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Encyclopedia > Operation Jerusalem
Operation Undeniable Victory
Part of Iran-Iraq War
Date 24th April 1982- 22nd May 1982
Location Khuzestan, South-West Iran
Casus
belli
Iraqi invasion of Iran
Result Decisive Iranian victory
Territorial
changes
Iranians recapture Khorramshahr
Combatants
 Iraq  Iran
Commanders
Unknown Unknown
Strength
Unknown 70,000 Pasdaran fighters
Casualties
12,000 Iraqi prisoners. Unknown amount of Iraqi military equipment abandoned Unknown

Operation Jerusalem (aka Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas) was an Iranian operation conducted during the Iran-Iraq War. The operation was a success, in as so far as it achieved its standing aim of evicting Iraqi troops from the Iranian city of Khorramshahr. This operation, coupled with Operation Jerusalem Way, and Operation Undeniable Victory, succeeded in evicting Iraqi troops from southern Iran. It lasted from the 24th April to the 22nd May 1982. The numbers of casualties sustained by Iraq and Iran are unknown; but it is likely that there was not as marked a difference between both sides as there would be when Iran was losing thousands in one campaign against a relatively paltry Iraqi dead and wounded. Iran was using massed human-wave attacks of Pasdaran and Basij fighters, which it would come to rely on later in the war from 1983 onwards. However, they were supporting these attacks with sufficient artillery and aerial support;, and the fighters acted alongside regular Iranian troops, who were much better trained than the poorly-equipped Islamic Revolutionary fighters. Combatants United States Navy Iranian Navy Operation Earnest Will (24 July 1987 - 26 September 1988) was the U.S. military protection of Kuwaiti oil tankers from Iraqi and Iranian attacks in 1987 and 1988 during the Tanker War phase of the Iran-Iraq War. ... Combatants United States Special Operations Command Iranian Navy An aerial view of the leased barge Hercules with three Mark III patrol boats and the tugboat Mister John H tied up alongside in the northern Persian Gulf. ... Operation Eager Glacier was a secret U.S. effort to spy on Iran with aircraft in 1987 and 1988. ... Operation Nimble Archer was the 19 October 1987 attack on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf by United States Navy forces. ... Iranian frigate IS Sahand (74) attacked by aircraft of U.S. Navy Carrier Air Wing 11 in retaliation for the mining of the guided missile frigate USS . ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Combatants  Iraq  Iran Casualties Heavy Heavy Operation Jerusalem Way was an operation in the Iran-Iraq War launched by Iran to free Bostan. ... Combatants  Iraq  Iran In March 1982, Iran launched an offencive named Operation Undeniable Victory. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Pasdaran str. ... Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ...

Contents

Prelude

On the 22nd September 1980, because of his desire that Iraq should have complete dominance over the Shatt al-Arab waterway, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared war against Iran; and launched an land invasion of southern Iran; although operations did occur elsewhere on the Iran-Iraq border. After achieving stunning successes, Saddam Hussein amazingly ordered that the Iraqi troops 'dig-in' on the front line. He hoped that this would show the world that he cared about the fate of the Iranian people, and that he was only concerned with achieving his aim of securing the entire Arvand waterway; which had been under dispute since the 1975 Algiers Agreement had been under some strain. That agreement was itself an attempt to settle the historical dispute over possession of the waterway. However, since the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979; Iraq had felt that it was necessary to assume what it wanted through force, and that it was no use trying to negotiate with the revolutionary Iranian government. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Self-illuminating Border flower pot between Burghausen, Salzach(river) in Germany and Ach in Austria. ... The Algiers Agreement was an agreement between the governments of Eritrea and Ethiopia signed on 12 December 2000 at Algiers, Algeria to end the Ethiopia-Eritrea War, a border war fought by the two countries from 1998 to 2002. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


Once the Iraqi forces had settled, the Iranians could begin planning a series of operations designed to evict the Iraqis from southern Iran, of which Operation Jerusalem Way was one.


Battle

The Iranians attack

The Iranians attacked, with some 70,000 fighters who were mostly from the Pasdaran, in the Ahavz-Susangerd area. The Iraqi forces in the area withdrew, and planned to mount a defence at Khorramshahr. Sousangerd is an Iranian city in the province Khouzestan. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


The Iraqi counter-attack

The Iraqis launched a counter-offensive on the 20th May. However, despite its scale, the Iranians were able to repulse the attack.


The fall of Khorramshahr

On the 22nd May, the Iranians captured Khorramshahr; the vitally strategically important Iranian city whose capture by Iraq had been the low-point of Iranian fortunes in the early days of the war. Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


The Iraqis flee

The Iraqis were ordered to retreat, although many had done when Khorramshar had fallen, back into Iraq. The Iranians captured 12,000 Iraqi troops and a substantial amount of Iraqi military hardware.


References

The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988; Karsh, Efraim; Osprey Publishing; 2002


 
 

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