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Encyclopedia > Operation Kiev
Polish Breguet 14 operating from Kyiv airfield
Kiev Offensive (1920)
Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War
Date April-June, 1920
Place Ukraine
Result inconclusive
Combatants
Poland, Ukraine Bolshevist Russia
Commanders
Józef Piłsudski,
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny
Strength
8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army
Casualties
? ?
Polish-Bolshevik War
Vistula – Bereza Kartuska – Wilno – 1st Minsk – Daugavpils – KievWołodarka – Lwów – Berezina – WarsawRaszyn – Nasielsk – Serock – RadzyminZadwórzeKomarówNiemen – Zboiska – 2nd Minsk

The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. Its stated goal was to create an independent Ukraine, though many ethnic Ukrainians viewed it as a Polish act of aggression and rallied to fight in the ranks of the Red Army. With not enough support from the Ukrainian population and growing pressure from the Bolshevik counteroffensive, Polish and allied Ukrainian forces were forced, after initial successes, to retreat from Ukraine. Polish Air Forces Breguet 14 stationed on the Kiev airfield during the Kiev Offensive in the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920 Picture published in Polska lotnicza album, Warsaw, 1937 As such it falls under the 1926 copyright act, almost identical to the 1952 act. ... The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was built in very large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated... April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... . Edward Rydz-Śmigły Edward Rydz-Śmigły (born March 11, 1886 in Łapszyn near Brzeżany, Tarnopol Voivodship - died December 2, 1941 in Warsaw), codenames Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza. ... Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, a fact which led to one of modern historys greatest military catastrophes. ... Target Vistula Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date November 18, 1918 to March, 1919 Place Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine Result Unconcluded The Russian Westward offensive of 1918 — 1919 it was part of general move of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic into the areas occupied by Germany after its retreat... Battle of Bereza Kartuska (1919) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Bereza Kartuska, near Brzesc, Belarus Result Polish victory Battle of Bereza Kartuska was one of the first conflicts between the organised forces of the Second Polish Republic and Soviet Russia and can be considered as one... Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date May 29, 1920 Place Volodarka near Kyiv, Ukraine Result Polish victory Battle of Wołodarka was a clash between the Polish Army and the 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Bydionnyi. ... Battle of Lwów Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date July-September, 1920 Place near Lwów, Poland Result Polish victory During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 13 to August 25, 1920 Place near Warsaw, Poland Result Decisive Polish victory The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War (also known as... Battle of Raszyn (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Raszyn, Poland Result ? Battle of Raszyn) was a battle of the Polish_Soviet War that took place in (August 1920) between the Polish Army and the Red Army near the village of Raszyn. ... Battle of Radzymin Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August 12-August 15, 1920 Place near Radzymin, Poland Result Polish victory Battle of Radzymin was part of the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Battle of Zadwórze Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August 17, 1920 Place Zadwórze, near Lwów Result Russian victory Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the 1920 Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Battle of Komarów Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August 31, 1920 Place Komarów and Wolica Śniatycka, near Zamość Result Decisive Polish victory Battle of Komarów was one of the most important battles of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Battle of the Niemen Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date September 15-September 25, 1920 Place near Grodno, along the Niemen River Result Polish victory Battle of the Niemen River was the second largest battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated... April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...

Contents

Before the Battle

On April 24 Poland begun the Kiev Operation, aimed at creating an independent Ukraine, to become part of Piłsudzki's Międzymorze Federation. Poland signed a military alliance with the Ukrainian People's Republic of Symon Petliura, who had found asylum in Poland after the defeat of his government at the Bolsheviks' hands. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... Międzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef Piłsudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... A Military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, and/or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic or Ukrainian National Republic (Українська Народна Республіка, Ukrayinska Narodna Respublika, abbreviated УНР, UNR) was a republic in a part of the territory of the modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petlura. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her...


Petliura now headed the new Ukrainian Army. The joint Polish-Ukrainian political campaign depended on the creation of a strong Ukrainian army capable of defeating the Soviets in Ukraine. The campaign, while initially successful, had to be abandoned due to lack of time. The local population was tired of hostilities after several years of war and the Ukrainian Army never exceeded two divisions. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)  listen; tr. ...


The plan of Kiev Operation was to defeat the Soviet troops on the Polish southern flank and establish a friendly government in Ukraine. The main task of the advancing Polish armies was to outflank the Bolsheviks and destroy them in a single battle. After winning the battle in the South, the Polish General Staff planned a speedy withdrawal of the 3rd Army and strengthening of the northern front where Piłsudski expected the main battle with the Red Army to take place. As is often the case, the actual course of events was different than envisioned.


Polish assault

The 3rd Army easily won border clashes with the Soviets and the combined Polish-Ukrainian forces captured Kiev on May 7, encountering only token resistance. However the Bolshevik army, although badly mauled, avoided total destruction. The Polish offensive stopped at Kiev and only a small bridgehead was established on the eastern bank of the Dnieper. Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... This article is about the river. ...


This military thrust soon met with a Red Army counterattack. On May 24, the Polish-Ukrainian force was engaged by the Semyon Budionny and his famous 1st Cavalry Army for the first time. Polish-Ukrainian forces succeeded in slowing and even defeating the Red Army on several occasions. Their morale was high, as Polish-Ukrainian forces were eager to defend Dnieper Ukraine and confident in their ability to withstand the Soviet offensive. Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Counterattack is a military science term for a type of attack by defending force against an enemy attacking force. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, a fact which led to one of modern historys greatest military catastrophes. ...


Bolshevik counter-attack

Polish intelligence was aware of the Russian preparations for an all-out offensive and the Polish commander-in-chief, Józef Piłsudski ordered the commander of all the Polish forces on the Ukrainian Front, General Antoni Listowski to prepare his forces for a strategic withdrawal. From the perspective of staff maps in Warsaw it was clear that the renascent Polish Army was too weak to withstand both the offensive in the southern sector of the front in Ukraine and the spring offensive prepared by the Bolsheviks in Belarus and to the north of the Prypeć Marshes. However, the commander of the Polish 3rd Army located around Kiev, General Edward Rydz, was seeking a way to repel the upcomming Russian assault rather than withdraw and even proposed the General Staff to regroup all of his forces to the city of Kiev and defend there until relieved. This plan was turned down by Piłsudski, who knew that no relief force could be prepared any time soon. He repeated his orders of withdrawal of the Polish 3rd and 6th Armies from the area of Kiev. Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... . Edward Rydz-Śmigły Edward Rydz-Śmigły (born March 11, 1886 in Łapszyn near Brzeżany, Tarnopol Voivodship - died December 2, 1941 in Warsaw), codenames Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ...


General Rydz organised a series of tactical counter-attacks which resulted in victories in the areas of Bila Tserkva, where the Bolshevik 44th Rifle Division lost the entire staff and one of its brigades and the Battle of Wołodarka, which routed the Bolshevik 4th Cavalry Division and made one of its cossack regiments switch sides. However, repeated attacks by the elite Budionny's cossack cavalry broke the Polish Ukrainian front on June 5th and on June 10th Polish armies were retreating along the entire front. Bila Tserkva (Ukrainian Бiла Церква, literally White Church, Polish Biała Cerkiew, Russian Белая Церковь, Belaya Tserkov) is a city in Kyivska oblast of Ukraine. ... Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date May 29, 1920 Place Volodarka near Kyiv, Ukraine Result Polish victory Battle of Wołodarka was a clash between the Polish Army and the 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Bydionnyi. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ...


It was a bitter day for the Poles and Ukrainians on June 13 when Kiev was evacuated and left to the Soviets. Petliura's Ukrainians, although few in numbers, fought bravely and with fierce determination throughout the rest of the campaign. In the face of almost unlimited Russian reserves and the slow growth of the Ukrainian army, Polish and Ukrainian forces were ordered to retreat. While the units managed to withdraw in order and relatively unscathed, they were tied down in Ukraine and lacked sufficient strength to support the Polish Northern Front and strengthen defenses at the Auta River during the decisive battle that was soon to take place there. June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ...


However, the Bolshevik objectives were not accomplished either. Due to poor command and conflicts within the staff of the South-Western Front, the Polish 3rd Army managed to avoid encirclement and complete destruction and successfully retreated from Ukraine.


Opposing forces

The following is the Order of Battle of Polish and Bolshevik forces taking part in the struggles in Ukraine, as of April 25, 1920. It should be noted that the command structure changed during the operation. April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


Among Polish Airforce was the 7th Kosciuszko Squadron. Polish fighters of the Kościuszko Squadron. ...


Poles

Polish Army Unit Polish name Commander Remarks
  General Command of the Polish Army - Gen. Józef Piłsudski
  supporting armies
6th Army
Iwaszkiewicz
5th Infantry Jędrzejewski
12th Infantry Żegota-Januszajtis
18th Infantry Krajowski
2nd Army
Listowski
13th Infantry Paulik
15th Infantry Jasiński
6th Ukrainian Bezruchko
  Assault Group - Józef Piłsudski
Assault Group
Piłsudski
4th Infantry Skierski
Cavalry Division Romer
Rybak Operational Group
Rybak
1st Mountain Bde Wróblewski
7th Cavalry Bde Romanowicz
Rydz-Śmigły Operational Group
Rydz-Śmigły
1st Legions Rydz-Śmigły
7th Infantry Pogorzelski
3rd Cavalry Bde Sawicki

Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ... . Edward Rydz-Śmigły Edward Rydz-Śmigły (born March 11, 1886 in Łapszyn near Brzeżany, Tarnopol Voivodship - died December 2, 1941 in Warsaw), codenames Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza. ... . Edward Rydz-Śmigły Edward Rydz-Śmigły (born March 11, 1886 in Łapszyn near Brzeżany, Tarnopol Voivodship - died December 2, 1941 in Warsaw), codenames Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza. ...

Bolsheviks

Red Army Unit Russian name Commander Remarks
  South-Western Front - Gen. Aleksandr Yegorov
12th Army
Miezheninov
7th Rifle
44th Rifle
47th Rifle
58th Rifle
17th Cavalry Division
14th Army
Uborevich
21st Rifle
41st Rifle
45th Rifle
60th Rifle
8th Cavalry Division
13th Army
unknown composition

Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ...

References

  • Lech Wyszczelski (1999). Kijów 1920. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 8311089639
  • Norman Davies (2003). White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0712606947
  • Józef Piłsudski (1937 - 1991). Pisma zbiorowe (Collected Works). Warsaw: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza (reprint). ISBN 8303030590
  • Mikhail Tukhachevski (1989). Lectures at Military Academy in Moscow, February 7-10, 1923 in: Pochód za Wisłę. Łódź: . ISBN

  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2787 words)
In the 9th century, Kiev was conquered from the Khazars by the Varangian ( Swedish Viking) Oleg.
Kiev was sacked by Russians ( 1169), Polovtzians and Mongol raiders in the 12th and 13th centuries.
However, with the failure of the Kiev Operation and the end of Polish-Soviet War, after the Peace of Riga in March 1921, the western part of the traditional territory had been incorporated into Poland, and the larger, central and eastern part became part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian SSR.
Operation Barbarossa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4731 words)
Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941.
Operation Barbarossa was largely the brainchild of Hitler himself.
The climax of Operation Barbarossa came when Army Group Centre, already short in supplies because of the mud in October, was ordered to advance to Moscow; forward units came within sight of the spires of the Kremlin in early December 1941.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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