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Encyclopedia > Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
Part of the War on Terrorism

U.S. Marines during Operation El Dorado.
Date October 7, 2001- (conflict still ongoing)
Location Afghanistan, Philippines, Horn of Africa, Pankisi Gorge
Casus
belli
September 11, 2001 attacks.
Result Conflicts ongoing; Taliban regime overthrown.
Combatants
Flag of the United States United States,

Flag of Poland Poland,
Flag of France France,
Flag of Canada Canada,
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan,
Flag of India India,
Flag of Australia Australia,
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom,
Flag of Germany Germany,
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands,
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand,
Flag of the Philippines Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only),
Northern Alliance,
Flag of Italy Italy,
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic,
Flag of Hungary Hungary,
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia,
Flag of Somalia Somalia,
Flag of Estonia Estonia,
Flag of Latvia Latvia,
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania,
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia,
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia,
Flag of Croatia Croatia,
Flag of Albania Albania,
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Macedonia,
Flag of Romania Romania,
Flag of Portugal Portugal,
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria,
Flag of Sweden Sweden,
Flag of Norway Norway,
Flag of Denmark Denmark,
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia
Combatants Participants in operations  United States  United Kingdom  Israel  Canada  Australia  Poland  Iraq  Afghanistan  India  Pakistan  Philippines  Somalia  Ethiopia  Lebanon Fatah et al. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1098, 235 KB) 05/05/2004 U.S. Marines from Alpha Co. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Horn of Africa. ... The Pankisi Gorge is a valley region in the former Soviet republic of Georgia, northeast of Tbilisi, which is being used as a base for transit, training and shipments of arms and financing by Islamic militants, many of whom follow Khattab. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1992_free. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ...

Taliban,
al-Qaeda,
Abu Sayyaf,
Jemaah Islamiyah,
Islamic Courts Union
Pirates
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
Hezbi Islami
New People’s Army
Commanders
Flag of the United States Gen. Tommy Franks,
Brig. Gen. Donny Wurster,
Flag of the United States Gen. Bryan D. Brown,
Flag of Canada Brig. Gen. David Fraser,
Brig. Gen. Arvydas Pocius
Mohammed Omar,
Osama bin Laden,
Ayman al-Zawahiri
Khadaffy Janjalani†,
Riduan Isamuddin #
Casualties
U.S.:
427 killed, 1,636 wounded Canada:
66 killed, 270+ wounded
UK:
70 killed
Other NATO forces:
92 killed
Afghan forces:
1,600 killed
Philippine military:
282 killed
Ethiopian army, Somali TFG, Somali ARPCT:
600 killed
12,000 killed, 28,700 captured

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for its military response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. It was originally called "Operation Infinite Justice," but this phrase had previously been restricted to the description of God (among followers of several faiths), and it is believed to have been changed to avoid offense to Muslims.[1]Islamic clerics objected on the grounds that infinite justice can only be dispensed by God. On October 5, 2006, NATO officially took over control of US forces in Afghanistan. [2] Image File history File links Flag_of_Taliban_(bordered). ... The Taliban (Pashto: ) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; ; ASG), also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have been engaged in an insurgency... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations... Image File history File links Icu_flag. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) was a militant Islamist movement formed in 1998 by former Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani, and the Islamic ideologue Tohir Yuldashev - both ethnic Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley, one of the most Islamic regions in Central Asia. ... Hezbi Islami (also Hezb-i-Islami, Hezbi-Islami, Hezb-e-Islami) is a military force in Afghanistan led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and established by him in Pakistan during 1975. ... The New Peoples Army, or NPA, is a communist-based revolutionary group in the Philippines, formed in March 29, 1969. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... General Tommy Ray Franks KBE (born June 17, 1945 in Wynnewood, Oklahoma) is a retired General in the United States Army, previously serving as the Commanding General of United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. ... Maj. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Gen. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A Canadian Brigadier General, David Fraser assumed control of Southern Afghanistans six provinces from U.S. Gen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Taliban_(bordered). ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Usama Bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Sheikh Dr. Ayman Muhammad Rabaie al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ‎) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group, a physician, author, poet, and formerly the head of... Khadafi Abubakar Janjalani Khadaffy Janjalani (also transliterated as Khadafy Janjalani, Khadafi Janjalani, and Khaddafi Janjalani) (born March 3, 1975 in Isabela City, Basilan province, Republic of the Philippines, is the nominal leader of the Filipino militant group Abu Sayyaf and the leader of one of its factions. ... Riduan Isamuddin (also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the nom de guerre Hambali, born as Encep Nurjaman, born April 4, 1966) is an Indonesian Islamist militant. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ... The Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) is a Somali alliance made by powerfull warlords and businesspeople, while some of them were ministers in the transitional federal government of Somalia. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


The Operation comprises several subordinate operations:

  1. Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan (OEF-A)
  2. Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines (OEF-P) (formerly Operation Freedom Eagle)
  3. Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA)
  4. Operation Enduring Freedom - Trans Sahara (OEF-TS)[3]
  5. Georgia Train and Equip Program

The term "OEF" typically refers to the war in Afghanistan. Other operations, such as in Pankisi Gorge, are only loosely or nominally connected to OEF, such as through government funding vehicles.[4] All the operations, however, have a focus on antiterrorism activities. Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations NATO ISAF Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum William J. Fallon Bantz J. Craddock Egon Ramms Dan... Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines (OEF-PI) is part of Operation Enduring Freedom and the U.S. war on terrorism. ... Combatants NATO and allies, represented by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa is the official name used by the US government for a component of its response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on... Combatants United States  Algeria  Chad  Morocco  Niger Mauritania  Mali  Senegal al-Qaeda Strength 480 Americans; 250 Algerians; 200 Chadians; 20 Moroccans; 5 Nigerien; 3 Mauritanians; 1 Malian; 25 Senegalese medical doctors Total:959 troops and 25 medical doctors 2,500 (al-Queda claim) Casualties 1 Nigerian (WIA) and 1 Moroccan... Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP) was the US-sponsored 18-month, $64-million plan designed to increase the capabilities of the Georgian armed forces as part of the Global War on Terrorism. ... The Pankisi Gorge is a valley region in the former Soviet republic of Georgia, northeast of Tbilisi, which is being used as a base for transit, training and shipments of arms and financing by Islamic militants, many of whom follow Khattab. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Counter-terrorism. ...

Contents

Overview

On October 7, 2001, early combat operations including a mix of strikes from land-based B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress bombers; carrier-based F-14 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet fighters; and Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from both U.S. and British ships and submarines signaled the start of Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan (OEF-A). The initial military objectives of OEF-A, as articulated by President George W. Bush in his Sept. 20th Address to a Joint Session of Congress and his Oct. 7th address to the country, included the destruction of terrorist training camps and infrastructure within Afghanistan, the capture of al-Qaeda leaders, and the cessation of terrorist activities in Afghanistan."[5][6][7] is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The B-1 Lancer is an American strategic bomber with variable geometry wings. ... The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth bomber able to drop conventional and nuclear weapons. ... The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, jet strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1955. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


In January 2002, over 1,200 soldiers from the United States Special Operation Command Pacific (SOCPAC) deployed to Philippines to support the Armed Forces of the Philippines in their push to uproot terrorists forces on the island of Basilan. Of those groups included are Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah.[8] The operation consisted of training the AFP in counter-terrorist operations as well as supporting the local people with humanitarian aid in Operation Smiles.[9] Emblem of the United States Special Operations Command. ... Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas) originated in the establishment of the Philippine Scouts in 1901. ... Basilan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; ; ASG), also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have been engaged in an insurgency... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations...


In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force 150 and United States military Special Forces established themselves in Djibouti at Camp Le Monier. The stated goals of the operation were to provide humanitarian aid and patrol the Horn of Africa to reduce the abilities of terrorist organizations in the region. Similar to OEF-P, the goal of humanitarian aid was highlighted in order to prevent terrorist organizations from being able to take hold amongst the population as well as reemerge after being removed. The military aspect involves coalition forces searching and boarding ships entering the region for illegal cargo as well as providing training and equipment to the armed forces in the region. The humanitarian aspect involves building schools, clinics and water wells to enforce the confidence of the local people. Camp Le Monier is a United States Marine Corps Base situated in Djibouti and is home to Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA). ... The Horn of Africa. ...


Since 2001, the cumulative expenditure by the U.S. government on Operation Enduring Freedom has exceeded $150 Billion. [1]


The operation continues, with military direction mostly coming from United States Central Command. The United States Central Command (CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U.S. armed forces, established in 1983 under the operational control of the U.S. Secretary of Defense. ...


Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan (OEF-A)

The Taliban

Seizing upon a power vacuum after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after their invasion, the Taliban ruled with an iron fist from 1996-2001. Their extreme interpretation of Islamic law prompted them to ban music, television, sports, and dancing, oppress women and children, and enforce harsh judicial penalties. Amputation was an accepted form of punishment for stealing[2][3], and public executions could often be seen at the Kabul football stadium.[4][5] Women's rights groups around the world cried often and loudly as the Taliban banned women from appearing in public or holding many jobs outside the home. They drew further criticism when they destroyed the Buddhas of Bamiyan, historical statues nearly 2,000 years old, because the buddhas were considered idols. A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... The Taliban (Pashto: ) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan as it stood in 1963 The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of...


In 1996, Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden moved to Afghanistan upon the invitation of the Northern Alliance leader Abdur Rabb ur Rasool Sayyaf. When the Taliban came to power, bin Laden was able to forge an alliance between the Taliban and his Al-Qaeda organization. It is understood that al-Qaeda-trained fighters known as the 055 Brigade were integrated with the Taliban army between 1997 and 2001. It has been suggested that the Taliban and bin Laden had very close connections.[6] Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The 055 Brigade is an elite guerrilla organization sponsored and trained by Al Qaeda that was integrated into the Taliban army between 1997 and 2001. ...


U.S. action

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
5-country multinational fleet, during "Operation Enduring Freedom" in the Oman Sea. In four descending columns, from left to right: ITS Maestrale (F 570), De Grasse (D 612); USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), Charles De Gaulle (R 91), Surcouf (F 711); USS Port Royal (CG-73), HMS Ocean (L 12), USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), HNLMS Van Amstel (F 831); and ITS Luigi Durand de la Penne (D 560).
5-country multinational fleet, during "Operation Enduring Freedom" in the Oman Sea. In four descending columns, from left to right: ITS Maestrale (F 570), De Grasse (D 612); USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), Charles De Gaulle (R 91), Surcouf (F 711); USS Port Royal (CG-73), HMS Ocean (L 12), USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), HNLMS Van Amstel (F 831); and ITS Luigi Durand de la Penne (D 560).

On September 20, 2001, the U.S. stated that Osama Bin Laden was behind the September 11, 2001 attacks, and made a five point ultimatum to the Taliban: [7]. Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations NATO ISAF Commanders Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund # Dadullah  Jalaluddin Haqqani Osama bin Laden Ayman al-Zawahiri Mohammad Atef  Juma Namangani  Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Bismillah Khan Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum William J. Fallon Bantz J. Craddock Egon Ramms Dan... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... The De Grasse is a F67 type large high-sea frigates of the French Marine Nationale specialised in anti-submarine warfare, though it also has anti-air and anti-surface capabilities. ... USS (CVN-74) is a nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy named for a Senator from Mississippi. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The Surcouf (F711) is a La Fayette-class frigate of the French Navy. ... USS Port Royal (CG 73) is a United States Navy Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, the 27th and final in the class. ... HMS Ocean (centre right) in a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... USS (CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... Hr. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...

  1. Deliver to the US all of the leaders of Al Qaeda
  2. Release all imprisoned foreign nationals
  3. Close immediately every terrorist training camp
  4. Hand over every terrorist and their supporters to appropriate authorities
  5. Give the United States full access to terrorist training camps for inspection

On September 21, 2001, the Taliban rejected this ultimatum, stating there was no evidence in their possession linking bin Laden to the September 11 attacks [8]. is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


On September 22, 2001 the United Arab Emirates and later Saudi Arabia withdrew their recognition of the Taliban as the legal government of Afghanistan, leaving neighboring Pakistan as the only remaining country with diplomatic ties. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


On October 4, 2001, it is believed that the Taliban covertly offered to turn bin Laden over to Pakistan for trial in an international tribunal that operated according to Islamic shar'ia law [9]. Pakistan is believed to have rejected the offer. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


On October 7, 2001, the Taliban proposed to try bin Laden in Afghanistan in an Islamic court[10]. This proposition was immediately rejected by the U.S. Shortly afterward, the same day, the United States, supported by a coalition of other countries, initiated military action against the Taliban, bombing Taliban forces and Al Qaeda terrorist training camps[11]. On October 14 the Taliban proposed to hand bin Laden over to a third country for trial, but only if they were given evidence of bin Laden's involvement in the events of September 11, 2001[12]. The U.S. rejected this proposal and continued with military operations. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


The UN Security Council, on January 16, 2002, unanimously established an arms embargo and the freezing of identifiable assets belonging to bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining Taliban. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Combat operations start

On Sunday October 7, 2001, American and British forces began an aerial bombing campaign targeting Taliban forces and al-Qaeda. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The aerial bombing of cities became a common tactic in World War II. // World War I The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, Kings...


The Northern Alliance, fighting against a Taliban weakened by US bombing and massive defections, captured Mazari Sharif on November 9. It rapidly gained control of most of northern Afghanistan and took control of Kabul on November 13 after the Taliban unexpectedly fled the city. The Taliban were restricted to a smaller and smaller region, with Kunduz, the last Taliban-held city in the north, captured on November 26. Most of the Taliban fled to Pakistan. The war continued in the south of the country, where the Taliban retreated to Kandahar. After Kandahar fell in December, remnants of the Taliban and al-Qaeda continued to mount resistance. Mazari Sharif, also known as Mazar-i Sharif or Mazār-e Sharīf (Persian: ‎ ), is the fourth largest city of Afghanistan, with population of 300,600 people (2006 official estimate). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... President Celal Bayar, King Zahir and Lord Serwar Nasher inspecting the once world-renown cotton of Kunduz Spinzar factory Kunduz (قندوز) is a city in Afghanistan; the name has also sometimes been rendered as Kûnduz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


The Battle of Tora Bora, involving US, British and Northern Alliance forces took place on December 2001 to further destroy the Taliban and suspected Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. In early March 2002 the United States military, along with allied Afghan military forces, conducted a large operation to destroy Al-Qaeda in an operation code-named Operation Anaconda. The operation was comprised of elements of the United States 10th Mountain Division, 101st Airborne Division, the US special forces groups TF 11, TF Bowie, and TF Dagger, British Royal Marines, Canada's 3rd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, the Afghan National Army, the German KSK, and elements of the Australian Special Air Service Regiment and of the New Zealand Special Air Service. Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Afghan Northern Alliance Taliban, al-Qaeda Commanders Tommy Franks, Bismillah Khan Osama bin Laden Strength N/A Unknown Casualties No Coalition deaths reported; Northern Alliance N/A 200+ killed Location of Tora Bora, near the border to the Kurram Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal... Combatants  United States,  Canada,  United Kingdom,  New Zealand,  Australia,  Denmark,  France,  Norway,  Germany Taliban insurgents, al-Qaeda Commanders Buster Hagenbeck Unknown Strength 2,000 500-1,500 Casualties 8 U.S. servicemen dead, 82 wounded 500-800 [1] In early March 2002 the United States military, along with allied Afghan... The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... The United States Special Operations Forces is the official category where the United States Department of Defense lists the U.S. military units that have a training specialisation in unconventional warfare and special operations. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) is an infantry regiment in the Canadian Forces (CF), belonging to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1 CMBG). ... Afghan National Army (ANA) is the army of Afghanistan that is being trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the lead in land-based military operations. ... The Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is part of Germanys Special Forces. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) is a Special Forces regiment modelled on the original British SAS and also drawing on the traditions of the Australian World War II Z Special Force commando unit, as well as the Independent Companies which were active in the South Pacific during the same... The Special Air Service of New Zealand (NZ SAS) was formed on July 7, 1955 as an elite New Zealand Army and highly-secretive unit capable of undertaking special missions. ...


After managing to evade U.S. forces throughout the summer of 2002, the remnants of the Taliban gradually began to regain their confidence. A Canadian and US led operation (supported by British and Dutch forces), Operation Mountain Thrust was launched in May 2006 to counter renewed Taliban insurgency. Combatants United States, Canada, UK,  Romania, Netherlands, Afghan National Army Taliban insurgents, al-Qaeda Commanders Brig. ...


Since January 2006, the NATO International Security Assistance Force undertook combat duties from Operation Enduring Freedom in southern Afghanistan, the NATO force chiefly made up of British, Canadian and Dutch forces (and some smaller contributions from Denmark, Romania and Estonia and air support from Norway as well as air and artillery support from the US) (see the article Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006). The United States military also conducts military operations separate from NATO as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in other parts of Afghanistan. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is an international military force in Afghanistan led by NATO and consisting of about 32,000 personnel from 37 nations as of October 5, 2006. ... Canadian soldiers in a firefight with Taliban militants in southern Afghanistan. ...


International Support

Main article: Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan: Allies

The United States was supported by several nations during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan in 2001-2003 and in subsequent coalition operations directly or indirectly in support of OEF. See the article Afghanistan War order of battle for the current disposition of coalition forces in Afghanistan. Spc. ...


Result

The U.S.-led Coalition is credited with removing the Taliban from power and seriously crippling the al-Qaeda and associated militants in both Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan. The Taliban (Pashto: ) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


On October 9, 2004, Afghanistan elected Hamid Karzai President in its first direct elections. The following year, Afghans conducted the Afghan parliamentary election, 2005 on September 18, 2005. Since the invasion, hundreds of schools and mosques have been constructed, millions of dollars in aid has been distributed, and the occurrence of violence has been greatly reduced. While military forces interdict insurgents and assure security, Provincial reconstruction teams are tasked with infrastructure building, like constructing roads and bridges, assisting during floods, and providing food and water to refugees. Many warlords have participated in an allegiance program, recognizing the legitimacy of the Government of Afghanistan, and surrendering their soldiers and weapons, though some of their subsequent actions have led to serious questions about their true loyalties. The newly activated Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, and Afghan Border Police are being trained to assume the task of securing their nation. However, the Taliban still wields strong influence in many regions, and Karzai's government is believed to hold little real power outside the capital city of Kabul. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... Afghanistan held parliamentary and provincial council elections on 18 September 2005. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... A Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) is an administrative unit of international aid to Afghanistan, consisting of a small operating base from which a group of sixty to more than one hundred civilians and military specialists work to perform small reconstruction projects or provide security for others involved in aid work. ... Afghan National Army (ANA) is the army of Afghanistan that is being trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the lead in land-based military operations. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Criticism

AFP, reporting on a news story in the Sunday, April 3, 2004, issue of The New Yorker, wrote that retired Army Colonel Hy Rothstein, "who served in the Army Special Forces for more than 20 years, ... commissioned by The Pentagon to examine the war in Afghanistan concluded the conflict created conditions that have given 'warlordism, banditry and opium production a new lease on life' ...." AFP is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Advertiser funded programming Acute flaccid paralysis Active FoxPro Pages Advanced Flexible Processor, a model of Cyber computer by Control Data Corporation Advanced Function Presentation, an IBM printing architecture and file format Agence France-Presse, a major news agency Alpha-fetoprotein... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army Special Forces —Special Forces or SF — is an elite Special Operations Force of the United States Army trained for unconventional warfare and special operations. ... This article is about the United States military building. ...


The conduct of U.S. forces was criticised in a report entitled Enduring Freedom - Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan by U.S.-based human rights group, Human Rights Watch in 2004. Enduring Freedom - Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan was a report released in March 2004 by US-based human rights organisation, Human Rights Watch. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines (OEF-P)

Abu Sayyaf Group

Main article: Abu Sayyaf

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, is deemed a "foreign terrorist organization" by the United States government. Specifically, it is an Islamist separatist group based in and around the southern islands of the Republic of the Philippines, primarily Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao. The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; ; ASG), also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have been engaged in an insurgency... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Jolo is an island in the southwest Philippines. ... Basilan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ...


Since inception in the early 1990s, the group has carried out bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and extortion in their fight for an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, with a claimed overarching goal of creating a Pan-Islamic superstate across the Malay portions of Southeast Asia, spanning, from east to west, the large island of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago (Basilan and Jolo islands), the large island of Borneo (Malaysia and Indonesia), the South China Sea, and the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Myanmar). For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This article is about explosive devices. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Sulu Archipelago is an island chain in the southwest Philippines. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


Jemaah Islamiyah

Main article: Jemaah Islamiyah

Jemaah Islamiyah is a militant Islamic terrorist organization dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic theocracy in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, the south of Thailand and the Philippines. Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Financial links between Jemaah Islamiyah and other terrorist groups, such as Abu Sayyaf and al-Qaeda, have been found to exist. [13] Jemaah Islamiyah means "Islamic Group" or "Islamic Community" and is often abbreviated JI. The Abu Sayyaf Group (Arabic: جماعة أبو سياف; ; ASG), also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya is one of several militant Islamist separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Bangsamoro (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various groups have been engaged in an insurgency... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


Jemaah Islamiyah is thought to have killed hundreds of civilians and is suspected of having executed the Bali car bombing on October 12, 2002 in which suicide bombers killed 202 people, mostly Australian tourists, and wounded many in a nightclub. After this attack, the U.S. State Department designated Jemaah Islamiyah as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. Jemaah Islamiyah is also suspected of carrying out the Zamboanga bombings, the Metro Manila bombings, the 2004 Jakarta embassy bombing and the 2005 Bali terrorist bombing. In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... The Bali Bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring a further 209. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... // This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The U.S. State Departments list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations is a list of non-US organizations that are designated as terrorist by the United States Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). ... The Zamboanga bombings refer to the October 17, 2002 explosions of two bombs in the main shopping district of the mostly Christian city of Zamboanga in the southern Philippines, killing six and wounding about 150. ... Metropolitan Manila (Filipino: Kalakhang Maynila) or the National Capital Region (NCR) (Filipino: Pambansang Punong Rehiyon) is the greater metropolitan area of the city of Manila, the national capital and largest city in the Philippines. ... The Jakarta embassy bombing took place on September 9, 2004 in Jakarta, Indonesia. ... Wikinews has news related to: Fatal explosions hit Bali The 2005 Bali bombings were a series of explosions that occurred on October 1, 2005, in Bali, Indonesia. ...


U.S. action

In January 2002, 1,200 members of United States Special Operations Command, Pacific (SOCPAC) were deployed to the Philippines to assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) in uprooting the terrorist forces of al-Qaeda, Jemaah Islamiyah and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). The members of SOCPAC were assigned to assist in military operations against the terrorist forces as well as humanitarian operations for the island of Basilan, where most of the conflict was expected to take place. Emblem of the United States Special Operations Command. ...


The United States Special Forces (SP) unit trained and equipped special forces and scout rangers of the AFP, creating the Light Reaction Company (LRC). The LRC and elements of SOCPAC deployed to Basilan on completion of their training. The stated goals of the deployment were as follows: [14]

  • Denying the ASG sanctuary.
  • Surveiling, controlling, and denying ASG routes.
  • Surveiling supporting villages and key personnel.
  • Conducting local training to overcome AFP weaknesses and sustain AFP strengths.
  • Supporting operations by the AFP "strike force" (LRC) in the area of responsibility (AOR).
  • Conducting and supporting civil affairs operations in the AOR.

Result

The desired result was for the AFP to gain sufficient capability to locate and destroy the ASG, to recover hostages and to enhance the legitimacy of the Philippine government. Much of the operation was a success; the ASG was driven from Basilan, and one U.S. hostage was recovered. [15] The Abu Sayyaf Group's ranks, which once swelled above 800+ operatives, has been reduced to less than 100. The humanitarian portion of the operation, Operation Smiles, has created 14 schools, 7 clinics, 3 hospitals and provided medical care to over 18,000 residents of Basilan. Humanitarian groups were able to continue their work without fear of further kidnappings and terrorists attacks by the Abu Sayyaf Group. [16] [17]


Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA)

Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific terrorist organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect terrorist activities in the region and to work with host nations to deny the reemergence of terrorist cells and activities. In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force, Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established in Djibouti at Camp Le Monier containing approximately 2,000 personnel including U.S. military and Special Operations Forces (SOF), and coalition force members, Coalition Task Force 150 (CTF-150). The coalition force consist of ships from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, Italy, Pakistan, New Zealand, Spain and the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region and areas of Operation Iraqi Freedom.[18] Combatants NATO and allies, represented by: Belgium Canada France Germany Italy Spain United States United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Pakistan al-Qaeda Somali Pirates Casualties 15 non-combat fatalities Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa is the official name used by the US government for a component of its response... Camp Le Monier is a United States Marine Corps Base situated in Djibouti and is home to Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA). ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the...


CJTF-HOA has devoted the majority of its efforts to train selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics as well as providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained. The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritania and Mali. [19]


U.S. Action

In January 2007, during the war in Somalia, an AC-130 airstrike was conducted against Al Qaeda members embedded with forces of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) operating in southern Somalia near Ras Kamboni. US naval forces, including the aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, were positioned off the coast of Somalia to provide support and to prevent any Al Qaeda forces escaping by sea. It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Crystal ball, user has created future months and dates before, and been told not to (See User Talk:Jose and Ricardo). ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist militias Alleged:  Eritrea Foreign Mujahideen al-Qaeda South:  Ethiopia Transitional Government of Somalia  United States North:  Ethiopia Galmudug Puntland After the invasion: AMISOM Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale Abdi Qeybdid (Galmudug) Adde Musa (Puntland) Meles Zenawi... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of militant Sunni jihadist organizations. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital formerly Mogadishu and Kismayu Largest city n/a Official languages Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy or independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters[1] Transitional Federal Government (TFG) Ethiopia United States Commanders Sharif Sheik Ahmed Yusuf Hassan TFG: Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Col. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... USS (CVN-69), nicknamed Ike, is the second Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ...


Military decorations

Since 2002, the United States military has created military awards and decorations related to Operation Enduring Freedom: The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ...

NATO also created a military decoration related to Operation Enduring Freedom: The Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal (GWOTEM) is a military decoration of the United States armed forces which was created by Presidential Order of George W. Bush in March 2003. ... Afghanistan Campaign Medal obverse (left) and reverse (right). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...

ISAF can stand for: International Sailing Federation International Security Assistance Force This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... NATO Medals for Yugoslavia and Kosovo The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ...

Further reading

Sean M. Maloney, Enduring The Freedom: A Rogue Historian In Afghanistan.(Dulles: Potomac Books, Incorporated, 2005)

References

  1. ^ "Infinite Justice, out - Enduring Freedom, in", BBC News, 2001-09-25. 
  2. ^ "NATO not in charge of US forces in Afghanistan", Houston Chronicle, October 6, 2006. 
  3. ^ EUCOM: Operations and Initiatives. EUCOM. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  4. ^ Helping Georgia?. Boston University Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology and Policy (MarchApril 2002). Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  5. ^ Text: Bush Announces Start of a "War on Terror". globalsecurity.org (2001-09-20).
  6. ^ Text: President Bush Announces Military Strikes in Afghanistan. globalsecurity.org (2001-10-07).
  7. ^ Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan. globalsecurity.org.
  8. ^ Fargo, ADM Tom (2003-02-10). PASOC 2003 Conference - Waikiki Beach Marriott Resort. Speeches and Transcripts. U.S. Pacific Command.
  9. ^ Operation Smiles (PDF). U.S. Pacific Command.

The U.S. European Command (EUCOM) is Unified Combatant Command of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for March, 2002. ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for April, 2002. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

United States Marine Corps Portal

Image File history File links USMC_logo. ... As of June 30, 2007, there have been 550 coalition deaths in Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): 408 Americans, 63 British, 60 Canadians, 21 Germans, 21 Spaniards, 9 French, 9 Italians, 8 Dutch, 4 Danes, 4 Romanians, 2 Estonians, 2 Swedes... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is an international military force in Afghanistan led by NATO and consisting of about 32,000 personnel from 37 nations as of October 5, 2006. ... Combatants Participants in operations  United States  United Kingdom  Israel  Canada  Australia  Poland  Iraq  Afghanistan  India  Pakistan  Philippines  Somalia  Ethiopia  Lebanon Fatah et al. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan war -- Project on Defense ... (0 words)
One might have hoped that Operation Enduring Freedom would have had a greater impact on Al Qaeda's global capabilities -- given the US expenditure of 12,000 bombs and missiles, the killing of at least 3,000 enemy troops, and the capture of 7,000 more.
But the method and path charted by Enduring Freedom would lead the United States into a thicket of civil, ethnic, and interstate conflicts involving much more than the issue of terrorism (as is already the case in Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Israel).
Enduring Freedom was also distinguished by the degree to which military expediency determined strategic choices -- such as the decision to unleash the Northern Alliance.
Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties -- Project on Defense Alternatives (0 words)
Key among the factors shaping this outcome were (i) the mission objectives of Operation Enduring Freedom, (ii) some of the operational and tactical features of the bombing campaign, and (iii) the mix and technical characteristics of the weapons employed.
Given that fewer weapons were expended, a higher level of civilian fatalities in Operation Enduring Freedom implies that the bombing campaign in Afghanistan was less accurate than the one associated with the 1999 Balkans war.
Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Allied Force had different objectives with regard to the respective enemies in Afghanistan and Serbia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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