temco-Vought A-7 Corsair II is a carrier-based subsonic light attack aircraft design that was introduced to replace the A-4 Skyhawk in US Naval service and based on the successful supersonic F-8 Crusader aircraft produced by Chance Vought. ... USS Coral Sea (CV/CVB/CVA-43), a Midway-class aircraft carrier, was the 2nd ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... The fourth USS Hancock (CV-19) of the United States Navy was an Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier. ... The second USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) is an aircraft carrier in the United States Navy, actively serving as of 2005. ... The third USS Midway (CVB-41), later CVA-41 and CV-41, was an aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class, and the first to be commissioned after the end of World War II. Active in the Vietnam War, as of 2004 she is... USS Saratoga (CV-60), the fifth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the American Revolutionary War Battle of Saratoga, was a Forrestal-class supercarrier. ... The third USS America (CV-66), originally CVA-66, was a supercarrier of the United States Navy that served from 1965 to 1996. ... The 8th Fighter Wing (8 FW) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Kunsan Air Base in the Republic of Korea. ... Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base is a Royal Thai Air Force facility and is the home of Wing 21 of the RTAF 2nd Air Division. ... Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base is a Royal Thai Air Force facility and is the home of the RTAF Wing 4, 401, 402, 403 squadrons. ... Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base (NKP) is a Royal Thai Navy facility. ... The Douglas A-1 (formerly AD) Skyraider was a U.S. single-seat attack bomber of the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. ... HMH-465 CH-53E doing an external lift in Iraq The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy transport helicopter. ... The 366th Fighter Wing (366 FW) is a unit of the United States Air Force headquartered at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho. ... Đà Nẵng International Airport (IATA: DAD, ICAO: VVDN) is located in Da Nang of central Vietnam. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II taxis into its shelter at Osan Air Base Osan Air Base, a base of the United States Air Force, in South Korea. ... Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base is a base of the Royal Thai Air Force. ... The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, commonly known as the Thud by its crews, was a single-seat supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. ... Udon Thani International Airport (IATA: UTP, ICAO: VTUD) is an airport located near the city of Udon Thani (อุดรธานี, also Udorn Thanee) in Eastern Thailand in Udon Thani province. ... Clark Air Base, 1975. ... Aerial Photo of Homestead Air Force Base, Florida - March 1987 Homestead Air Reserve Base (formerly Homestead Air Force Base), is a United States Air Force base located in South Miami-Dade County Florida adjacent to the city of Homestead (25 29 31. ... Eglin Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force that belongs to the Air Force Materiel Command; the Air Armament Center is the host unit. ... Andersen Air Force Base, is a base of the United States Air Force located on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean, on the north end of the island approximately 15 miles (24 km) from the capital, Agana. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, jet strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954. ... U-Tapao (Thai: ; also spelt Utapao and U-Taphao) (IATA: UTP, ICAO: VTBU) is both an active civil airport (U-Tapao International Airport) and home of the Royal Thai Navy First Air Wing (U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders unknown battalion commander Bui Dinh Dam John Paul Vann Strength 350 1,400 Casualties 18 dead 39 wounded 83 dead 108 wounded The Battle of Ap Bac was a small-scale action early in the Vietnam War that resulted in the first... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Viet Cong United States South Vietnam Casualties U.S casualties: 8 killed, 109 wounded and 20 aircraft destroyed or damaged. ... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Casualties 85 Dead 49 ARVN dead 5 American dead The Battle of Song Be was a major action between the NLF (Viet Cong) and ARVN, the South Vietnamese army. ... Combatants Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Le Trong Tan Cao Van Vien, Charles W. Williams Strength 1,500 10,000 Casualties 700+ estimated KIA ARVN: 800+ killed U.S: 7 killed, 15 wounded and 13 missing The Battle of Dong Xoai was a battle that occurred during the... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders General Lewis W. Walt Strength 5,500 1,500 VC 1st Regiment Casualties 45 killed 203 wounded >614 killed 9 captured Operation Starlite was the first offensive military action conducted by a purely U.S. military unit during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Viet Cong Australia Commanders Unknown John Healy Casualties Unknown 6 wounded 2 missing presumed dead The Battle of Gang Toi was fought on November 8, 1965. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States Commanders Nguyen Huu An Thomas Brown Hal Moore (X-Ray) Robert McDade (Albany) Casualties X-Ray: Est. ... Operation Hastings was an American military operation in the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States South Vietnam North Vietnam Strength 395 2,000 Casualties U.S: 8 killed, 12 wounded and 5 missing South Vietnam: 47 killed or missing Unknown (U.S estimates put the number at 800) The Battle of A Shau was waged during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants North Vietnam South Korea Commanders Byung Soo Choi Casualties 134+ killed 7 killed 46 wounded In 1966, the Battle of Duc Co was a major engagement between the North Vietnamese 5th Battalion of the 88th Regiment and the South Korean 3rd Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Regiment. ... Combatants Australia New Zealand United States North Vietnam Commanders Maj Harry Smith Nguyen Thanh Hong Strength 108 (not including supporting personnel/reinforcements) 2,500 (Disputed) Casualties 18 dead 24 wounded At least 245 dead 750 wounded (Captured documents and prisoner interrogations suggest there were 500-800 dead and around 1... Combatants United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders Major Guy S. Meloy Unknown Casualties 155 US killed 494 US wounded At least 1,106 killed Operation Attleboro was a search-and-destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. ... Operation Cedar Falls was conducted by the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam War on January 8 – January 26, 1967 to rout out Viet Cong base camps in the so-called Iron Triangle. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Korea Commanders Unknown commander Captain Jin-Kyung Chung Strength 2,400+ 294 Casualties 200+ killed and 2 captured 15 killed and 33 wounded The Battle of Tra Binh Dong was probably the most famous battle fought by the South Korean Marines during the Vietnam... Operation Junction City was one of the largest airborne operations since Market Garden in the latter half of World War II, and one of the largest operations of the Vietnam conflict. ... Combatants NVA United States Casualties 947 killed 455 killed, 455 wounded The Battle of Hill 881 was a battle between soldiers of the North Vietnamese Army and U.S. Marines during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Maj. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States of America, South Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Liberation Front, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 50,000+ (estimate) 85,000+ (estimate) Casualties 2,788 KIA, 8,299 WIA, 587 MIA 1,536 KIA, 7,764 WIA... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders David E. Lownds (local), William C. Westmoreland (theater) Tran Quy Hai (local), Vo Nguyen Giap (theater) Strength 6,000 ~30,000 Casualties 730 killed in action, 2,642 wounded, 7 missing[2] Unknown; estimated between 10,000 and 15... Combatants South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Viet Cong Commanders William Westmoreland Vo Nguyen Giap Strength  ? 35 Battlions Casualties  ?  ? The First Battle of Saigon fought during the Tet Offensive was the coordinated attack by the NVA and VC, by which they attacked South Vietnams Capital Saigon from all sides. ... Combatants South Viet Nam United States North Viet Nam Viet Cong Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Foster C. LaHue Tran Van Quang Strength Over 30,000 8,000, later 12,000 Casualties ARVN: 452 KIA; 2,123 WIA US: 216 KIA; 1,584 WIA[1] Total: 668 KIA; 3,707 WIA... Combatants North Vietnam United States Commanders Unknown Capt. ... Combatants United States Thailand Hmong guerillas North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Vang Pao Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 1,300+ 3,000+ Casualties 8 Americans dead 42 Thai and Hmong Unknown The Battle of Lima Site 85 was a battle of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong United States South Vietnam Australia Strength 10,000+ 1,760+ Casualties  ??? 270+ killed or missing 9 aircraft loss The Battle of Kham Duc was the struggle for the United States Army Special Forces camp located in Quang Tin province, South Vietnam. ... Combatants United States Marine Corps North Vietnamese Army Commanders Colonel Robert H. Barrow N/A Strength 5,000+ Casualties 130 killed, 932 wounded (USMC account) 1617 killed, unknown number wounded (USMC account) Operation Dewey Canyon was the last major offensive by the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. ... Tet 1969 refers to the attacks mounted by principally North Vietnamese forces in February 1969 in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Melvin Zais Unknown Strength estimated at 1,800 estimated at 1,500 Casualties 70 killed, 372 wounded 630+ dead The Battle of Hamburger Hill was one of the most controversial battles of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Viet Cong North Vietnam Australia Casualties 91 killed 1 killed, 8 wounded The Battle of Binh Ba was a battle between soldiers of the Australian Army and NVA and VC soldiers during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants South Vietnam United States Viet Cong Commanders Do Cao Tri â€  Nguyen Van Minh Bui Thanh Danh Le Nam Phong Strength 2,000 20,000 Casualties 37 killed, 167 wounded, 74 missing Unknown (South Vietnam claimed 1,043 killed) The Battle of Snuol was a major battle of the Vietnam... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam United States Commanders Vo Nguyen Giap Chu Phong Doi Andre Lucas† Ben Harrison Strength 9 battalions 1 battalion Casualties 2400+ KIA 250~ KIA, 1,000+ WIA Wikisource has original text related to this article: After action report: Firebase Ripcord, 23 July 1970 The Battle of... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Hoang Xuan Lam Le Trong Tan (military) Le Quang Dao (political) Strength ARVN: 20,000 troops U.S.: 10,000 troops in support ~25,000 - ~35,000 troops Casualties ARVN: 8,483 killed 12,420 wounded 691 missing U... Combatants South Vietnam United States North Vietnam Pathet Lao Commanders Lt. ... Combatants United States Viet Cong Commanders Lt. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Commanders Ngo Quang Truong Van Tien Dung Strength 800,000+ 200,000+ Casualties ~10,000 killed, 33,000 wounded, 2,000 missing [1] ~100,000 total casualties[2] The Easter Offensive (the... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam Strength 30,000+ 8,000+ The First Battle of Quang Tri resulted in the first major victory for the North Vietnamese Army during the Nguyen Hue Offensive of 1972. ... Combatants South Vietnam, United States Viet Cong, North Vietnam Commanders Mark A. Smith â˜ Tran Van Tra Strength 1,000+ 40,000+ Casualties Unknown 10,000+ The Battle of Loc Ninh was a major battle fought during North Vietnams Nguyen Hue Campaign and lasted from April 4 to April 7... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam United States Commanders Gen. ... Combatants South Vietnam North Vietnam Commanders Col. ... Combatants North Vietnam Viet Cong South Vietnam The Second Battle of Quang Tri began on June 28 and lasted until September 16, 1972, when the Army of the Republic of Vietnam defeated the North Vietnamese and recaptured most of the province. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army National Liberation Front Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung President Nguyen Van Thieu (Until April 5) Strength 300,000+ (est. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Vietnam Vietnam Peoples Army Commanders Maj. ... Combatants Vietnam Peoples Army Army of the Republic of Vietnam Commanders General Van Tien Dung General Hieu Strength 40,000 5,000 Casualties 3 Divisions destroyed 30% of total strength The Battle of Xuan Loc was the last major battle of the Vietnam War. ... Combatants North Vietnam South Vietnam The Battle of Truong Sa was a naval battle that resulted in the capture of the South Vietnamese-held Truong Sa Islands by North Vietnamese forces on April 29, 1975. ... Combatants North Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam South Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Duong Van Minh Strength 100,000+ 30,000+ The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sá»± kiện 30 tháng 4, or April 30 Incident), was the capture of the... During the Vietnam War, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson in February 1965 ordered a series of reprisal air strikes after a number of attacks on U.S. bases, particularly on a U.S. installation at Pleiku. ... Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders Joseph H. Moore William W. Momyer George S. Brown Phung The Tai (Air Defense) Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force) Casualties U.S. Air Force, 381 KIA or MIA/222 POWs (23 died in captivity, 1... Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Kingdom of Laos Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Pathet Lao (PL) Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and... Operation Steel Tiger was a covert US Air Force aerial interdiction effort targeted against North Vietnamese infiltration through southeastern Laos during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Barrell Roll/Steel Tiger/Tiger Hound Areas of Operations, 1965. ... Operation Tailwind was a covert incursion into southeastern Laos by a company-size element (Hatchet Force) of the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACSOG or SOG) on 11 September 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States, Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Operation Commando Hunt was a covert Seventh/Thirteenth United States Air Force offensive initiative that took place during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Combatants United States (U.S.) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders John W. Vogt, jr. ... Combatants Khmer Republic North Vietnam Commanders Brig. ... Combatants North Vietnam Khmer Republic Commanders Unknown Brigadier General Hou Hang Sin Strength VPA 9th Division 10 FANK Battalions Casualties Unknown Decimation of the FANK Battalions Operation Chenla II was launched on August 20, 1971 by the Cambodian military (or FANK) as an attempt to regain territories lost to the... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Maj. A.J.C. Lavalle, ed. Airpower and the 1972 Spring Offensive. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 1976, p. 4.
  2. ^ David Fulghum & Terrance Maitland, et al, South Vietnam on Trial. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1984, p. 138.
  3. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 141.
  4. ^ Lavalle, p. 6.
  5. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, pps. 154-158.
  6. ^ Earl H. Tilford, Setup: What the Air Force Did in Vietnam and Why. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 1991, p. 225.
  7. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, pps. 141-142.
  8. ^ Tilford, p. 234.
  9. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 170.
  10. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 142.
  11. ^ Tilford, p. 228.
  12. ^ Tilford, p. 232
  13. ^ Michael Casey, Clark Dougan, Samuel Lipsman, Jack Sweetman, Stephen Weiss, et al, Flags into Battle. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1987, p. 182.
  14. ^ Lavalle, p. 12.
  15. ^ Tilford, pps. 223-224.
  16. ^ John Morocco, Rain of Fire. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985, p. 170.
  17. ^ Lavalle, pps. 19 & 23-25. Also see Morocco, p. 108-109.
  18. ^ Tilford, p. 224.
  19. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 142.
  20. ^ Tilford, p. 228.
  21. ^ Wayne To Hanoi and Back. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute Press, 2000, p. 225.
  22. ^ Fulghaum & Maitland, p. 142.
  23. ^ Tilford, p. 228.
  24. ^ Thompson, p. 229.
  25. ^ Stanley Karnow, Vietnam. New York: Viking, 1983, p. 643.
  26. ^ Casey, Dougan, Lipsman, p. 39.
  27. ^ Military Institute of Vietnam: Victory in Vietnam. Lawrence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2992, p. 299.
  28. ^ On 21 February 1972 Nixon had landed in Beijing for his dramatic diplomatic breakthrough with the People's Republic. The Chinese, who had previously hoped that a long war in Southeast Asia would bleed both the Americans and their Vietnamese neighbors, now feared that a decline in American power would deprive them of a counterweight to the Soviet Union. Karnow, p. 638.
  29. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 179.
  30. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 168.
  31. ^ Dale Andrade, Trial by Fire. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1995 p. ?
  32. ^ Dave Richard Plamer, Summons of the Trumpet, New York: Ballentine, 1978, p. 317.
  33. ^ Tilford, p. 233.
  34. ^ Morocco, p. 130.
  35. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 144.
  36. ^ Morocco, p. 130.
  37. ^ Morocco, p. 131.
  38. ^ Tilford, p. 233.
  39. ^ Andrade, p. 518.
  40. ^ Fulghum & Maitland, p. 170-171.
  41. ^ Morocco, p. 131.
  42. ^ William P. Head, War Above the Clouds, Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 2002, p. 65.
  43. ^ Morocco, p. 130.
  44. ^ Morocco, p. 130.
  45. ^ Casey, Dougan, & Lipsman, p. 39.
  46. ^ Thompson, p. 236.
  47. ^ Thompson, p. 236.
  48. ^ Tilford, p. 235.
  49. ^ Andrade, p. 519.
  50. ^ Head, p. 66.
  51. ^ Head, p. 66.
  52. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 293.
  53. ^ Morocco, p. 144.
  54. ^ Marshall L. Michel, Clashes: Air Combat Over North Vietnam 1965-1972. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997, pg. 244
  55. ^ Michel, p. 288
  56. ^ Michel. p. 284
  57. ^ Morocco, p. 145.
  58. ^ Morocco, p. 145.
  59. ^ Morocco, p. 145.
  60. ^ Lipsman & Weiss, p. 9. See also Karnow, p. 647.
  61. ^ Tilford, p. 238.
  62. ^ Tilford, pps. 238-240.
  63. ^ Lavalle, p. 103.
  64. ^ Head, p. 71.
  65. ^ Head, p. 66. One of those aircraft was an EB-66 electronic jamming aircraft with the call sign "Bat-21". The Prowler was shot down over northern South Vietnam on 2 April with only one survivor, Lieutenant Colonel Iceal Hambleton. The successful rescue of Hambleton and Lieutenant Mark Clark were the subject of a best-selling book and a movie. See Lavalle, pps, 35-43.
  66. ^ Tilford, pps. 231 & 251. Linebacker. See also Lavalle, p. 107.
  67. ^ Tilford, p. 245.
  68. ^ Victory in Vietnam, p. 301.
  69. ^ Palmer, p. 322.
  70. ^ Tilford, p. 237.
  71. ^ Morocco, p. 136.
  72. ^ Ed Rasimus (2006). "Appendix I - Linebacker Losses", Palace Cobra: A Fighter Pilot in the Vietnam Air War. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312353561. , pp. 233-248. Losses are enumerated by date, aircraft type and serial number, and crew members.
  73. ^ Michel, p. 317 note 2. An "induced loss" occurred when a MiG was credited with indirectly causing a U.S. aircraft loss, including fuel exhaustion, fratricide, and loss of control while maneuvering.
  74. ^ United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: Aces and Aerial Victories - 1965-1973. Air University. Retrieved on 15 February 2007., on-line book, p. 95-102
  75. ^ Drendel, Lou. (1984). ...And Kill MiGs. Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 0897470567. 

77. ^Hobson, Chris. "Vietnam Air Losses." 2001. ISBN 1-85780-1156 February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

Published Government Documents

  • Head, William P. War from Above the Clouds: B-52 Operations During the Second Indochina War and the Effects of the Air War on Theory and Doctrine. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University press, 2002. On-line edition
  • Lavalle, Maj. A.J.C., ed. Airpower and the 1972 Spring Offensive. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 1976.
  • Military History Institute of Vietnam, Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954-1975. Trans. by Merle Pribbenow. Lawrence KS: University of Kansas Press, 2002.
  • Nalty, Bernard C. Air War Over South Vietnam: 1969-1975. Washington DC: Center of Air Force History, 1995.
  • Schlight, John. A War too Long: The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia 1961-1975. Air Force History and Museums Programs, 1996. On-line edition
  • Thompson, Wayne, To Hanoi and Back: The U.S. Air Force and North Vietnam, 1966-1973. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, 2000.
  • Tilford, Earl H. Setup: What the Air Force Did in Vietnam and Why. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1991.

Secondary Sources

  • Andrade, Dale, Trial by Fire: the 1972 Easter Offensive, America's Last Vietnam Battle. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1995.
  • Casey, Michael, Clark Dougan, Samuel Lipsman, Jack Sweetman, Stephen Weiss, et al, Flags into Battle. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1987.
  • Drendel, Lou, Air War over Southeast Asia: Vol. 3, 1971-1975. Carrollton TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1984.
  • Fulghum, David and Terrence Maitland, et al, South Vietnam on Trail: Mid-1970-1972. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1984.
  • Karnow, Stanley, Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Books, 1983.
  • Michel, Marshall L. Clashes: Air Combat over North Vietnam 1965-1972. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. ISBN 1557505853
  • Lipsman, Samuel and Stephen Weiss, et al, The False Peace: 1972-74. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985.
  • Littauer, Raphael and Norman Uphoff, The Air War in Indochina. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972.
  • Morocco, John, Rain of Fire: Air War, 1969-1973. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985.
  • Palmer, Dave Richard, Summons of the Trumpet. New York: Ballentine Books, 1978.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Linebacker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1168 words)
Operation Linebacker was the name of a United States military operation during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker began with the mining of seven North Vietnamese harbors at 0800 local time May 9, 1970, by A-6 and A-7 aircraft from the Coral Sea.
Linebacker missions included the first widespread use of precision-guided munitions, the electro-optical guided bomb and the laser-guided bomb.
Operation Linebacker II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1794 words)
Operation Linebacker II was a United States military operation during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker II was a resumption of the Linebacker bombings conducted from May to October, except that the emphasis would be on massive attacks by B-52s rather than fighter aircraft.
Privately, the administration knew that politically the Christmas Bombings could not continue indefinitely; the operation was intended to convince South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu that the United States was willing to exert maximum pressure on Hanoi to defend the South.
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